Libertarianism in the United States
Libertarianism in the United States is a movement promoting individual liberty and minimized government. Although the word "libertarian" continues to be widely used to refer to anti-state socialists internationally, its meaning in the United States has deviated from its political origins. The Libertarian Party asserts the following to be core beliefs of libertarianism:
Libertarians support maximum liberty in both personal and economic matters. They advocate a much smaller government; one that is limited to protecting individuals from coercion and violence. Libertarians tend to embrace individual responsibility, oppose government bureaucracy and taxes, promote private charity, tolerate diverse lifestyles, support the free market, and defend civil liberties.
Through 20 polls on this topic spanning 13 years, Gallup found that voters who are libertarian on the political spectrum ranged from 17–23% of the American electorate. This includes members of the Libertarian Party, Republican Party (see Libertarian Republicans) and Democratic Party (see Libertarian Democrats) as well as independents. The largest currents present in the Libertarian and Republican parties comprise of right-libertarianism and libertarian conservatism respectively while the majority strand in the Democratic Party is neo-libertarianism/bleeding-heart libertarianism.
In the 19th century, key libertarian thinkers, individualist anarchists and minarchists, were based in the United States, most notably Lysander Spooner and Benjamin Tucker. These political thinkers argued that government should be kept to a minimum and that it is only legitimate to the extent that people voluntarily support it as in Spooner's No Treason: The Constitution of No Authority. American writers Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson advocated for individualism and even anarchism throughout that century, leaving a significant imprint on libertarianism worldwide.
Moving into the 20th century, important American writers—such as Rose Wilder Lane, H. L. Mencken, Albert Jay Nock, Isabel Paterson, Leonard Read (the founder of Foundation for Economic Education) and the European immigrants Ludwig von Mises and Ayn Rand—carried on the intellectual libertarian tradition. In fiction, one can cite the work of the science fiction author Robert A. Heinlein, whose writing carried libertarian underpinnings.
As of the mid-20th century, no word was used to describe the ideological outlook of this group of thinkers. Most of them would have described themselves as "liberals" before the New Deal, but by the mid-1930s that word had been widely used to mean social liberalism. The term "liberal" had ceased to refer to the support of individual rights and minimal government and instead came to denote left-leaning ideas that would be seen elsewhere as social democratic. American advocates of freedom bemoaned the loss of the word and cast about for others to replace it. The word "conservative" (later associated with libertarianism either through fiscal conservatism or through fusionism) had yet to emerge as Russell Kirk's The Conservative Mind was not published until 1953 and this work hardly mentioned economics at all.
In May 1955, writer Dean Russell (1915–1998), a colleague of Leonard Read and a classical liberal himself, proposed a solution: "Many of us call ourselves 'liberals.' And it is true that the word 'liberal' once described persons who respected the individual and feared the use of mass compulsions. But the leftists have now corrupted that once-proud term to identify themselves and their program of more government ownership of property and more controls over persons. As a result, those of us who believe in freedom must explain that when we call ourselves liberals, we mean liberals in the uncorrupted classical sense. At best, this is awkward and subject to misunderstanding. Here is a suggestion: Let those of us who love liberty trade-mark and reserve for our own use the good and honorable word 'libertarian'".
Subsequently, a growing number of Americans with classical liberal beliefs in the United States began to describe themselves as "libertarian". The person most responsible for popularizing the term "libertarian" was Murray Rothbard, who started publishing libertarian works in the 1960s. Before the 1950s, H. L. Mencken and Albert Jay Nock had been the first prominent figures in the United States to privately call themselves "libertarians". However, their non-public use of the term went largely unnoticed and the term lay dormant on the American scene for the following few decades.
Academics as well as proponents of the free market perspectives note that free-market libertarianism has spread beyond the United States since the 1970s via think tanks and political parties and that libertarianism is increasingly viewed worldwide as a free market position. However, libertarian socialist intellectuals Noam Chomsky, Colin Ward and others argue that the term "libertarianism" is considered a synonym for social anarchism by the international community and that the United States is unique in widely associating it with free-market ideology. The use of the word "libertarian" to describe a left-wing position has been traced to the French cognate libertaire, coined in a letter French libertarian communist Joseph Déjacque wrote to Pierre-Joseph Proudhon in 1857.
Arizona Senator Barry Goldwater's libertarian-oriented challenge to authority had a major impact on the libertarian movement through his book The Conscience of a Conservative and his run for President in 1964. Goldwater's speech writer Karl Hess became a leading libertarian writer and activist.
The Vietnam War split the uneasy alliance between growing numbers of self-identified libertarians, anarchist libertarians and more traditional conservatives who believed in limiting liberty to uphold moral virtues. Libertarians opposed to the war joined the draft resistance and peace movements and organizations such as Students for a Democratic Society. They began founding their own publications like Murray Rothbard's The Libertarian Forum and organizations like the Radical Libertarian Alliance.
The split was aggravated at the 1969 Young Americans for Freedom convention when more than 300 libertarians coordinated to take control of the organization from conservatives. The burning of a draft card in protest to a conservative proposal against draft resistance sparked physical confrontations among convention attendees, a walkout by a large number of libertarians, the creation of libertarian organizations like the Society for Individual Liberty and efforts to recruit potential libertarians from conservative organizations. The split was finalized in 1971 when conservative leader William F. Buckley Jr. in a 1971 New York Times article attempted to divorce libertarianism from the freedom movement, writing: "The ideological licentiousness that rages through America today makes anarchy attractive to the simple-minded. Even to the ingeniously simple-minded".
In 1971, David Nolan and a few friends formed the Libertarian Party. Attracting former Democrats, Republicans and independents, it has run a presidential candidate every election year since 1972. Over the years, dozens of libertarian political parties have been formed worldwide. Educational organizations like the Center for Libertarian Studies and the Cato Institute were formed in the 1970s and others have been created since then.
Philosophical libertarianism gained a significant measure of recognition in academia with the publication of Harvard University professor Robert Nozick's Anarchy, State, and Utopia in 1974. The book won a National Book Award in 1975. According to libertarian essayist Roy Childs, "Nozick's Anarchy, State, and Utopia single-handedly established the legitimacy of libertarianism as a political theory in the world of academia".
Libertarian groups have been successful in the 21st century in advocating tax cuts and regulatory reform. While some argue that the American public as a whole shifted away from libertarianism following the fall of the Soviet Union, citing the success of multinational organizations such as NAFTA and the increasingly interdependent global financial system, others argue that libertarian ideas have moved so far into the mainstream that many Americans who do not identify as "libertarian" now hold libertarian views.
Texas Congressman Ron Paul's 2008 and 2012 campaigns for the Republican Party presidential nomination were largely libertarian. Paul was affiliated with the libertarian-leaning Republican Liberty Caucus and founded the Campaign for Liberty, a libertarian-leaning membership and lobbying organization. His son Rand Paul is a Senator who continues the tradition, albeit more "moderately".
As was true historically, there are far more libertarians in the United States than those who belong to the party touting that name. In the United States, libertarians may emphasize economic and constitutional rather than religious and personal policies, or personal and international rather than economic policies, such as the Tea Party movement (founded in 2009), which has become a major outlet for Libertarian Republican ideas, especially rigorous adherence to the Constitution, lower taxes and an opposition to a growing role for the federal government in health care. However, polls show that many people who identify as Tea Party members do not hold traditional libertarian views on most social issues and tend to poll similarly to socially conservative Republicans. Eventually during the 2016 presidential election, many Tea Party members abandoned more libertarian-leaning views in favor of Donald Trump and his right-wing populism. Additionally, the Tea Party was considered to be a key force in Republicans reclaiming control of the House of Representatives in 2010.
Circa 2006 polls find that the views and voting habits of between 10 and 20 percent (increasing) of voting age Americans may be classified as "fiscally conservative and socially liberal, or libertarian". This is based on pollsters and researchers defining libertarian views as fiscally conservative and culturally liberal (based on the common United States meanings of the terms) and against government intervention in economic affairs and for expansion of personal freedoms. Through 20 polls on this topic spanning 13 years, Gallup found that voters who are libertarian on the political spectrum ranged from 17–23% of the electorate. While libertarians make up a larger portion of the electorate than the much-discussed "soccer moms" and "NASCAR dads", this is not widely recognized as most of these vote for Republican and Democratic Party candidates, leading some libertarians to believe that dividing people's political leanings into "conservative", "liberal" and "confused" is not valid.
The 2016 Libertarian National Convention which saw Gary Johnson and Bill Weld nominated as the 2016 presidential ticket for the Libertarian Party resulted in the most successful result for a third-party presidential candidacy since 1996 and the best in the Libertarian Party's history by vote number. Johnson received 3% of the popular vote, amounting to more than 4.3 million votes. Johnson has expressed a desire to win at least 5% of the vote so that the Libertarian Party candidates could get equal ballot access and federal funding, thus subsequently ending the two-party system.
Well-known libertarian organizations include the Center for Libertarian Studies, the Cato Institute, the Foundation for Economic Education, the Reason Foundation, Liberty International and the Mises Institute. The Libertarian Party is the world's first such party.
The Free State Project, an activist movement formed in 2001, is working to bring libertarians to the state of New Hampshire to protect and advance liberty. As of July 2018[update], the project website shows that 23,778 people have pledged to move within 5 years and 4,352 people identify as Free Staters in New Hampshire. Less successful similar projects include the Free West Alliance and Free State Wyoming.
The Mises Institute is a tax-exempt educative organization located in Auburn, Alabama. It is named after Austrian School economist Ludwig von Mises (1881–1973). Its website states that it exists to promote "teaching and research in the Austrian school of economics, and individual freedom, honest history, and international peace, in the tradition of Ludwig von Mises and Murray N. Rothbard".
The Mises Institute was founded in 1982 by Lew Rockwell, Burton Blumert and Murray Rothbard following a split between the Cato Institute and Rothbard, who had been one of the founders of the Cato Institute. Additional backing for the founding of the Institute came from Mises's wife Margit von Mises, Henry Hazlitt, Lawrence Fertig and Nobel Economics Laureate Friedrich Hayek. Through its publications, the Institute promotes libertarian and anarcho-capitalist political theories and a form of heterodox economics known as praxeology ("the logic of action").
The Cato Institute is a libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. It was founded as the Charles Koch Foundation in 1974 by Ed Crane, Murray Rothbard and Charles Koch, chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries.[nb 1] In July 1976, the name was changed to the Cato Institute. Cato was established to have a focus on public advocacy, media exposure and societal influence. According to the 2014 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report (Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program, University of Pennsylvania), Cato is number 16 in the "Top Think Tanks Worldwide" and number 8 in the "Top Think Tanks in the United States". Cato also topped the 2014 list of the budget-adjusted ranking of international development think tanks.
Center for Libertarian StudiesEdit
The Center for Libertarian Studies (CLS) was a libertarian and anarcho-capitalist oriented educational organization founded in 1976 by Murray Rothbard and Burton Blumert, which grew out of the Libertarian Scholars Conferences. The CLC published the Journal of Libertarian Studies from 1977 to 2000 (now published by the Mises Institute), a newsletter (In Pursuit of Liberty), several monographs and sponsors conferences, seminars and symposia. Originally headquartered in New York, it later moved to Burlingame, California. Until 2007, it supported LewRockwell.com, web publication of CLS vice president Lew Rockwell. The CLS had also previously supported Antiwar.com.
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Former Texas Congressman Ron Paul and former Arizona Senator Barry Goldwater popularized libertarian economics and anti-statist rhetoric in the United States and worked to pass some reforms. California Governor Ronald Reagan appealed to American libertarians in a 1975 interview with Reason when he said, "I believe the very heart and soul of conservatism is libertarianism," although many libertarians are ambivalent about Reagan's legacy as president.
Since 2012, former New Mexico governor and two-time Libertarian Party presidential nominee Gary Johnson has been one of the public faces of the libertarian movement in the United States. While some political commentators have described Senator Rand Paul and Congressman Thomas Massie of Kentucky as libertarians or "libertarian-leaning", both Republican legislators prefer to identify as Constitutional conservatives. Currently, the only federal officeholder openly professing libertarianism is Congressman Justin Amash, who represents Michigan's 3rd congressional district.
- Anarchism in the United States
- Conservatism in the United States
- Liberalism in the United States
- Libertarianism in South Africa
- Libertarianism in the United Kingdom
- Libertarian Party (United States)
- List of libertarian organizations
- List of libertarians in the United States
- Progressivism in the United States
- Socialism in the United States
- Koch Industries is the second largest privately held company by revenue in the United States. "Forbes List". Forbes. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- Merriam-Webster Dictionary definition of libertarianism
- For philosophical literature describing the variations of libertarianism, see:
- Bevir, Mark. Encyclopedia of Political Theory. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications, 2010. page 811;
- Vallentyne, Peter (March 3, 2009). "Libertarianism". In Edward N. Zalta (ed.). The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2009 ed.). Stanford, CA: Stanford University. Retrieved March 5, 2010.
in addition to the better-known version of libertarianism—right-libertarianism—there is also a version known as 'left-libertarianism';
- Christiano, Thomas, and John P. Christman. Contemporary Debates in Political Philosophy. Contemporary debates in philosophy, 11. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009. p. 121;
- Lawrence C. Becker, Charlotte B. Becker. Encyclopedia of ethics, Volume 3 Encyclopedia of Ethics, Charlotte B. Becker, page 1562;
- Paul, Ellen F. Liberalism: Old and New. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2007. p. 187; and
- Sapon, Vladimir; Robino, Sam (2010). "Right and Left Wings in Libertarianism". Canadian Social Science. 5 (6).
- Roderick T. Long, "Towards a Libertarian Theory of Class," Social Philosophy and Policy 15:2 1998, 303–349: pp. 304–08. (online: Part 1, part 2)
- Rothbard, Murray N. (2009). The Betrayal of the American Right (PDF). Ludwig von Mises Institute. ISBN 978-1610165013.
One gratifying aspect of our rise to some prominence is that, for the first time in my memory, we, 'our side,' had captured a crucial word from the enemy... 'Libertarians'... had long been simply a polite word for left-wing anarchists, that is for anti-private property anarchists, either of the communist or syndicalist variety. But now we had taken it over...
- "Libertarian Party 2010 Platform". Libertarian Party. May 2010. p. 1. Retrieved 24 September 2010.
- Watts, Duncan (16 March 2006). Understanding American government and politics: a guide for A2 politics students (2nd Revised ed.). Manchester University Press. p. 246. ISBN 978-0-7190-7327-4.
- Gallup Poll news release, September 7–10, 2006.
- Jeffrey Tucker. "Where Does the Term "Libertarian" Come From Anyway?".
- Max Eastman. "What to Call Yourself".
- Russell, Dean (May 1955). "Who Is A Libertarian?". The Freeman. Foundation for Economic Education. 5 (5). Archived from the original on June 26, 2010. Retrieved March 6, 2010.
- Paul Cantor (2012). The Invisible Hand in Popular Culture: Liberty Vs. Authority in American Film and TV. University Press of Kentucky. n. 2. p. 353.
- Burns, Jennifer (2009). Goddess of the Market: Ayn Rand and the American Right. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 306. ISBN 978-0-19-532487-7.
- Henry Louis Mencken, Letters of H.L. Mencken, Knopf, 1961, p. xiii and 189.
- Albert Jay Nock, Letters from Albert Jay Nock, 1924-1945: to Edmund C. Evans, Mrs. Edmund C. Evans and Ellen Winsor, Caxton Printers, 1949, p. 40.
- Steven Teles and Daniel A. Kenney, chapter "Spreading the Word: The diffusion of American Conservatism in Europe and beyond," (pp. 136–69) in Growing apart?: America and Europe in the twenty-first century by Sven Steinmo, Cambridge University Press, 2008, ISBN, The chapter discusses how libertarian ideas have been more successful at spreading worldwide than social conservative ideas.
- Anthony Gregory. "Real World Politics and Radical Libertarianism". Archived June 18, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. LewRockwell.com. April 24, 2007.
- David Boaz, "Preface for the Japanese Edition of Libertarianism: A Primer", reprinted at Cato.org, November 21, 1998.
- Radicals for Capitalism (Book Review) Archived December 8, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, New York Post, February 4, 2007.
- "The Week Online Interviews Chomsky", Z Magazine, February 23, 2002. "The term libertarian as used in the US means something quite different from what it meant historically and still means in the rest of the world. Historically, the libertarian movement has been the anti-statist wing of the socialist movement. In the US, which is a society much more dominated by business, the term has a different meaning. It means eliminating or reducing state controls, mainly controls over private tyrannies. Libertarians in the US don't say let's get rid of corporations. It is a sort of ultra-rightism."
- Colin Ward, Anarchism: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, 2004, p. 62. "For a century, anarchists have used the word 'libertarian' as a synonym for 'anarchist', both as a noun and an adjective. The celebrated anarchist journal Le Libertaire was founded in 1896. However, much more recently the word has been appropriated by various American free-market philosophers..."
- Fernandez, Frank. Cuban Anarchism. The History of a Movement, Sharp Press, 2001, p. 9. "Thus, in the United States, the once exceedingly useful term "libertarian" has been hijacked by egotists who are in fact enemies of liberty in the full sense of the word."
- Robert Graham, ed. (2005). Anarchism: A Documentary History of Libertarian Ideas. Volume One: From Anarchy to Anarchism (300 CE–1939). Montreal: Black Rose Books. §17.
- Joseph Déjacque, "De l'être-humain mâle et femelle–Lettre à P.J. Proudhon" (1857).
- Henry J. Silverman, American radical thought: the libertarian tradition, p. 279, 1970, Heath publishing.
- Robert Poole, "In memoriam: Barry Goldwater – Obituary", Archived May 25, 2012, at Archive.today, Reason Magazine, August–September 1998.
- Hess, Karl. The Death of Politics, Interview in Playboy, July 1976.
- Murray Rothbard, "The Early 1960s: From Right to Left" Archived February 2, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, excerpt from chapter 13 of Murray Rothbard The Betrayal of the American Right, Ludwig von Mises Institute, 2007.
- Ronald Lora, William Henry Longton, Conservative press in 20th-century America, pp. 367–374, Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999
- Marc Jason Gilbert, The Vietnam War on campus: other voices, more distant drums, p. 35, 2001, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-275-96909-6.
- Rebecca E. Klatch, A Generation Divided: The New Left, the New Right, and the 1960s, University of California Press, 1999, pp. 215–237.
- Jude Blanchette, What Libertarians and Conservatives Say About Each Other: An Annotated Bibliography, LewRockwell.com, October 27, 2004.
- Bill Winter, "1971–2001: The Libertarian Party's 30th Anniversary Year: Remembering the first three decades of America's 'Party of Principle'" LP News
- "International Society for Individual Liberty Freedom Network list". Archived July 16, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
- David Lewis Schaefer (April 30, 2008). "Robert Nozick and the Coast of Utopia". The New York Sun. Retrieved April 30, 2008.
- The Advocates Robert Nozick page Archived April 24, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
- Kevin D. Williamson (April 2, 2018). "The Passing of the Libertarian Moment". The Atlantic. Retrieved April 16, 2018.
- Schneider-Mayerson, Matthew (2015). Peak Oil: Apocalyptic Environmentalism and Libertarian Political Culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226285436.
- The Princeton Encyclopedia of American Political History, p. 197, Adam Rothman (2009).
- https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052748703882404575520252928390046 "Tea-Party Movement Gathers Strength" by Peter Wallsten and Danny Yadron The Wall Street Journal September 29, 2010.
- "Is Half the Tea Party Libertarian?" Reason, Emily Ekins, September 26, 2011.
- "New Poll: Tea Party Overwhelmingly Christian And Socially Conservative". National Public Radio. Retrieved October 15, 2013.
- "On Social Issues, Tea Partiers Are Not Libertarians". The Atlantic. October 6, 2010. Retrieved October 15, 2013.
- "Is Half the Tea Party Libertarian?". Reason. September 26, 2011. Retrieved October 15, 2013.
- Molly Ball (May 10, 2016). "The New Republican Civil War". The Atlantic. Retrieved February 11, 2017.
- "Katie Couric interviews Tea Party Leaders". CBS News. January 25, 2010.
- The Libertarian Vote by David Boaz and David Kirby, Cato Institute, October 18, 2006
- The ANES Guide to Public Opinion and Electoral Behavior, 1948–2004 American National Election Studies (Newer edition Archived 2016-04-23 at the Wayback Machine).
- Beyond Liberal and Conservative William S. Maddox & Stuart A. Lilie, 1984. (Preview on Google Books).
- Karoun Demirjian (October 5, 2012). "Libertarian candidate makes push for Nevada's Ron Paul supporters". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved November 2, 2012.
- Lucas Eaves (November 1, 2012). "Why 5% matters to Gary Johnson". Independent Voter Network. Retrieved November 6, 2012.
- Texas Politics Today, 2013–2014 Edition. p. 121, William Maxwell, Ernest Crain, Adolfo Santos.
- "Free State Project". Retrieved July 5, 2018.
- Sam Tanenhaus and Jim Rutenberg (January 25, 2014). "Rand Paul's Mixed Inheritance". The New York Times. Retrieved February 20, 2014.
- "What is the Mises Institute?". Mises Institute. Mises Institute. June 18, 2014. Retrieved August 30, 2016.
- Utley, Jon Basil (May 4, 2009). "Freedom fighter". The American Conservative. ISSN 1540-966X. Archived from the original on November 5, 2013. Retrieved September 16, 2013.
In memoriam.(subscription required)
- Peterson, William H. (2009). Mises in America. Auburn, AL: Ludwig von Mises Institute. pp. 18–19. ISBN 978-1933550428.
- According to the Mises.org website, Nobel Prize winner Friedrich Hayek served on their founding board. See: Ludwig von Mises Institute: Literature Library
- Lee, Frederic S., and Cronin, Bruce C. (2010). "Research Quality Rankings of Heterodox Economic Journals in a Contested Discipline." American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 69(5): 1428 (subscription required)
- "What is Austrian Economics"? Mises.org.
- "25 years at the Cato Institute: The 2001 Annual Report" (PDF). OCLC 52255585. Retrieved August 19, 2013.
- "Articles of Incorporation Charles Koch Foundation and Restated Articles of Incorporation". December 19, 1974. Archived from the original on March 15, 2012. Retrieved March 20, 2012.
- Cobane, Craig T. (2005). "Think Tanks". Americans at War. Gale. Retrieved August 18, 2013.
- James G. McGann (February 4, 2015). "2014 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report". Retrieved February 14, 2015. Other "Top Think Tank" rankings include number 13 (of 85) in Defense and National Security, number 5 (of 80) in Domestic Economic Policy, number 4 (of 55) in Education Policy, number 17 (of 85) in Foreign Policy and International Affairs, number 8 (of 30) in Domestic Health Policy, number 14 (of 25) in Global Health Policy, number 18 (of 80) in International Development, number 14 (of 50) in International Economic Policy, number 8 (of 50) in Social Policy, number 8 (of 75) for Best Advocacy Campaign, number 17 (of 60) for Best Think Tank Network, number 3 (of 60) for best Use of Social Networks, number 9 (of 50) for Best External Relations/Public Engagement Program, number 2 (of 40) for Best Use of the Internet, number 12 (of 40) for Best Use of Media, number 5 (of 30) for Most Innovative Policy Ideas/Proposals, number 11 (of 70) for the Most Significant Impact on Public Policy and number 9 (of 60) for Outstanding Policy-Oriented Public Programs.
- Alan Gelb; Anna Diofasi; Nabil Hashmi; Lauren Post (March 17, 2015). "CGD's Think Tank Public Profile Rankings Are Back". Center for Global Development. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
- "Inside Ronald Reagan: A Reason Interview", Reason Magazine, July 1975, Retrieved February 11, 2010.