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Big business involves large-scale corporate-controlled financial or business activities. As a term, it describes activities that run from "huge transactions" to the more general "doing big things". The concept first arose in a symbolic sense after 1880 in connection with the combination movement that began in American business at that time. United States corporations that fall into the category of "big business" as of 2015[update] include ExxonMobil, Wal-Mart, Google, Microsoft, Apple, General Electric, General Motors, Citigroup, Goldman Sachs and JPMorgan Chase. The largest German corporations as of 2012[update] included Daimler AG, Deutsche Telekom, Siemens and Deutsche Bank. Among the largest companies in the United Kingdom as of 2012[update] are HSBC, Barclays, WPP plc and BP. The latter half of the 19th century saw more technological advances and corporate growth in additional[clarification needed] sectors, such as petroleum, machinery, chemicals, and electrical equipment. (See Second Industrial Revolution.)
Early 20th centuryEdit
Post-World War IIEdit
The relatively stable period of rebuilding after World War II led to new technologies (some of which were spin-offs from the war years) and new businesses.
Miniaturization and integrated circuits, together with an expansion of radio and television technologies, provided fertile ground for business development. Electronics businesses include JVC, Sony (Masaru Ibuka and Akio Morita), and Texas Instruments (Cecil H. Green, J. Erik Jonsson, Eugene McDermott, and Patrick E. Chodery), while also the companies in the computer-section above can be considered electronics.
Criticism of big businessEdit
The social consequences of the concentration of economic power in the hands of those persons controlling "big business" has been a constant concern both of economists and of politicians since the end of the 19th century. Various attempts have been made to investigate the effects of "bigness" upon labor, consumers and investors, as well as upon prices and competition. "Big business" has been accused of a wide variety of misdeeds that range from the exploitation of the working class to the corruption of politicians and the fomenting of war.
Influence over governmentEdit
Corporate concentration can lead to influence over government in areas such as tax policy, trade policy, environmental policy, foreign policy, and labor policy through lobbying. In 2005 the majority of Americans believed that big business has "too much power in Washington".
Human rights and working conditionsEdit
Hitler's order offered German capitalists, badly hit by the great recession, the prospects of huge profits. German workers did, admittedly, enjoy full employment, but, as William Schirer has said, this was at the cost of being reduced to serfdom and poverty wages. It was not long before these conditions became the lot of the whole of occupied Europe.
This article is originally based on material from Dictionary of American History by James Truslow Adams, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1940