Charles de Ganahl Koch (//; born November 1, 1935) is an American businessman, political donor and philanthropist. In 2017 Forbes ranked him 8th in The World’s Billionaires list with an estimated net worth of $48.3 billion.
|Born||Charles de Ganahl Koch
November 1, 1935
Wichita, Kansas, U.S.
|Residence||Wichita, Kansas, U.S.|
|Alma mater||Massachusetts Institute of Technology|
|Occupation||Chairman and CEO of Koch Industries|
|Net worth||$48.7 billion (February 2017)|
|Spouse(s)||Liz Koch (m. 1972)|
He is co-owner, chairman of the board, and chief executive officer of Koch Industries since 1967, while his brother David Koch serves as Executive Vice President. Charles and David each own 42% of the conglomerate. The brothers inherited the business from their father, Fred C. Koch, then expanded the business. Originally involved exclusively in oil refining and chemicals, Koch Industries now includes process and pollution control equipment and technologies; polymers and fibers; minerals; fertilizers; commodity trading and services; forest and consumer products; and ranching. The businesses produce a wide variety of well-known brands, such as Stainmaster carpet, the Lycra brand of spandex fiber, Quilted Northern tissue and Dixie Cup.
Koch Industries is the second-largest privately held company by revenue in the United States according to a 2010 Forbes survey. In February 2014, Koch was ranked 9th richest person in the world by Hurun Report with an estimated net worth of $36 billion. Previously, in October 2012 he was ranked the 6th richest person in the world with an estimated net worth of $34 billion—according to the Bloomberg Billionaires Index—and was ranked 18th on Forbes World's Billionaires list of 2011 (and 4th on the Forbes 400), with an estimated net worth of $25 billion, deriving from his 42% stake in Koch Industries. Koch has published three books detailing his business philosophy, The Science of Success, Market Based Management, and Good Profit.
Koch supports a number of free market-oriented educational organizations, including the Institute for Humane Studies, the Ayn Rand Institute, and the Mercatus Center at George Mason University. He also contributes to the Republican Party and candidates, libertarian groups, and various charitable and cultural institutions. He co-founded the Washington, DC-based Cato Institute. Through the Koch Cultural Trust, founded by Charles Koch's wife, Elizabeth, the Koch family has also funded artistic projects and creative artists.
Early life, education, and careerEdit
Koch was born and lives in Wichita, Kansas, one of four sons of Clementine Mary (née Robinson) and Fred Chase Koch. Koch's grandfather, Harry Koch, was a Dutch immigrant who settled in West Texas, founded the Quanah Tribune-Chief newspaper, and was a founding shareholder of Quanah, Acme and Pacific Railway. Among his maternal great-great-grandparents were William Ingraham Kip, an Episcopalian bishop, William Burnet Kinney, a politician, and Elizabeth Clementine Stedman, a writer.
In an interview with Warren Cassell Jr., which was recorded in February 2016, Koch explained that as a child he did not live a privileged lifestyle despite growing up in a wealthy family. Koch said, "My father wanted me to work as if I was the poorest person in the world." Koch was educated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He is a member of the Beta Theta Pi fraternity. He received a Bachelor of Science (B.S.) in General Engineering in 1957, a Master of Science (M.S.) in Nuclear Engineering in 1958, and a second M.S. in Chemical Engineering in 1960. After college, Koch started work at Arthur D. Little, Inc. In 1961 he moved back to Wichita to join his father's business, Rock Island Oil & Refining Company. In 1967 he became president of the business, which was then a medium-sized oil firm. In the same year, he renamed the firm Koch Industries in honor of his father. In 2006, Koch Industries generated $90 billion in revenue, a growth of 2000 times over, which represents an annual compounded return of 18%. As of 2014[update], Koch was worth approximately $41.3 billion (in 2013 $36 billion) according to the Forbes 400 list.
Koch has been a director of Entrust Financial Corp. since 1982 and director of Koch Industries Inc. since 1982. He is director of resin and fiber company Invista and director of Georgia-Pacific LLC, paper and pulp products. Koch founded or helped found several organizations, including the Cato Institute, the Institute for Humane Studies and the Mercatus Center at George Mason University, the Bill of Rights Institute, and the Market-Based Management Institute. He is a member of the Mont Pelerin Society.
Political and economic viewsEdit
Charles Koch is a classical liberal and has formerly identified as a libertarian. He is opposed to corporate welfare and told the National Journal that his "overall concept is to minimize the role of government and to maximize the role of private economy and to maximize personal freedoms." He has expressed concern for too much government regulation in the U.S., stating that "we could be facing the greatest loss of liberty and prosperity since the 1930s." In addition, he has warned that drastic government overspending and a decline of the free enterprise system will prove detrimental to long-term social and economic prosperity.
Influences on Koch include Alexis de Tocqueville, Adam Smith, Michael Polanyi, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Simon, Paul Johnson, Thomas Sowell, Charles Murray, Leonard Read, and F.A. Harper. The presidents he most admires include George Washington, Grover Cleveland, and Calvin Coolidge. In an interview with the American Journal of Business, Koch said he owes "a huge debt of gratitude to the giants who created the Austrian School [of economics]. They developed principles that enabled me to gain an understanding of how the world works, and these ideas were a catalyst in the development of Market-Based Management." In particular, he expresses admiration for Ludwig von Mises’ book Human Action, as well as the writings of Friedrich Hayek. Koch said "the short-term infatuation with quarterly earnings on Wall Street restricts the earnings potential of Fortune 500 publicly traded firms." He also considers public firms to be "feeding grounds for lawyers and lawsuits," with regulations like Sarbanes–Oxley only increasing the earnings potential of privately held companies.
Koch disdains "big government" and the "political class." He believes billionaires Warren Buffett and George Soros, who fund organizations with different ideologies, "simply haven't been sufficiently exposed to the ideas of liberty." Koch claimed "prosperity is under attack" by the Obama administration and sought to warn "of policies that threaten to erode our economic freedom and transfer vast sums of money to the state."
In an April 2011 Wall Street Journal op-ed, Koch wrote:
Government spending on business only aggravates the problem. Too many businesses have successfully lobbied for special favors and treatment by seeking mandates for their products, subsidies (in the form of cash payments from the government), and regulations and tariffs to keep more efficient competitors at bay. Crony capitalism is much easier than competing in an open market. But it erodes our overall standard of living and stifles entrepreneurs by rewarding the politically favored rather than those who provide what consumers want.
His opposition to corporate welfare includes lobbying for the end to ethanol subsidies despite the fact that Koch Industries is a major ethanol producer. He is quoted as saying: “The first thing we’ve got to get rid of is business welfare and entitlements.” Regarding government regulation, Koch has written that he expects his employees to cooperate fully with the law, regardless of personal views:
We needed to be uncompromising [with our workforce], to expect 100 percent of our employees to comply 100 percent of the time with complex and ever-changing government mandates. Striving to comply with every law does not mean agreeing with every law. But, even when faced with laws we think are counter-productive, we must first comply. Only then, from a credible position, can we enter into a dialogue with regulatory agencies to demonstrate alternatives that are more beneficial. If these efforts fail, we can then join with others in using education and/or political efforts to change the law.
In an April 2014 Wall Street Journal op-ed, Koch wrote, "the fundamental concepts of dignity, respect, equality before the law and personal freedom are under attack by the nation's own government." He criticized the Obama Administration, saying that its "central belief and fatal conceit" is that people are not capable of running their own lives. "This is the essence of big government and collectivism," he wrote. He cited the "current health care debacle" as an example of disastrous government control. He complained that he had been the victim of "character assassination."
In an November 2015 joint interview with his brother, David, on MSNBC's Morning Joe Koch, who supports a non-interventionist foreign policy, criticized America's current foreign policy calling it a "form of insanity."
Koch's business philosophy, "market-based management" (MBM), is described in his 2007 book The Science of Success. In an interview with the Wichita Eagle, he said that he was motivated to write the book by Koch Industries' 2004 acquisition of Invista so he could give new employees a "comprehensive picture" of MBM. According to the website of the Market-Based Management Institute, which Koch founded in 2005, MBM is "based on rules of just conduct, economic thinking, and sound mental models", harnessing the dispersed knowledge of employees just as markets harness knowledge in society. "It is organized in and interpreted through five dimensions: vision, virtue and talents, decision rights, incentives, and knowledge processes." In the book, Koch attempts to apply F. A. Hayek's spontaneous order theory and Austrian entrepreneurial theory, such as that of Mises and Israel Kirzner, to organizational management. T. Boone Pickens argues that Koch's business success lends credibility to the book's concept.
Philanthropic and political activitiesEdit
Koch funds and supports libertarian and free-enterprise policy and advocacy organizations. In 1977 he co-founded, with Edward H. Crane and Murray Rothbard, the Cato Institute. He is a board member at the Mercatus Center, a market-oriented research think tank at George Mason University.
In 2008, Koch was included in Businessweek's list of top 50 American givers. Between 2004 and 2008, Koch gave $246 million, focusing on "libertarian causes, giving money for academic and public policy research and social welfare." Koch was awarded an Honorary Doctorate from George Mason University in recognition of his financial support "through scholarships, faculty recruitment, and research grants". A leaked 2012 fundraising plan indicated that the Charles G. Koch Charitable Foundation contributed $25,000 in 2011 to The Heartland Institute, an American conservative and libertarian public policy think tank.
Koch's philanthropic activities have focused on research, policy, and educational projects intended to advance free-market views. He has underwritten scholarships and financed the research of economists such as James Buchanan and Friedrich Hayek. He has also “supported efforts to inspire at-risk young people to consider entrepreneurship, to teach American students the principles of limited government, and to connect recent graduates with market-oriented organizations, in an effort to launch their careers in public policy.”
Two works that have been especially influential upon Koch's philosophy are Ludwig Von Mises' Human Action and F. A. Harper's Why Wages Rise. After reading Harper's book, Koch became involved with Harper's Institute for Humane Studies, of which he became a principal supporter. He has been on the board of IHS since 1966. Since the 1980s, IHS has been increasingly interested in aiding the careers of aspiring educators, journalists, and policy professionals with an interest in classical liberal thought. Among other projects, the IHS runs the Charles G. Koch Summer Fellow Program, which “has supported more than 900 students during eight-week internships at public policy organizations, both in D.C. and around the country.” In addition, almost 200 institutions of higher education in the U.S. are funded by the Charles Koch Foundation. What all the Koch-funded programs have in common is an interest in studying free societies with an eye to understanding how economic freedom benefits humanity.
Through the Koch Cultural Trust, founded by Charles Koch's wife, Elizabeth, the Koch family has provided financial support to promising artists in a variety of fields. More than $1.7 million in grants have been awarded to programs and individuals with Kansas roots.
Koch supported his brother's candidacy for vice president on the Libertarian Party ticket in 1980. After the bid, Koch told a reporter that conventional politics "tends to be a nasty, corrupting business ... I’m interested in advancing libertarian ideas". In addition to funding think tanks, Charles and David also support libertarian academics and Koch funds the Charles G. Koch Summer Fellow Program through the Institute for Humane Studies which recruits and mentors young libertarians. Koch also organizes twice yearly meetings of Republican donors.
Charles Koch looks favorably upon the Tea Party movement. "The way it's grown, the passion, and the intensity, was beyond what I had anticipated," he told an interviewer. He's funded groups opposed to Barack Obama's administration.
Koch has given money to support public policy research focused on "developing voluntary, market-based solutions to social problems." He has given to the Bill of Rights Institute, a non-profit group that educates teachers, students, and others about the Bill of Rights. He has also given to the Youth Entrepreneurs Kansas, an organization that teaches business skills to at-risk youth in Kansas schools. Koch has also supported the Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature project, a scientific effort to compile an open database of the Earth's surface temperature records.
In 2002, Koch Industries donated $6 million to renovate the Wichita State University basketball arena. The gift was given in honor of Koch, and the arena was subsequently renamed the Charles Koch Arena. Koch has continued to be a major donor to both the university and its athletic program. In December 2014, Koch Industries and the Koch family foundation donated $11.25 million to the university, the largest one-time gift in school history, with $4.5 million of that going toward a plan to renovate the arena and expand the athletic program's academic support center. Several months later, when men's basketball head coach Gregg Marshall was considering an offer to become head coach at the University of Alabama, Koch led a group of local business leaders and WSU boosters that raised Marshall's annual salary from $1.85 million to $3 million and kept him at the school. The raise was seen as an unprecedented move for a school outside the Power Five conferences, and likely to make Marshall among the 10 highest-paid college basketball coaches.
In 2011, Koch was awarded the William E. Simon Prize for Philanthropic Leadership. The award honors "the ideals and principles which guided William E. Simon's giving, including personal responsibility, resourcefulness, volunteerism, scholarship, individual freedom, faith in God, and helping people to help themselves."
In July 2015 Charles Koch and his brother were praised by President Obama and Anthony Van Jones for their bipartisan efforts to reform the criminal justice system. For roughly a decade Koch has been advocating for several reforms within the prison system, including the reduction of recidivist criminals, easing the employment process for rehabilitated persons, and the defense of private property from asset forfeiture. Aligning with groups such as the ACLU, the Center for American Progress, Families Against Mandatory Minimums, the Coalition for Public Safety, and the MacArthur Foundation, Koch believes the current system has unfairly targeted low-income and minority communities all while wasting substantial government resources.
In February 2016, Koch penned an opinion piece in The Washington Post, where he said he agreed with presidential candidate Bernie Sanders about the unfairness of corporate welfare and mass incarceration in the United States.
Koch has been married to his wife Liz since 1972 and has two children, Chase Koch and Elizabeth Koch. Charles and his three brothers have all suffered from prostate cancer. Koch "rarely grants media interviews and prefers to keep a low profile". TIME magazine included Charles and David Koch among the most influential people of 2011. According to the magazine, the list includes "activists, reformers and researchers, heads of state and captains of industry." The article describes the brothers' commitment to free-market principles, the growth and development of their business, and their support for liberty-minded organizations and political candidates. He now lives in Indian Wells, California.
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Koch has received various awards and honors, including:
- Honorary Doctor of Science, from George Mason University, for his continued support of the economics program at GMU
- Honorary Doctor of Commerce from Washburn University
- Honorary Doctor of Laws from Babson College
- President's Medal from Wichita State University in 2004
- The Adam Smith Award from the American Legislative Exchange Council
- The 1999 Directors' Award for Global Vision in Energy from the New York Mercantile Exchange
- The 1999 Governor's Arts Patrons Award from the Kansas Arts Commission
- The 2000 National Distinguished Service Award from The Tax Foundation
- The Spirit of Justice Award from The Heritage Foundation
- The Entrepreneurial Leadership Award from the National Foundation for Teaching Entrepreneurship
- The Brotherhood/Sisterhood Award from the National Conference of Christians and Jews
- The Distinguished Citizen Award from the Boy Scouts of America
- The Free Enterprise Award from The Council for National Policy
- The Herman W. Lay Memorial Award from the Association of Private Enterprise Education
- The Distinguished Service Citation from the University of Kansas
- Honorary Life Member in the Washburn Law School Association
- The Distinguished Citizen Award from Kansas State University
- Induction into the Kansas Oil and Gas Hall of Fame
- Induction into the Wichita and Kansas Business Halls of Fame
- Spirit of Excellence Award from The Urban League of Wichita
- Outstanding Humanitarian Award from the Greater Wichita Chapter of the National Society of Fundraising Executives
- Wichita City Medallion
- Wichita State University Entrepreneur in Residence
- Wichita District Minority Small Business Advocate of the Year
- The Individual Recognition Award from the Wichita/Sedgwick County Arts and Humanities Council
- The Uncommon Citizen Award from the Wichita Chamber of Commerce
- The 2011 William E. Simon Prize for Philanthropic Leadership from the Philanthropy Roundtable
- The 2011 Defender of Justice award from the National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers
- In 2012, ExecReps ranked him number two on their Top Chief Executive List
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Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Bachelor of Arts / Science Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Master of Science Son of Koch Industries founder Fred C. Koch (d. 1967), MIT grad who invented method of refining gasoline from heavy oil. Took refining innovation to Soviet Union 1929; returned home 1930s. Sons Frederick, Charles, David and William inherited Koch Industries after father's death; Charles and David bought out William and Frederick for $1.3 billion in 1983.
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- Continetti, Matthew (April 4, 2011). "The Paranoid Style in Liberal Politics". The Weekly Standard.
- Koch, Charles, The Science of Success, p. 57
- Kate Zernike (25 October 2010). "Secretive Republican Donors Are Planning Ahead". The New York Times.
- Koch, Charles (March 1, 2011). "Why Koch Industries Is Speaking Out". The Wall Street Journal.
- Daniel Fisher (December 5, 2012). "Inside The Koch Empire: How The Brothers Plan To Reshape America". Forbes.
- Koch, Charles, The Science of Success, p. 45.
- Koch, Charles (April 3, 2014). "Charles Koch: I'm Fighting to Restore a Free Society". The Wall Street Journal.
- Kopan, Tal (April 3, 2014). "Charles Koch calls critics ‘collectivists’". Politico.
- "Koch Brothers Question Wisdom of U.S. Interventionism". November 5, 2015.
- "Charles Koch: American Foreign Policy a 'Form of Insanity'".
- What is MBM? www.mbminstitute.org. Retrieved April 2011.
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- Charles Koch receives honorary degree from George Mason University www.kochind.com. Retrieved April 2011.
- "Climate skeptic group works to reverse renewable energy mandates". Washington Post.
- Gillis, Justin; Kaufman, Leslie (15 February 2012). "Leak Offers Glimpse of Campaign Against Climate Science". The New York Times.
- "The Heartland Institute 2012 Fundraising Plan" (PDF). The Heartland Institute. 15 January 2012.
- Glassman, James. "Market-Based Man". Philanthropy Magazine. Philanthropy Roundtable. Retrieved 16 March 2012.
- Jane Mayer (August 30, 2010). "Covert Operations: The billionaire brothers who are waging a war against Obama". The New Yorker. Retrieved January 5, 2012.
- Brian Doherty (2008). Radicals for Capitalism: A Freewheeling History of the Modern American Libertarian Movement. PublicAffairs. p. 410. ISBN 1-58648-572-5.
One longtime Koch lieutenant characterized the overall strategy of Koch's libertarian funding over the years with both a theatrical metaphor and an Austrian capital theory one: Politicians, ultimately, are just actors playing out a script. The idea is, one gets better and quicker results aiming not at the actors but at the scriptwriters, to help supply the themes and words for the scripts—to try to influence the areas where policy ideas percolate from: academia and think tanks. Ideas, then, are the capital goods that go into building policy as a finished product—and there are insufficient libertarian capital goods at the top of the structure of production to build the policies libertarians demand.
- "Charles G. Koch Summer Fellow Program". Institute for Humane Studies at George Mason University. Retrieved 2010-09-10.
The Charles G. Koch Summer Fellow Program combines a paid public policy internship with two career skills seminars and weekly policy lectures. You’ll gain real-world experience, take a crash course in market-based policy analysis, and hone your professional skills. The intensive ten-week program begins in June and includes a $1,500 stipend and a housing allowance.
- "About Charles G. Koch". Charles G. Koch Foundation. February 2009.
- "Bill of Rights Institute". Media Matters for America.
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- BEST donors, accessed 3/25/11
- "Charles Koch Arena". Wichita State University. Retrieved 22 May 2013.
- Wenzl, Roy (December 16, 2014). "Koch gives $11.25 million to Wichita State". The Wichita Eagle. Retrieved April 3, 2015.
- Suellentrop, Paul (April 2, 2015). "Wichita State, community work together to keep Gregg Marshall". The Wichita Eagle. Retrieved April 3, 2015.
- "Winner of the 2011 William E. Simon Prize". philanthropyroundtable.org.
- "2011 William E. Simon Prize". Philanthropy Roundtable. Philanthropy Roundtable. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- Nelson, Colleen Mccain; Fields, Gary (Jul 16, 2015). "Obama, Koch Brothers in Unlikely Alliance to Overhaul Criminal Justice". Wall Street Journal.
- Horwitz, Sari (Aug 15, 2015). "Unlikely Allies". Washington Post.
- Hudetz, Mary (Oct 15, 2015). "Forfeiture reform aligns likes of billionaire Charles Koch, ACLU". The Topeka Capital Journal.
- "Koch brothers join Obama in advocating US prison reform". Russian Today. Jul 17, 2015.
- Koch, Charles G. (February 18, 2016). "Charles Koch: This is the one issue where Bernie Sanders is right". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 19, 2016.
- "About Charles G. Koch". Charles G. Koch Charitable Foundation. Retrieved 19 December 2010.
- "Donor aims to 'lick' illness that he has battled for 15 years". The Chronicle of Philanthropy. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
- Robinson, Peter (April 14, 2016). "Good Profit Part I". Uncomomn Knowledge. Hoover Institution.
Video Interview, recorded March 18, 2016
- Levinthal, Dave. "Spreading the Free-Market Gospel". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2017-03-09.
- "Honorary Degree Recipients and Degrees Conferred Honoris Causa" (PDF). Washburn.
- Ball, Molly (Mar 3, 2015). "Do the Koch Brothers Really Care About Criminal-Justice Reform?". The Atlantic.
- "May 2013 ExecRank Top CEOs". Archived from the original on December 14, 2013.
- Profile at Koch Industries
- Charles G. Koch Charitable Foundation
- Profile at Philanthropy Roundtable
- Names in the News: David and Charles Koch at FollowTheMoney.org
- Political contributions from Influence Explorer at the Sunlight Foundation
- Charles Koch at Bloomberg L.P.
- Robinson, Peter (April 29, 2016). "Good Profit Part II". Uncommon Knowledge. Hoover Institution.
Video Interview, recorded March 18, 2016
- Charles G. Koch at Goodreads