Koch Industries, Inc. (/kk/ KOHK) is an American multinational conglomerate corporation based in Wichita, Kansas, and is the second-largest privately held company in the United States, after Cargill.[6] Its subsidiaries are involved in the manufacturing, refining, and distribution of petroleum, chemicals, energy, fiber, intermediates and polymers, minerals, fertilizer, pulp and paper, chemical technology equipment, cloud computing, finance, raw materials trading, and investments. Koch owns Flint Hills Resources, Georgia-Pacific, Guardian Industries, Infor, Invista, KBX, Koch Ag & Energy Solutions, Koch Engineered Solutions, Koch Investments Group, Koch Minerals & Trading, and Molex. The firm employs 122,000 people in 60 countries, with about half of its business in the United States.[6][5][9]

Koch Industries, Inc.
Company typePrivate
FoundedFebruary 8, 1940; 84 years ago (1940-02-08)
FounderFred C. Koch
Area served
Key people
Charles Koch
(Chairman & co-CEO)
Dave Robertson
(co-CEO & vice chairman)
Jim Hannan
(president & COO)
ProductsAsphalt, chemicals, raw materials trading, energy, fibers, fertilizers, finance, minerals, natural gas, plastics, petroleum, pulp and paper, ranching[5]
RevenueUS$125 billion (2021)[6]
OwnerCharles Koch (42%)
Heirs of David Koch (42%)
Trusts for the benefit of Elaine Tettemer Marshall, Preston Marshall, and E. Pierce Marshall Jr. (16%)[7]
Number of employees
120,000 (2022)[8]
SubsidiariesGeorgia-Pacific, Guardian Industries, Flint Hills Resources, Invista, Molex, Infor, Matador Cattle Company
Footnotes / references

The company was founded by its namesake, Fred C. Koch, in 1940 after he developed an innovative crude oil refining process.[10] Fred C. Koch died in 1967 and his majority interest in the company was split amongst his four sons. In June 1983, after a bitter legal and boardroom battle over the amount of dividends paid by the company, the stakes of Frederick R. Koch and William "Bill" Koch were bought out for $1.1 billion and Charles Koch and David Koch became majority owners in the company.[11] Charles owns 42% of the company; trusts for the benefit of Elaine Tettemer Marshall (the daughter in-law of J. Howard Marshall) and Elaine's children, Preston Marshall and E. Pierce Marshall Jr., own 16% of the company.[7][12] David Koch died on August 23, 2019, and his heirs own the remaining 42% balance of the corporation.

Charles Koch has stated that the company would go public "over my dead body" and that the company has used its freedom from the pressures of public markets to make long-term investments and concentrate on growth.[13][14]



Predecessor companies


In 1925, Fred C. Koch joined MIT classmate Lewis E. Winkler at an engineering firm in Wichita, Kansas, which was renamed the Winkler-Koch Engineering Company. In 1927, they developed a more efficient thermal cracking process for turning crude oil into gasoline. This process, which the company sold to many independent refineries in the United States,[15] threatened the competitive advantage of established oil companies, which sued for patent infringement.[16] Temporarily forced out of business in the United States, they turned to other markets, including the Soviet Union, where Winkler-Koch built 15 cracking units between 1929 and 1932. During this time, Koch came to despise communism and Joseph Stalin's regime.[16][17] In his 1960 book, A Business Man Looks at Communism, Koch wrote that he found the USSR to be "a land of hunger, misery, and terror."[18] According to Charles Koch, "Virtually every engineer he worked with [there] was purged."[16]

In the 1930s Winkler-Koch built refineries in nine different countries across hundreds of projects.[19][20][21][22] In 1933 when several American companies were doing business in Germany, in a joint venture with William Rhodes Davis, Koch assisted in the design and construction of the third-largest oil refinery in Germany at the time.[23] It was also one of the few refineries capable of refining fuel for airplanes, and was later a strategic bombing target for Allied forces when World War II broke out. The project was stalled for some time as Davis sought approval, which was granted by the Nazi government. The war commenced six years after the refinery was completed. Koch’s business, and the Koch family, supported the American war effort against Adolf Hitler and his government.[24][21][20][19]

In 1940, Koch joined new partners to create the Wood River Oil and Refining Company. In 1946, the firm acquired the Rock Island refinery and crude oil gathering system near Duncan, Oklahoma. Wood River was later renamed the Rock Island Oil & Refining Company.[25] Charles Koch joined Rock Island in 1961, having started his career at the management consulting firm Arthur D. Little. He became president in 1966 and chairman at age 32, upon his father's death the following year.[10][26]

Koch Industries


Wood River Oil and Refining Company was renamed Koch Industries in 1968 in honor of Fred Koch, the year after his death.[27][28] At that time, it was primarily an engineering firm with a 35% interest in Great Northern Oil Company, which owned the Pine Bend Refinery in Minnesota, a crude oil-gathering system in Oklahoma,[16] and some cattle ranches.[29]

In 1968, Charles approached Union Oil of California about buying its 40% interest in Great Northern Oil Company but the discussions quickly stalled after Union asked for a large premium.[30] In 1969, Koch merged his interest with the 15% interest owned by J. Howard Marshall, then owning a combined 50% of the company, preventing Union from assembling a controlling interest. They then acquired Union's interest.[31][32] The Pine Bend Refinery produced chemicals, fibers, polymers, asphalt and other commodities such as petroleum coke and sulfur.[30]

In 1970, Charles was joined at the family firm by his brother David Koch. Having started as a technical services manager, David became president of Koch Engineering in 1979.

In 1979, the company acquired 780 dealerships from Chrysler.[33]

In June 1983, after a bitter legal and boardroom battle over the amount of dividends paid by the company, in a settlement, the stakes of William "Bill" Koch and Frederick R. Koch, who wanted the company to pay more dividends rather than reinvest in the business, were bought out for $620 million and $400 million, respectively, and Charles Koch and David Koch became majority owners in the company. In June 1985, William and Frederick sued their brothers claiming that they were underpaid for their stakes, but the suit was dismissed for lack of merit.[34][35]

In September 2001, the company acquired KoSa.[36] This company is considered the largest producer of polyester in the world.[37]

In 2005, the company acquired Georgia-Pacific, one of the world's largest timber, forest products and paper companies.[38][39][40][41]

In 2008, the company discovered that the French affiliate Koch-Glitsch had violated bribery laws allegedly securing contracts in Algeria, Egypt, India, Morocco, Nigeria and Saudi Arabia after an investigation by Ethics Compliance officer, Egorova-Farines.[42] After Koch Industries' investigative team looked into her findings, the four employees involved were terminated. According to journalist Jennifer Rubin, Koch Industries' general counsel stated that Egorova-Farines failed to promptly share the findings, choosing instead to give the information to a manager at Koch-Glitsch who was later fired for bribery. According to Koch Industries' general counsel, "Egorova-Farines was not fired but instead ran into performance problems, left the company to go on leave and never returned." Egorova-Farines sued Koch-Glitsch for wrongful termination in France, lost, and "was ordered to pay costs for bringing a frivolous case".[43]

In 2010, the company was among the first group of nearly 2,000 employers that applied for and were granted federal reimbursements from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, under the new Early Retiree Reinsurance Program established by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, for providing health insurance to retirees too young to be eligible for Medicare.[44]

In 2013, the company acquired Molex, a provider of electronic components, for $7.2 billion.[45]

In September 2014, along with the private equity arm of Goldman Sachs, the company acquired Flint Group, a printing ink producer, for $3 billion.[46][47]

In June 2014, the United Negro College Fund announced a $25 million grant from Koch Industries and the Charles Koch Foundation to go towards merit-based scholarships and general support of historically black colleges and universities.[48][49][50]

In December 2014, the company acquired Oplink Communications, an optical networking device maker, for $445 million.[51]

In 2015, the company joined the "Ban the Box" movement by removing questions about prior criminal convictions from its job application, making it easier for ex-offenders to find work.[52]

In November 2015, the company "signed a Statement of Support with Employer Support of the Guard and Reserve (ESGR) that pledges Koch will provide supervisors with the tools to hire and support employees serving in the National Guard of the United States."[53]

From 2017 to 2021, the company was featured in the Forbes' list of America's Best Employers by State.[54][55]

In November 2017, Koch Disruptive Technologies was established, the corporation's venture arm, led by Chase Koch, son of Charles Koch.[56]

In July 2019, the company sold its leases in the Athabasca oil sands.[57][58]

In December 2021, Rupert Murdoch and his wife, Jerry Hall, acquired a 340,000 acres (1,400 km2) ranch in Beaverhead County, Montana, from Matador Cattle Company, a subsidiary of the company, for $200 million.[59] Matador was formed in 1951 by Fred Koch. It won the 2010 Lone Star Land Steward Award.[60] The company also owns ranches in Kansas and Texas that are being marketed for sale.[61]

In March 2023, Koch Industries announced a leadership restructuring wherein Charles Koch will remain chairman and serve as co-CEO alongside Dave Robertson, who will serve as vice chairman of the board. Jim Hannan was named President and COO. Chase Koch and Richard Dinkel were both named executive Vice President while maintaining their other roles. In addition, Ray Geoffroy and Mark Luetters were named senior vice presidents.[1][2][3][4]





Koch invested $2 billion in Infor, which focuses on cloud computing, in November 2016, another $1.5 billion in January 2019, and acquired the remainder of the company in April 2020 in a $13 billion transaction.[62][63]

Arteva Europe S.a.r.l.


Arteva Europe is an "internal bank" which is headquartered in Luxembourg and manages the European cash flows of Koch Industries.[64]

Flint Hills Resources LP

Plumes of steam rise above the Pine Bend oil refinery in Rosemount, Minnesota, run by Flint Hills Resources, a subsidiary of Koch Industries.

Flint Hills Resources LP, originally called Koch Petroleum Group, is a refining and chemicals company based in Wichita, Kansas. It sells gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, ethanol, polymers, intermediate chemicals, base oils and asphalt. It operates oil refineries in six states and chemical plants in Illinois, Texas and Michigan. The firm also manufactures asphalt used for paving and roofing applications at 13 asphalt terminals in six states including Alaska (2 terminals), Wisconsin (2), Iowa (3), Minnesota (4), Nebraska (1), and North Dakota (1).[65] The firm manages the purchasing of domestic crude oil from Texas and Colorado offices, has five ethanol plants across Iowa and one in Nebraska, has a refinery terminal in Alaska, and operates refineries in Alaska, Texas, and Minnesota.

The Pine Bend Refinery in Minnesota can process 392,000 barrels (62,300 m3) of crude oil per day, most of which comes from Alberta, Canada. It handles one quarter of all Canadian oil sands crude entering the U.S.[66] It also operates 4 fuel terminals in Wisconsin, 6 in Texas, and one each in Iowa and Minnesota.[65]

In 1981, it acquired a petroleum refinery in Corpus Christi, Texas, from Sunoco for $265 million.[67]

In 1994, it acquired a 104,000 b/d petroleum refinery in Corpus Christi, Texas, from Kerr-McGee.[68]

On July 16, 2014, Flint Hills Resources acquired PetroLogistics, a Houston-based manufacturer of chemical and polymer grade propylene.[69][70]

Koch Pipeline Company LP


Koch Pipeline Company LP, a division of Flint Hills, owns and operates 4,000 miles (6,400 km) of pipeline used to transport petroleum, natural gas liquids, and chemicals. Its pipelines are located in Wisconsin, Minnesota, Texas, Missouri, Iowa, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and Alberta, Canada. The firm has offices in Wichita, Kansas, St. Paul, Minnesota, Corpus Christi, Texas, and Port Arthur, Texas.

In 1946, Wood River Oil Co. (a precursor company to Koch Industries) purchased Rock Island Oil and Refining Co. As a part of the transaction, it acquired a crude-oil pipeline in Oklahoma. As a result of construction and investments, Wood River acquired other pipelines in the US and Canada.[71]

In 1992, it acquired United Gas Pipeline Co., owner of 9,271 miles of pipelines.[72][73]

It owns the largest interest in the Colonial Pipeline.


Signage at a Georgia-Pacific site.

Georgia-Pacific (Georgia-Pacific LLC, aka: "GP") is one of America's largest forest products companies, specializing in pulp and paper and building materials (largely made from GP's own timber), based in Atlanta, Georgia.[74][40][41]

GP is one of the America's largest manufacturers and distributors of tissue, pulp, paper, toilet and paper towel dispensers, packaging, building products and related chemicals, and other forest products.

Georgia-Pacific paper mill in Wauna, Oregon from Bradley State Scenic Viewpoint

GP manufactures a wide variety of household products under the brand names Brawny, Angel Soft, Mardi Gras, Quilted Northern, Dixie, Sparkle, and Vanity Fair. The Atlanta-based company has operations in 27 states.[75]

In 2005, after having already acquired parts of GP, Koch Industries began full acquisition of GP, which has since been an independently operated and managed Koch subsidiary.[40]

Guardian Industries


Guardian Industries is an industrial manufacturer of glass, automotive, and building products based in Auburn Hills, Michigan. The company manufactures float glass, and fabricated glass products for commercial, residential and automotive applications. The company employs more than 18,000 people and has present activities in North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa and the Middle East.[76]



Acquired from DuPont, Invista is a polymer and fibers company that makes "Stainmaster" carpet products, amongst many.

When the $4.4 billion deal was announced in 2003, Koch planned to make Invista a part of KoSa, its polyester business,[77] which Koch became owner of as of November 14, 2001, after buying the 50 percent stake owned by IMASAB S.A. of Mexico.[78]

The "Lycra" fiber brand was sold to Shandong Ruyi Investment Holding in 2019.

Koch Ag & Energy Solutions

Koch Fertilizer plant in Enid, Oklahoma, USA.

Koch Ag & Energy Solutions, LLC and its subsidiaries, including Koch Fertilizer, LLC, Koch Agronomic Services, LLC, Koch Energy Services, LLC and Koch Methanol, LLC, globally provide products including fertilizer and other plant nutrients for agricultural turf and ornamental plant markets, as well as other enhanced efficiency products and technology for the energy and chemical markets.[79][80]

Koch Fertilizer, LLC, is one of the world's largest makers of nitrogen fertilizers.[81] Koch Fertilizer owns or has interests in fertilizer plants in the United States, Canada, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, and Italy, among others.[82][83]

Koch Fertilizer, Richmond Ave, Brandon, Manitoba, Canada

Koch Fertilizer was formed in 1988 when the Koch companies purchased the Gulf Central Pipeline and ammonia terminals connected to the pipeline. The next year, the Koch Nitrogen Company was formed in order to market ammonia. The next few years saw purchases of various ammonia facilities in Louisiana, Canada, and elsewhere, and ammonia sales agreements with firms in Australia, the UK, and other countries. The year 2010 saw the founding of Koch Methanol, LLC, and Koch Agronomic Services, LLC. In October 2010, a plant in which Koch had a 35% stake was nationalized by the Venezuelan government.[84]

In 2011, the firm acquired the British fertilizer firm J&H Bunn Limited. Koch Fertilizer has changed its name to Koch Ag and Energy Solutions (KAES).[85]

Koch Chemical Technology Group


Koch Chemical Technology Group, Ltd. and its subsidiaries design, manufacture, install and service process and pollution control equipment, water purification and desalination equipment, and provide engineering services for various industrial applications and municipalities around the world.[80][86][87]



Koch-Glitsch is an entity of Koch Industries. Koch-Glitsch engineers mass transfer and mist elimination equipment for refineries and chemical plants around the world. As world leaders in process systems, Koch-Glitsch has two joint ventures under its umbrella: The Eta Process Plant and Koch Modular Process Systems.[88]

Eta is the leading supplier of deaeration plants around the world, with over 400 plants worldwide. The majority of seawater deaeration plants supplied by Eta use vacuum stripping.[89]

Koch Modular Process Systems specializes in modular mass transfer systems. Typical applications for these systems include chemical purification, solvent recovery, and liquid-liquid extraction. Koch Modular Process Systems also runs a state-of-the-art pilot plant.[90]

Koch Minerals


Koch Minerals, LLC through its subsidiaries, is one of the world's largest managers of dry-bulk commodities and is also involved in oil and gas exploration and production, the production of oil field products, investments in steel and other markets.[80][91]

Koch Supply & Trading


Koch Supply & Trading companies around the world trade crude oil, refined petroleum products, gas liquids, natural gas, liquefied natural gas, power, renewables, emissions, and metals.[92][93]



Molex produces pin-and-socket Molex connectors, specialized connectors and sensors for equipment used in data transmission, telecommunication, industrial technology, solar power, automotive, aerospace and defense, health technology, and solid-state lighting.[94]

Environmental and safety record


Bloomberg reports that from 1999 to 2003, Koch Industries was assessed "more than $400 million in fines, penalties and judgements".[42] The eight instances mentioned by Bloomberg include:

  • In October 1994, a pipeline broke and discharged over 90,000 gallons of crude oil into Gum Hollow Creek, in Refugio County, Texas. Heavy rains carried the oil to the Nueces River and on into Nueces and Corpus Christi Bays. The discharge oiled terrestrial and aquatic wildlife. The criminal case was settled in March 2000.[95]
  • In 1996, an 8-inch-diameter steel LPG pipeline operated by Koch Pipeline Company ruptured near Lively, Texas, and began leaking butane gas. The vapor cloud ignited when two teenaged residents drove their pickup truck across a creek near the pipeline while on their way to a neighbor's house to call 9-1-1 and report the smell of gas. The two were killed in the explosion, and approximately 25 families were later evacuated from the neighborhood without injury.[96][97][98] An investigation conducted by the NTSB found that the pipe section which failed had not been shown to have excessive corrosion in a 1995 inspection.[99][96]
  • In 1999, a Texas jury found that negligence had led to the rupture of the Koch pipeline and awarded the victims' families $296 million.[42]
  • In March 1999, Koch Petroleum Group acknowledged that it had negligently discharged hundreds of thousands of gallons of aviation fuel into wetlands from its refinery in Rosemount, Minnesota, and that it had illegally dumped a million gallons of high-ammonia wastewater onto the ground and into the Mississippi River. Koch Petroleum paid a $6 million fine and $2 million in remediation costs and was ordered to serve three years of probation.[100]
  • In 2000, as a result of 312 oil spills attributed to Koch and its subsidiaries across six states, Koch paid what was at the time the largest civil fine ever imposed on a company under any federal environmental law.[101][102][103] Koch disputed the EPA figures, saying the EPA did not file claims in over half of the cases, and that "Many of these alleged spills are not even listed in the EPA's own oil spill data base."[104] In a settlement with the U.S. Justice Department and the state of Texas the company agreed to pay a "$30 million civil penalty, improve its leak-prevention programs and spend $5 million on environmental projects".[103][105][106][107]
  • In December 2000, Koch Petroleum settled with the Justice Department and EPA by agreeing to spend $80 million on up-to-date pollution-control equipment at two refineries in Corpus Christi, Texas and one near St. Paul, Minnesota, and agreed to pay a $4.5 million penalty.[114]
  • In June 2003, the US Commerce Department settled with Flint Hills Resources for 40 violations of improper exporting of crude petroleum from the US to Canada for a civil penalty of $200,000.[115]

According to the 2016 documentary, Company Town, improper waste disposal by a Georgia-Pacific mill in Crossett, Arkansas, caused a cluster of cancer incidents in the area around the mill.[116]

In 2006, a Flint Hills Resources refinery in North Pole, Alaska[117] was fined $16,000 by the EPA for 10 separate violations and was required to spend another $60,000 on safety equipment.[118][117]

Workers at Georgia-Pacific, a corporate subsidiary of Koch Industries, have claimed that they have developed mesothelioma caused by asbestos in Georgia-Pacific products.[119]

Daniel Indiviglio in The Atlantic argues that the Bloomberg article is misleading, and that there are far more than only eight violations over the 63 years of the company's operation.[120]

Koch Industries won the 2015 Conservation Education Award from the Wildlife Habitat Council and "has partnered with the company on conservation efforts for the past 15 years."[121]

Political activity


Fred C. Koch was a founder of the anticommunist John Birch Society in 1958.[122] His son, Charles Koch, who has been co-owner, chairman, and chief executive officer of Koch Industries, co-founded the Cato Institute. The company also funds the political action committee KochPAC.

According to OpenSecrets, many of Koch Industries' contributions have gone toward achieving legislation on taxes, energy and nuclear power, defense appropriations and financial regulatory reform.[123] Koch Industries has been criticized by the environmentalist group Greenpeace for the role the company played in affecting climate change policy in the United States.[124][125]

Prior to 2008, a Canadian subsidiary of Koch Industries contributed to the Fraser Institute, a conservative Canadian public policy think tank, according to the Institute's founder.[126]

The company has opposed the regulation of financial derivatives, limits on greenhouse gases,[42] and sponsors free market foundations and causes.[127][128]

Koch Industries has come out against Low Carbon Fuel Standards.[129] According to Koch Industries, "LCFS would cripple refiners that rely on heavy crude feedstocks to provide the transportation fuels that keep America moving."[130]

Charles Koch penned an article titled "Why Koch Industries is Speaking Out" in The Wall Street Journal which was mirrored by the company[131] The article states: "Because of our activism, we've been vilified by various groups. Despite this criticism, we're determined to keep contributing and standing up for those politicians, like Wisconsin Gov. Scott Walker, who are taking these challenges [deficit spending by governments] seriously."

According to watchdog group Documented, in 2020 Koch Industries contributed $375,000 to the Rule of Law Defense Fund, a fund-raising arm of the Republican Attorneys General Association.[132]

See also



  1. ^ a b "Koch industries announces leadership change". CBS News. March 2, 2023. Retrieved April 21, 2023.
  2. ^ a b Fair, Daniel (March 2, 2023). "Leadership changes at Koch Industries announced". KSN. Retrieved April 21, 2023.
  3. ^ a b "Koch Industries Announces Leadership Changes". Yahoo Finance. PR Newswire. March 2, 2023. Retrieved April 21, 2023.
  4. ^ a b Shine, Tom (March 2, 2023). "Kansas-based Koch Industries restructures top management". KMUW. Kansas City Public Radio. Retrieved April 21, 2023.
  5. ^ a b c "Koch Industries: What We Do". Koch Industries. Archived from the original on March 14, 2018.
  6. ^ a b c "America's Largest Private Companies". Forbes.
  7. ^ a b "Elaine Marshall". Forbes. Archived from the original on October 4, 2017.
  8. ^ "What we're about". Koch Industries.
  9. ^ a b "Koch Industries: Companies Overview". Koch Industries. Archived from the original on July 27, 2017.
  10. ^ a b "Summary of Koch Industries History". sec.gov. U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. November 14, 2005. Archived from the original on June 4, 2011. Retrieved February 18, 2010.
  11. ^ Wayne, Leslie (April 28, 1998). "Brother Versus Brother; Koch Family's Long Legal Feud Is Headed for a Jury". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 26, 2018.
  12. ^ "The Billionaire's Party". New York. August 2010. Archived from the original on February 24, 2018.
  13. ^ "Dissecting the Kochtopus". The Economist. June 7, 2014. Archived from the original on February 24, 2018.
  14. ^ Guerrera, Francesco (May 25, 2007). "Lunch with the FT: Charles Koch". Financial Times. Archived from the original on February 24, 2018.
  15. ^ Baukal, Charles E. Jr. (2018). The Slipcover for The John Zink Hamworthy Combustion Handbook: Volume I. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. pp. xliii. ISBN 978-1-4398-3962-1.
  16. ^ a b c d Daniel Fisher (March 13, 2006). "Mr. Big". Forbes. Archived from the original on August 12, 2017.
  17. ^ Koch, Charles C. (2007). The Science of Success: How Market-Based Management Built the World's Largest Private Company. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-470-13988-2.
  18. ^ Koch, Fred C. (1960). A Business Man Looks at Communism. Wichita, Kansas.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  19. ^ a b Reilly, Kate; Executive Disputes Role of Koch Brothers' Father in Nazi Oil Refinery; Time; [1]
  20. ^ a b Hamburger, Tom; Koch Industries responds to Nazi allegations in forthcoming book; Chicago Tribune; [2]
  21. ^ a b Koch Industries: Book misrepresents founder’s work on Nazi oil refinery; Times of Israel; [3]
  22. ^ Hamburger, Tom. "Koch Industries responds to Nazi allegations in forthcoming book". chicagotribune.com. Retrieved December 7, 2021.
  23. ^ Mayer, Jane (2016). Dark Money: the Hidden History of the Billionaires Behind the Rise of the Radical Right. New York. ISBN 978-0-385-53559-5. OCLC 929917321.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  24. ^ "'Hidden History' Of Koch Brothers Traces Their Childhood And Political Rise". NPR.org. Retrieved December 7, 2021.
  25. ^ J. Howard, Marshall II (1994). Done in Oil: An Autobiography. College Station: Texas A&M University Press. p. 254. ISBN 978-0-89096-533-7.
  26. ^ Bruce Upbin; Brandon Copple (December 14, 1998). "Creative destruction 101". Forbes.
  27. ^ Koch, Charles G. (2007). The Science of Success: How Market-Based Management Built the World's Largest Private Company. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-470-13988-2.
  28. ^ Fee, Christopher R.; Webb, Jeffrey B. (2019). Conspiracies and Conspiracy Theories in American History [2 volumes]. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. p. 369. ISBN 978-1-4408-5811-6.
  29. ^ John, Lincoln (1989). Rich Grass and Sweet Water. College Station: Texas A&M University Press. ISBN 978-0-89096-387-6.
  30. ^ a b Koch, Charles C. (2007). The Science of Success: How Market-Based Management Built the World's Largest Private Company. Wiley. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-470-13988-2.
  31. ^ Fisher, Daniel (December 5, 2012). "Inside The Koch Empire: How The Brothers Plan To Reshape America". Forbes.
  32. ^ J. Howard, Marshall II (1994). Done in Oil: An Autobiography. College Station: Texas A&M University Press. p. 254. ISBN 978-0-89096-533-7.
  33. ^ Hayes, Thomas C. (August 23, 1979). "Chrysler Is Selling Its Realty Subsidiary". The New York Times.
  34. ^ Wayne, Leslie (April 28, 1998). "Brother Versus Brother; Koch Family's Long Legal Feud Is Headed for a Jury". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 26, 2018.
  35. ^ Wayne, Leslie (December 7, 1986). "BROTHERS AT ODDS". The New York Times.
  36. ^ "Koch makes acquisition in KoSa". American City Business Journals. September 25, 2001.
  37. ^ Botti, Timothy J. (2006). Envy of the World: A History of the U.S. Economy & Big Business. New York: Algora Publishing. p. 462. ISBN 0-87586-431-7.
  38. ^ "Koch completes Georgia-Pacific tender offer". American City Business Journals. December 20, 2005. Archived from the original on April 28, 2018.
  39. ^ Wayne, Leslie (November 15, 2005). "Koch Industries and Georgia-Pacific May Be a Perfect Fit". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 2, 2018.(subscription required)
  40. ^ a b c Sorkin, Andrew Ross: "Paper Maker Georgia-Pacific to Be Sold to Koch," November 14, 2005, New York Times, retrieved November 24, 2023
  41. ^ a b Miller, Stephen: "Longtime CEO of Georgia-Pacific Built Largest U.S. Manufacturer of Plywood," June 27, 2009, Wall Street Journal, retrieved November 24, 2023
  42. ^ a b c d Loder, Asjylyn; David Evans (October 3, 2011). "Koch Brothers Flout Law With Secret Iran Sales". Bloomberg Markets Magazine. Archived from the original on October 5, 2011. Retrieved October 5, 2011.
  43. ^ Rubin, Jennifer (October 3, 2011). "Koch responds to Bloomberg". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on October 6, 2011. Retrieved October 5, 2011.
  44. ^ Heck, Josh (September 1, 2010). "Wichita's Koch Industries approved for federal early retiree program". American City Business Journals. Archived from the original on January 5, 2016.
  45. ^ Turner, Nick; Moritz, Scott (September 9, 2013). "Molex Will Be Acquired by Koch Industries for $7.2 Billion". Bloomberg L.P. Archived from the original on April 1, 2016.
  46. ^ "Acquisition of Flint Group by Goldman Sachs Merchant Banking Division and Koch Industries Subsidiary Is Complete". Flint Group. September 5, 2014. Archived from the original on March 2, 2018.
  47. ^ "Koch, Goldman agree to buy ink maker Flint in $3 billion deal". Reuters. April 10, 2014. Archived from the original on March 2, 2018.
  48. ^ Sullivan, Sean (June 6, 2014). "Koch brothers donate $25 million to United Negro College Fund". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on March 2, 2018.
  49. ^ Mock, Brentin (June 20, 2014). "Why are the Kochs giving $25 million to poor black college students?". Grist. Archived from the original on March 3, 2018.
  50. ^ "UNCF Celebrates Three-Year Partnership Helping Students Get to and Through College With the UNCF/Koch Scholars Program". United Negro College Fund. September 8, 2016. Archived from the original on March 2, 2018.
  51. ^ "Koch Industries completes purchase of Oplink Communications". Kansas City Star. Associated Press. December 24, 2014. Archived from the original on March 2, 2018.
  52. ^ Schouten, Fredreka (April 27, 2015). "Koch Industries drops criminal-history question from job applications". USA Today. Archived from the original on March 20, 2016. Retrieved March 31, 2016.
  53. ^ McCoy, Daniel (November 11, 2015). "Koch Industries to boost support for military employees". American City Business Journals.
  54. ^ "Koch Industries on the Forbes America's Best Employers By State List". Forbes. Retrieved November 5, 2019.
  55. ^ "America's Best Employers By State 2021". Forbes. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
  56. ^ Hensel, Anna (March 8, 2018). "What Koch Disruptive Technologies is looking for in its investments". VentureBeat.
  57. ^ JONES, JEFFREY (August 14, 2019). "Koch Industries sells its oil-sands properties to Paramount". The Globe and Mail.
  58. ^ Morgan, Geoffrey (August 14, 2019). "Billionaire Koch brothers dump Canada's oilsands leases as foreign exodus continues". Financial Post.
  59. ^ Mangan, Dan (December 9, 2021). "Fox News mogul Rupert Murdoch and wife buy Koch family's $200 million Montana ranch". CNBC.
  60. ^ "LONE STAR LAND STEWARD Ecoregion Award Winners". Texas. Archived from the original on March 2, 2018.
  61. ^ HENDERSON, GREG (December 2, 2020). "Koch Lists 10,000-Acre Flint Hills Ranch". Drovers Magazine.
  62. ^ "Koch Industries Agrees to Acquire All of Infor" (Press release). Infor. February 4, 2020.
  63. ^ Miller, Ron (April 6, 2020). "Koch Industries closes nearly $13B Infor acquisition". TechCrunch.
  64. ^ Fairless, Tom (December 10, 2014). "New Leak Shows Scope of Luxembourg Corporate-Tax Deals". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on March 2, 2018.(subscription required)
  65. ^ a b "Flint Hills Resources: What We Do". Flint Hills Resources.
  66. ^ Dembicki, Geoff (March 22, 2011). "The Kochs: Oil Sands Billionaires Bankrolling US Right". The Tyee. Archived from the original on March 26, 2011.
  67. ^ Wiggins, Phillip H. (September 25, 1981). "SUN TO SELL A REFINERY TO KOCH". The New York Times.
  68. ^ "KOCH TO BUY KERR-MCGEE'S TEXAS REFINERY". Oil & Gas Journal. June 19, 1995.
  69. ^ "Flint Hills Resources Completes Purchase of PetroLogistics" (Press release). Business Wire. July 16, 2014. Archived from the original on February 24, 2018.
  70. ^ Wilson, Bill (July 16, 2014). "Koch unit completes $2.1B purchase of PetroLogistics". American City Business Journals. Archived from the original on July 20, 2014.
  71. ^ "Koch Pipeline". Koch Industries. Archived from the original on October 18, 2017.
  72. ^ "KOCH ACQUIRES 9,271 MILE UNITED GAS PIPE LINE". Oil & Gas Journal. November 16, 1992.
  73. ^ "Koch Buys Gas Pipeline". The New York Times. November 10, 1992.
  74. ^ "Georgia-Pacific LLC". LEI Reference Data. Retrieved December 13, 2021.
  75. ^ "Georgia-Pacific Locations". Gp.com. Archived from the original on September 24, 2013. Retrieved January 19, 2016.
  76. ^ "One World". The Guardian. Archived from the original on August 25, 2017. Retrieved August 24, 2017.
  77. ^ "Koch Industries to Combine Invista With KoSa". Independent Commodity Intelligence Services. November 24, 2019. Retrieved November 25, 2019.
  78. ^ "Koch completes takeover of KoSa". Rubber & Plastics news. November 14, 2001. Retrieved November 25, 2019.
  79. ^ Koch Industries. "Koch Ag & Energy Solutions". Archived from the original on March 25, 2016. Retrieved March 30, 2016.
  80. ^ a b c Koch, Charles G. (2015). Good Profit: How Creating Value for Others Built One of the World's Most Successful Companies. Crown Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1101904145. Retrieved March 30, 2016.
  81. ^ "Koch Fertilizer, LLC". Kochfertilizer.com. Archived from the original on January 11, 2016. Retrieved January 19, 2016.
  82. ^ Levine, Yasha (September 1, 2010). "7 Ways the Koch Bros. Benefit from Corporate Welfare". New York Observer. Archived from the original on December 31, 2014.
  83. ^ "Fertilizers". Archived from the original on December 5, 2010. Retrieved December 16, 2010.
  84. ^ "Koch Industries says no word on Venezuela takeover". Reuters. October 11, 2010. Archived from the original on February 24, 2018.
  85. ^ "Koch Fertilizer Announces New Holding Company". www.kochagenergy.com. Archived from the original on October 11, 2015. Retrieved September 7, 2015.
  86. ^ Koch Industries. "Koch Chemical Technology Group Ltd". Archived from the original on March 25, 2016. Retrieved March 30, 2016.
  87. ^ Bloomberg L.P. "Company Overview of Koch Chemical Technology Group, LLC". Archived from the original on April 11, 2016. Retrieved March 30, 2016.
  88. ^ "Koch-Glitsch | Mass transfer and mist elimination equipment design and manufacture". www.koch-glitsch.com. Archived from the original on July 26, 2016. Retrieved July 19, 2016.
  89. ^ "Pages - eta-process-plant". www.koch-glitsch.com. Archived from the original on July 10, 2016. Retrieved July 19, 2016.
  90. ^ "Koch Modular Process Systems: Chemical Engineering Experts | KMPS". Koch Modular Process Systems. Archived from the original on July 12, 2016. Retrieved July 19, 2016.
  91. ^ Koch Industries. "Koch Minerals". Archived from the original on March 25, 2016. Retrieved March 30, 2016.
  92. ^ Koch Supply & Trading Mexico, Supported by Vopak, Brings First Imports of Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel to Mexican Market; Businesswire; [4]
  93. ^ Koch Supply & Trading is seeking $30 million it says it lost due to the program's cancellation in Ontario in 2018; Wichita Business Journal; [5]
  94. ^ "Molex". Molex.
  95. ^ "Koch Pipeline – Gum Hollow Oil Spill" (PDF). FWS.gov. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 6, 2017. Retrieved May 10, 2017.
  96. ^ a b "The saga of the Koch industries". Jacksonville Journal-Courier. May 1, 2015. Retrieved September 21, 2021.
  97. ^ "Pipeline burns on after killing teens". UPI. Retrieved September 21, 2021.
  98. ^ "2 Texas teens killed when truck ignites gas". SouthCoastToday.com. The Associated Press. Archived from the original on September 21, 2021. Retrieved September 21, 2021.
  99. ^ NTSB (November 6, 1998). "Pipeline Accident Summary Report" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on January 29, 2016. Retrieved March 8, 2013.
  100. ^ "Koch Petroleum Group Sentenced for Minnesota Pollution" (Press release). Environmental Protection Agency. March 9, 2000. Archived from the original on May 21, 2010. Retrieved June 14, 2010.
  101. ^ Singer, Merrill (October 3, 2018). Climate Change and Social Inequality: The Health and Social Costs of Global Warming. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-351-59481-3 – via Google Books.
  102. ^ Leonard, Christopher (October 6, 2020). Kochland: The Secret History of Koch Industries and Corporate Power in America. Simon and Schuster. p. 189. ISBN 978-1-4767-7539-5 – via Google Books.
  103. ^ a b "Koch Agrees to $35 Million Settlement in Two Environmental Cases". Safety Online. January 17, 2000. Archived from the original on July 15, 2011.
  104. ^ Vandewater, Bob (April 18, 1995). "3 Agencies File Suit Against Koch Government Claims 300 Oil Spills Occurred". The Oklahoman. Archived from the original on August 27, 2014. Retrieved June 30, 2015.
  105. ^ EPA. "Koch Industries, Inc. Oil Spills Settlement". Archived from the original on April 13, 2013.
  106. ^ "Koch Pipeline Company L.P. - Newsroom". Kochpipeline.com. January 13, 2000. Archived from the original on July 13, 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-23.
  107. ^ Ralph K.M. Haurwitz and Jeff Nesmith (July 23, 2001). "Austin news, sports, weather, Longhorns, business". Statesman.com. Archived from the original on November 1, 2010. Retrieved July 23, 2011.
  108. ^ ENRD. "Koch Industries Indicted for Environmental Crimes at Refinery". Archived from the original on August 27, 2014.
  109. ^ "U.S. Indicts Koch Industries on Pollution Violations in Texas". The New York Times. September 29, 2000. Archived from the original on February 5, 2017.
  110. ^ Koch Industries. "Long-settled Issues" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 1, 2015. Retrieved July 1, 2015.
  111. ^ "Koch Pleads Guilty to Covering up Environmental Violations at Texas Oil Refinery". justice.gov. U.S. Department of Justice. April 9, 2001. Archived from the original on December 1, 2009. Retrieved May 30, 2010.
  112. ^ Koch Petroleum Fined $20 Million in Pollution Case Archived June 18, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times, April 10, 2001.
  113. ^ Don Richards (January 22, 2001). "DOJ Reduces Indictments Against Koch Industries". ICIS.
  114. ^ "Koch Petroleum Group, L.P. Refinery Settlement". www.epa.gov. May 9, 2013. Archived from the original on May 5, 2017.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  115. ^ Bureau of Industry and Security. "Commerce Department Fines Kansas Firm for Unlicensed Petroleum Exports". Archived from the original on June 21, 2013.
  116. ^ Goldstein, Gary (December 7, 2017). "'Company Town' takes aim at factory owners in Arkansas". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 9, 2018.
  117. ^ a b Former owner of North Pole refinery ordered to pay over $29 million in water pollution case, Anchorage Daily News, Dan Joling (Associated Press), January 4, 2020. Retrieved January 8, 2020.
  118. ^ "12/13/2006: EPA fines Flint Hills Resources Alaska, LLC nearly $16,000 for Clean Air Act violations". Yosemite.epa.gov. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved January 19, 2016.
  119. ^ The Guardian, 22 Jan. 2024 "Families Condemn Koch Brothers over Ploy to Avoid Asbestos Compensation: Georgia-Pacific, Owned by Koch Industries, Employ Controversial Legal Tactic to Circumvent Paying Millions to Sickened Workers"
  120. ^ "Bloomberg's Exposé on Koch Industries Reveals ... What Exactly?". The Atlantic. October 4, 2011. Archived from the original on January 5, 2016. Retrieved January 19, 2016.
  121. ^ McCoy, Daniel (November 24, 2015). "Koch wins conservation education award". Wichita Business Journal. Archived from the original on January 15, 2017. Retrieved March 29, 2016.
  122. ^ Hoover's 500: Profiles of America's Largest Business Enterprises. Hoover's Business Press. 1996. p. 286. ISBN 978-1-57311-009-9. In 1929 Koch took his process to the Soviet Union, but he grew disenchanted with Stalinism and returned home to become a founding member of the anti-communist John Birch Society.
  123. ^ "Koch Industries: Summary". OpenSecrets. Archived from the original on January 8, 2016. Retrieved January 19, 2016.
  124. ^ Vidal, John (March 30, 2010). "US oil company donated millions to climate skeptic groups, says Greenpeace". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on December 1, 2016.
  125. ^ "Secretly Funding the Climate Denial Machine". Global Warming. Washington: Greenpeace. March 29, 2010. Archived from the original on April 1, 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-01.
  126. ^ Ball, David P. (April 27, 2012). "Fraser Institute co-founder confirms 'years and years' of U.S. oil billionaires' funding". Vancouver Observer. Archived from the original on February 23, 2018.
  127. ^ Zernike, Kate (October 19, 2010). "Secretive Republican Donors Are Planning Ahead". New York Times. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved March 19, 2015.
  128. ^ Wayne, Leslie (November 20, 1994). "Pulling the Wraps Off Koch Industries". New York Times. Archived from the original on April 26, 2017. Their donations reflect their belief in libertarian and free market philosophies or their personal interests.
  129. ^ Dembicki, Geoff (March 22, 2011). "The Kochs: Oil Sands Billionaires Bankrolling US Right". The Tyee. Vancouver, B.C. Archived from the original on March 26, 2011. Retrieved August 21, 2011.
  130. ^ Koch. "Low Carbon Fuel Standards". Archived from the original on October 8, 2011.
  131. ^ Koch, Charles (March 1, 2011). "Why Koch Industries Is Speaking Out". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on September 9, 2015.
  132. ^ Corey, Jamie (January 7, 2021). "Republican Attorneys General Dark Money Group Organized Protest Preceding Capitol Attack". Documented. Retrieved January 11, 2021.

Further reading


37°45′04″N 97°17′15″W / 37.7511°N 97.2874°W / 37.7511; -97.2874