Social liberalism (also known as modern liberalism or egalitarian liberalism) is a political ideology and a variety of liberalism that endorses a market economy and the expansion of civil and political rights while also believing that the legitimate role of the government includes addressing economic and social issues such as poverty, health care and education.
Under social liberalism, the good of the community is viewed as harmonious with the freedom of the individual. Social liberal policies have been widely adopted in much of the capitalist world, particularly following World War II. Social liberal ideas and parties tend to be considered centrist or centre-left. Social liberals see themselves as occupying the middle ground between social democrats and classical liberals.
The term "social liberalism" is used to differentiate it from classical liberalism, which dominated political and economic thought for a number of years until social liberalism branched off from it around the Great Depression. In American political usage, the term "social liberalism" describes progressive stances on socio-political issues like abortion, same-sex marriage or gun control as opposed to "social conservatism". A social liberal in this sense may hold either more interventionist, "liberal" or "conservative" views on fiscal policy.
By the end of the 19th century, the principles of classical liberalism were challenged by downturns in economic growth, a growing awareness of poverty and unemployment present within modern industrial cities and also by the agitation of organized labour. A major political reaction against the changes introduced by industrialisation and laissez-faire capitalism came from conservatives concerned about social balance, although socialism later became a more important force for change and reform. Some Victorian writers—including Charles Dickens, Thomas Carlyle and Matthew Arnold—became early influential critics of social injustice.
John Stuart Mill contributed enormously to liberal thought by combining elements of classical liberalism with what eventually became known as the new liberalism. The new liberals tried to adapt the old language of liberalism to confront these difficult circumstances, which they believed could only be resolved through a broader and more interventionist conception of the state. An equal right to liberty could not be established merely by ensuring that individuals did not physically interfere with each other or merely by having laws that were impartially formulated and applied, as more positive and proactive measures were required to ensure that every individual would have an equal opportunity of success.
In the late 19th century and early 20th century, a group of British thinkers known as the New Liberals made a case against laissez-faire classical liberalism and argued in favor of state intervention in social, economic and cultural life. What they proposed is now called social liberalism. The New Liberals, which included intellectuals like Thomas Hill Green, Leonard Hobhouse and John A. Hobson, saw individual liberty as something achievable only under favorable social and economic circumstances. In their view, the poverty, squalor and ignorance in which many people lived made it impossible for freedom and individuality to flourish. New Liberals believed that these conditions could be ameliorated only through collective action coordinated by a strong, welfare-oriented and interventionist state.
The Liberal governments of Henry Campbell-Bannerman and H. H. Asquith, especially thanks to Chancellor of the Exchequer and later Prime Minister David Lloyd George, established the foundations of the welfare state in the United Kingdom before the First World War. The comprehensive welfare state built in the United Kingdom after the Second World War, although largely accomplished by the Labour Party, was significantly designed by two Liberals, namely John Maynard Keynes (who laid the economic foundations) and William Beveridge (who designed the welfare system).
Historian Peter Weiler has argued:
Although still partially informed by older Liberal concerns for character, self-reliance, and the capitalist market, this legislation nevertheless, marked a significant shift in Liberal approaches to the state and social reform, approaches that later governments would slowly expand and that would grow into the welfare state after the Second World War. What was new in these reforms was the underlying assumption that the state could be a positive force, that the measure of individual freedom... was not how much the state left people alone, but whether he gave them the capacity to fill themselves as individuals.
In 1860s Germany, "left-liberal" politicians like Max Hirsch, Franz Duncker and Hermann Schulze-Delitzsch established trade unions—modeled on their British counterparts—in order to help workers improve working and economic conditions by means of reconciliation of interests and cooperation with their employers rather than class struggle. Schulze-Delitzsch is also known as the founding father of the German cooperative movement and is credited as the organiser of the world's first credit unions. Some liberal economists, such as Lujo Brentano or Gerhart von Schulze-Gävernitz, established the Verein für Socialpolitik ("Social Policy Association") in 1873 to promote social reform based on the historical school of economics (and therefore rejecting classical economics), proposing a third way between Manchester Liberalism and socialist revolution.
However, their ideas found relatively few supporters among the liberal politicians. The main objectives of the "left-liberal" parties—the German Progress Party and its successors—were free speech, freedom of assembly, representative government, equal and secret suffrage, free trade and protection of private property while they were strongly opposed to the creation of a welfare state, which they called "state socialism".
One of the first German authors to propose the term and concept of "social liberalism" (Sozialliberalismus) was the historian and economist Ignaz Jastrow. He published the manifesto "Social-liberal": Tasks for Liberalism in Prussia" ("Sozialliberal": die Aufgaben des Liberalismus in Preußen) in 1893. Jastrow, who was a member of the Verein für Socialpolitik, and his supporters tried to found a social-liberal party, aimed at bringing together liberals who supported social reform and the reformist/revisionist wing of the Social Democrats, which should be a "workers' reform party" and "action group for people's right and people's welfare" (Waffenbund für Volksrecht und Volkswohlfahrt). However, this project was rejected by Social Democrats and failed.
A similar project was the National-Social Association founded and led by the Protestant pastor Friedrich Naumann, who maintained close contacts with Brentano and Schulze-Gävernitz as well as Max Weber who supported the party that was influenced by his political theories. It tried to draw workers away from Marxism by proposing a mix of social liberalism, nationalism, a non-Marxist variant of "socialism" and Protestant Christian values to overcome class antagonisms by non-revolutionary means. Naumann called this a "proletarian-bourgeois integral liberalism". Among other things, the new group advocated increased social welfare legislation, the right to strike and profit-sharing in industry. Although the party was unable to win any seats and soon dissolved, the theories it developed would remain influential in German liberalism.
In France, social liberal theory was developed in the Third Republic by solidarist thinkers, including Alfred Fouillée and Émile Durkheim, who were inspired by sociology and influenced radical politicians like Léon Bourgeois. They explained that a greater division of labor caused greater opportunity and individualism, but it also inspired a more complex interdependence. They argued that the individual had a debt to society, promoting progressive taxation to support public works and welfare schemes. However, they wanted the state to coordinate rather than to manage and they encouraged cooperative insurance schemes among individuals. Their main objective was to remove barriers to social mobility rather than create a welfare state.
In the 1870s and the 1880s, the American economists Richard Ely, John Bates Clark and Henry Carter Adams—influenced both by socialism and the Evangelical Protestant movement—castigated the conditions caused by industrial factories and expressed sympathy towards labor unions. However, none developed a systematic political philosophy and they later abandoned their flirtations with socialist thinking. In 1883, Lester Frank Ward published the two-volume Dynamic Sociology and formalized the basic tenets of social liberalism while at the same time attacking the laissez-faire policies advocated by Herbert Spencer and William Graham Sumner. The historian Henry Steele Commager ranked Ward alongside William James, John Dewey and Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. and called him the father of the modern welfare state. Writing from 1884 until the 1930s, John Dewey—an educator influenced by Hobhouse, Green and Ward—advocated socialist methods to achieve liberal goals. Some social liberal ideas were later incorporated into the New Deal, which developed as a response to the Great Depression, when Franklin Delano Roosevelt came into office.
The welfare state grew gradually and unevenly from the late 19th century, but became fully developed following the World War II along with the mixed market economy. Also called "embedded liberalism", social liberal policies gained broad support across the political spectrum, because they reduced the disruptive and polarizing tendencies in society, without challenging the capitalist economic system. Business accepted social liberalism in the face of widespread dissatisfaction with the boom and bust cycle of the earlier economic system as it seemed to them to be a lesser evil than more left-wing modes of government. Social liberalism was characterized by cooperation between big business, government and labor unions. Government was able to assume a strong role because its power had been strengthened by the wartime economy, but the extent to which this occurred varied considerably among Western democracies.
The first notable implementation of social liberal policies occurred under the Liberal Party in Britain from 1906 until 1914. These initiatives became known as the Liberal welfare reforms. The main elements included pensions for poor elderly people, health, sickness and unemployment insurance based on earlier programs in Germany and the establishment of labour exchanges. These changes were accompanied by progressive taxation, particularly in the People's Budget of 1909. The old system of charity—relying on the Poor laws and supplemented by private charity, public co-operatives and private insurance companies—was in crisis, giving the state added impetus for reform. The Liberal Party caucus elected in 1906 also contained more professionals, including academics and journalists, sympathetic to social liberalism. The large business owners had mostly deserted the Liberals for the Conservatives, the latter becoming the favorite party for commercial interests. The reforms were regularly opposed by both business interests and trade unions. Liberals most identified with these reforms were Prime Minister H. H. Asquith, John Maynard Keynes, David Lloyd George (especially as Chancellor of the Exchequer) and Winston Churchill (as President of the Board of Trade) in addition to the civil servant William Beveridge.
Most of the social democratic parties in Europe (notably including the British Labour Party) have taken on strong influences of social liberal ideology. Despite Britain's two major parties coming from the traditions of socialism and conservatism, most substantive political and economic debates of recent times were between social liberal and classical liberal concepts.
Alexander Rüstow, a German economist, first proposed the German variant of economic social liberalism. In 1932, he applied the label "neoliberalism" to this kind of social liberalism while speaking at the Social Policy Association, although that term now carries a meaning different from the one proposed by Rüstow. Rüstow wanted an alternative to socialism and to the classical liberal economics developed in the German Empire. In 1938, Rüstow met with a variety of economic thinkers—including the likes of Ludwig von Mises, Friedrich von Hayek and William Roepke—to determine how liberalism could be renewed. Rüstow advocated a strong state to enforce free markets and state intervention to correct market failures. However, Mises argued that monopolies and cartels operated because of state intervention and protectionism and claimed that the only legitimate role for the state was to abolish barriers to market entry. He viewed Rüstow's proposals as negating market freedom and saw them as similar to socialism.
Following the Second World War, Rüstow's "neoliberalism", now usually called ordoliberalism or the social market economy, was adopted by the West German government under Ludwig Erhard, who was the Minister of Economics and later became Chancellor. Price controls were lifted and free markets were introduced. While these policies are credited with Germany's post-war economic recovery, the welfare state—which had been established under Bismarck—became increasingly costly.
Rest of EuropeEdit
The post-war governments of other countries in Western Europe also followed social liberal policies. These policies were implemented primarily by Christian democrats and social democrats as liberal parties in Europe declined in strength from their peak in the 19th century.
American political discourse resisted this social turn in European liberalism. While the economic policies of the New Deal appeared Keynesian, there was no revision of liberal theory in favor of greater state initiative. Even though the United States lacked an effective socialist movement, New Deal policies often appeared radical and were attacked by the right. The separate development of modern liberalism in the United States is often attributed to American exceptionalism, which kept mainstream American ideology within a narrow range.
John Rawls' principal work A Theory of Justice (1971) can be considered a flagship exposition of social liberal thinking, advocating the combination of individual freedom and a fairer distribution of resources. According to Rawls, every individual should be allowed to choose and pursue his or her own conception of what is desirable in life, while a socially just distribution of goods must be maintained. Rawls argued that differences in material wealth are tolerable if general economic growth and wealth also benefit the poorest. A Theory of Justice countered utilitarian thinking in the tradition of Jeremy Bentham, instead following the Kantian concept of a social contract, picturing society as a mutual agreement between rational citizens, producing rights and duties as well as establishing and defining roles and tasks of the state. Rawls put the "equal liberty principle" in the first place, providing every person with equal access to the same set of fundamental liberties, followed by the "fair equality of opportunity" and "difference principle", thus allowing social and economic inequalities under the precondition that privileged positions are accessible to everyone, that everyone has equal opportunities and that even the least advantaged members of society benefit from this framework. This was later restated in the equation of Justice as Fairness. Rawls proposed these principles not just to adherents of liberalism, but as a basis for all democratic politics, regardless of ideology. The work advanced social liberal ideas immensely within 1970s' political and philosophic academia. Rawls may therefore be seen as a "patron saint" of social liberalism.
Following economic problems in the 1970s, liberal thought underwent some transformation. Keynesian economic management was seen as interfering with the free market, while increased welfare spending that had been funded by higher taxes prompted fears of lower investment, lower consumer spending and the creation of a "dependency culture". Trade unions often caused high wages and industrial disruption, while full employment was regarded as unsustainable. Writers such as Milton Friedman and Samuel Brittan, who were influenced by Friedrich Hayek, advocated a reversal of social liberalism. Their policies, which are often called neoliberalism, had a significant influence on Western politics, most notably on the governments of United Kingdom Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and United States President Ronald Reagan, who pursued policies of deregulation of the economy and reduction in spending on social services.
Part of the reason for the collapse of the social liberal coalition was a challenge in the 1970s from financial interests that could operate independently of national governments. Another cause was the decline of organized labor which had formed part of the coalition, but was also a support for left-wing ideologies challenging the liberal consensus. Related to this was the decline of working class consciousness and the growth of the middle class. The push by the United States, which had been least accepting of social liberalism, for trade liberalization further eroded support.
Social liberal parties and organisations worldwideEdit
In Europe, social liberal parties tend to be small or medium-sized centrist and centre-left parties. Examples of successful European social liberal parties, which have participated in government coalitions at national or regional levels, are the Liberal Democrats in the United Kingdom, Democrats 66 in the Netherlands and the Danish Social Liberal Party. In continental European politics, social liberal parties are integrated in the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE) group in the European Parliament, which is the fourth biggest group at the parliament and includes both social liberal parties and market liberal parties.
Giving an exhaustive list of social liberal parties worldwide is difficult, largely because political organisations are not always ideologically pure. Party ideologies often change over time. However, the following parties and organisations are usually accepted by peers[nb 1] or scholars as following social liberalism as a core ideology.
- Åland: Liberals for Åland
- Australia: Australian Labor Party
- Bahamas: Progressive Liberal Party
- Bosnia and Herzegovina: Our Party
- Canada: Liberal Party of Canada
- Croatia: Croatian People's Party – Liberal Democrats, Istrian Democratic Assembly
- Czech Republic: Czech Pirate Party, Party for the Open Society
- Denmark: Danish Social Liberal Party
- Egypt: Constitution Party
- Estonia: Estonian Centre Party
- Finland: Swedish People's Party
- France: La République En Marche!, Radical Movement
- Germany: Liberal Democrats
- Greece: The River
- Hungary: Democratic Coalition, Hungarian Liberal Party
- Iceland: Bright Future
- India: Indian National Congress
- Israel: Hatnuah, Yesh Atid, Kulanu
- Italy: Democratic Party
- Kosovo: Democratic Party of Kosovo
- Lithuania: Labour Party
- Malta: Democratic Party
- Malaysia: People's Justice Party
- Montenegro: Positive Montenegro
- Morocco: Citizens' Forces
- Myanmar (Burma): National Democratic Force
- Netherlands: Democrats 66
- New Zealand: New Zealand Labour Party
- Norway: Liberal Party
- Peru: Possible Peru
- Russia: Russian Democratic Party "Yabloko"
- Serbia: Enough is Enough
- Slovakia: Progressive Slovakia
- Slovenia: Modern Centre Party
- South Korea: Democratic Party of Korea
- Spain: Union, Progress and Democracy
- Sweden: Liberals
- Taiwan: Democratic Progressive Party, New Power Party
- Trinidad and Tobago: People's National Movement
- United Kingdom: Liberal Democrats
- United States: Democratic Party
- Andorra: Democratic Renewal
- Australia: Australian Democrats
- Belgium: Spirit, Vivant
- France: Radical Party of the Left
- Germany: German Democratic Party
- Hungary: Alliance of Free Democrats
- Iceland: Liberal Party, Union of Liberals and Leftists
- Italy: Action Party, Democratic Alliance
- Japan: Democratic Party of Japan
- Latvia: Society for Political Change
- Lithuania: New Union (Social Liberals)
- Luxembourg: Radical Socialist Party
- Moldova: Our Moldova Alliance
- Netherlands: Free-thinking Democratic League
- Norway: Liberal People's Party
- Poland: Democratic Party – demokraci.pl
- Slovenia: Liberal Democracy of Slovenia, Zares
- South Korea: People’s Party for Reform, Uri Party, Participation Party
- Switzerland: Ring of Independents
- United Kingdom: Liberal Party, Social Democratic Party
This list presents some notable scholars and politicians who are generally considered as having made significant contributions to the evolution of social liberalism as a political ideology. Ordered by date of birth
- Jeremy Bentham (1748–1832)
- John Stuart Mill (1806–1873)
- Thomas Hill Green (1836–1882)
- Lester Frank Ward (1841–1913)
- Lujo Brentano (1844–1931)
- Bernard Bosanquet (1848–1923)
- Woodrow Wilson (1856–1924)
- Émile Durkheim (1858–1917)
- John Atkinson Hobson (1858–1940)
- John Dewey (1859–1952)
- Friedrich Naumann (1860–1919)
- Gerhart von Schulze-Gävernitz (1864–1943)
- Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse (1864–1929)
- William Beveridge (1879–1963)
- Hans Kelsen (1881–1973)
- John Maynard Keynes (1883–1946)
- Lester B. Pearson (1897–1972)
- Bertil Ohlin (1899–1979)
- Piero Gobetti (1901–1926)
- Karl Popper (1902–1994)
- Guido Calogero (1904–1986)
- Isaiah Berlin (1909–1997)
- Norberto Bobbio (1909–2004)
- Miguel Reale (1910–2005)
- John Rawls (1921–2002)
- Don Chipp (1925–2006)
- Karl-Hermann Flach (1929–1973)
- Vlado Gotovac (1930–2000)
- Richard Rorty (1931–2007)
- Ronald Dworkin (1931–2013)
- Amartya Sen (born 1933)
- José G. Merquior (1941–1991)
- Bruce Ackerman (born 1943)
- Martha Nussbaum (born 1947)
- Paul Krugman (born 1953)
- Dirk Verhofstadt (born 1955)
- Donald E. Pease, Robyn Wiegman (eds.), The Futures of American Studies, Duke University Press, 2002, p. 518.
- John Kekes, Against Liberalism, Cornell University Press, 1997, p. 13.
- Rohr, Donald G. (September 1964). "The Origins of Social Liberalism in Germany". The Journal of Economic History. 24 (03).
- Gaus, Gerald & Courtland, Shane D. (Spring 2011). "The 'New Liberalism'". The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
- John Derbyshire (12 July 2010). "The origins of social liberalism". New Statesman.
- The history of European liberalism (1959), Guido De Ruggiero, pp. 155–157
- Fauks, Keith. Political Sociology: A Critical Introduction. Edinburgh University Press, 1999, page 73
- Adams, Ian (2001). Political Ideology Today (Politics Today). Manchester: Manchester University Press. ISBN 0719060206.
- Slomp, Hans (2000). European Politics Into the Twenty-First Century: Integration and Division. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0275968146.
- Ortiz, Cansino; Gellner, Ernest; Geliner, E.; Merquior, José Guilherme; Emil, César Cansino (1996). Liberalism in Modern Times: Essays in Honour of Jose G. Merquior. Budapest: Central European University Press. 185866053X.
- Hombach, Bodo (2000). The politics of the new centre. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 9780745624600.
- Richard E. Matland; Kathleen A. Montgomery (2003). Women's access to political power in post-communist Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-924685-4.
- Marks, Gary & Wilson, Carole (July 2000). "The Past in the Present: A Cleavage Theory of Party Response to European Integration" (PDF). British Journal of Political Science. 30: 433–459. doi:10.1017/S0007123400000181. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 June 2008.
- Richardson, James L. (2001). Contending Liberalisms in World Politics: Ideology and Power. Colorado: Lynne Rienner Publishers. 155587939X.
- Chideya, Farai (2004). The Red and the Blue: A Divided America. Trust: Reaching the 100 Million Missing Voters and Other Selected Essays. Soft Skull. p. 34.
- Richardson, pp. 36–37
- Eatwell, Roger; Wright, Anthony (1999). Contemporary political ideologies. Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 9780826451736.
- Michael Freeden, The New Liberalism: An Ideology of Social Reform (Oxford UP, 1978).
- The Routledge encyclopaedia of philosophy, p.599
- Peter Weiler, "New Liberalism" in Fred M. Leventhal, ed., Twentieth-century Britain: an encyclopedia (Garland, 1995) pp 564-65.
- Peter Weiler, The New Liberalism: Liberal Social Theory in Great Britain, 1889-1914 (2016) excerpt
- Inho Na (2003). Sozialreform oder Revolution: Gesellschaftspolitische Zukunftsvorstellungen im Naumann-Kreis 1890–1903/04. Tectum Verlag. p. 27.
- Derman, Joshua (2012), Max Weber in Politics and Social Thought: From Charisma to Canonization, Cambridge University Press, p. 25
- Mommsen, Hans (1996). The Rise and Fall of Weimar Democracy. University of North Carolina Press. p. 58. ISBN 0-8078-2249-3.
- Kurlander, Eric (2006). The Price of Exclusion: Ethnicity, National Identity, and the Decline of German Liberalism, 1898–1933. Berghahn Books. p. 197. ISBN 1-8454-5069-8.
- Van De Grift, Liesbeth (2012). Securing the Communist State: The Reconstruction of Coercive Institutions in the Soviet Zone of Germany and Romania, 1944-48. Lexington Books. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-7391-7178-3.
- Contemporary political ideologies (1999) Roger Eatwell, Anthony Wright, pp. 35–36
- Commager, Henry Steele, ed.; Lester Ward and the Welfare State. New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1967
- Richardson, pp. 38–41
- Richardson, pp. 137-138
- Feuchtwanger, pp. 273-317
- Andrew Vincent (2010). Modern Political Ideologies (Third ed.). John Wiley & Sons. p. 54.
- Oliver Marc Hartwich: Neoliberalism: The Genesis of a Political Swearword
- Adams, p. 32
- Contending liberalisms in world politics: ideology and power (2001), James L. Richardson, pp. 38–41
- gary Browning (2000). Contemporary liberalism. Understanding Contemporary Society: Theories of the Present. Sage. pp. 154–155.
- Edwin van de Haar (2015). Degrees of Freedom: Liberal Political Philosophy and Ideology. Transaction.
- Fauks, Keith. Political Sociology: A Critical Introduction. Edinburgh University Press, 1999, pages 71–75
- Richardson, pp. 138-139
- Kirchner, Emil (2000). Liberal parties in Western Europe. Cambridge University Press. pp. 356–7. ISBN 9780521323949.
- "ALDE National Delegations". ALDE Group in the European Parliament. 2010. Archived from the original on 3 February 2010. Retrieved 17 February 2010.
- Jingjing Huo (2009). Third Way Reforms: Social Democracy After the Golden Age. Cambridge University Press. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-521-51843-7.
- Judith Brett (1994). "Ideology". In Judith Brett; James A. Gillespie; Murray Goot. Developments in Australian Politics. Macmillan Education AU. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-7329-2009-8.
- Gwenda Tavan (2005). The Long, Slow Death of White Australia. Scribe Publications. p. 193.
- Sejfija, Ismet (2013), "Analysis of Interviews with Representatives of Political Parties in Bosnia-Herzegovina" (PDF), Dealing with the Past in the Western Balkans. Initiatives for Peacebuilding and Transitional Justice in Bosnia- Herzegovina, Serbia and Croatia, Berghahn Foundation, p. 92
- The party became infused with social liberalism in the 1940s and 1950s. Law Commission of Canada (2011). Law and Citizenship. UBC Press. p. 6.
- Prentice, Susan (2004). "Manitoba's childcare regime: Social liberalism in flux". Canadian Journal of Sociology. 29 (2): 193–207. doi:10.1353/cjs.2004.0029.
- Prince, Michael J. (2012). "Canadian disability activism and political ideas: In and between neo-liberalism and social liberalism". Canadian Journal of Disability Studies. 1 (1): 1–34. doi:10.15353/cjds.v1i1.16.
- Miriam Smith says, "The Liberal Party of Canada, the party that championed the Charter, is strongly identified with the document and uses the social liberalism of the Charter as a distinctive badge of party identification. " Smith, Miriam (2005). "Social movements and judicial empowerment: Courts, public policy, and lesbian and gay organizing in Canada". Politics & Society. 33 (2): 327–353. doi:10.1177/0032329205275193.
- Nordsieck, Wolfram. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Retrieved 2015-11-07.
- Croatia Elections 2015: Overview of the Parties - IDS and HDSSB
- Formerly "Civic Movement". Vít Hloušek; Lubomír Kopeček (2010), Origin, Ideology and Transformation of Political Parties: East-Central and Western Europe Compared, Ashgate, p. 117
- Steven Saxonberg (2003), "The Czech road towards a consolidated democracy", The Road to the European Union, Manchester University Press, 1, p. 71
- Marks, Gary & Wilson, Carole (July 2000). "The Past in the Present: A Cleavage Theory of Party Response to European Integration" (PDF). British Journal of Political Science. 30 (3): 433–459. doi:10.1017/S0007123400000181. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 June 2008.
- J. Kirchner, Emil (1988). Liberal parties in Western Europe. Avon: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-32394-0.
- Nordsieck, Wolfram. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Retrieved 2013-01-25.
- Madsen, Tomas Bech (Autumn 2007). "Radicalis and Liberalis in Denmark" (PDF). Journal of Liberal Democrat History. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 August 2009.
- Almeida, Dimitri. "Liberal Parties and European Integration" (PDF). Retrieved 2008-05-11.
- Elisabeth Bakke (2010). Central and East European party systems since 1989. Central and Southeast European Politics since 1989. Cambridge University Press. p. 79. ISBN 978-1-139-48750-4.
- Vít Hloušek; Lubomír Kopeček (2010). Origin, Ideology and Transformation of Political Parties: East-Central and Western Europe Compared. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 204. ISBN 978-0-7546-7840-3.
- Isabelle Hertner (2018). Centre-left parties and the European Union: Power, accountability and democracy. Manchester University Press. p. 68. ISBN 978-1-5261-2036-6.
- Movement genesis: social movement theory and the 1980s West German peace movement by Steve Breyman As quoted in the text: "The Liberal Democrats (Liberale Demokraten or LD) split from the FDP to create their own social-left liberal alternative."
- Geoffrey Roberts (1997). Party Politics in the New Germany. p. 20. ISBN 9781855673113.
- Hendrik Träger (2015). "Die Europawahl 2014 als second-order election". In Michael Kaeding; Niko Switek. Die Europawahl 2014: Spitzenkandidaten, Protestparteien, Nichtwähler. Springer-Verlag. p. 41. ISBN 978-3-658-05738-1.
- Dutt, Sagarika (2015). India in a Globalized World. Oxford University Press. p. 1.
- De Lucia, Dario (2017). Dal PCI al PD. Imprimatur editore.
Le culture di riferimento dei politici appartenenti al Partito democratico sono: la socialdemocrazia, il cristianesimo sociale e il liberalismo sociale (The reference cultures of politicians belonging to the Democratic Party are: social democracy, social Christianity and social liberalism)
- Vowles, Jack (1997). Political Science. 49-50. p. 98.
- Hans Slomp (2011). Europe, A Political Profile: An American Companion to European Politics: An American Companion to European Politics. ABC-CLIO. p. 425. ISBN 978-0-313-39182-8.
- Oyvind Osterud (2013). Norway in Transition: Transforming a Stable Democracy. Routledge. p. 114. ISBN 978-1-317-97037-8.
- European Forum for Democracy and Solidarity Archived 22 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
- Anatoly Kulik; Susanna Pshizova (2005). Political Parties in Post-Soviet Space: Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, and the Baltics. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-275-97344-5.
- David White (2006). The Russian Democratic Party Yabloko: Opposition in a Managed Democracy. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-7546-4675-4.
- http://thediplomat.com/2015/12/an-identity-crisis-for-south-koreas-opposition/ As stated in the text: "South Korea's main opposition social-liberal party is reeling (again) from intraparty factional struggle. Rebranded earlier this week "the Minjoo Party of Korea" (formerly New Politics Alliance for Democracy), the party is searching for a new identity and direction after high profile and popular assemblyperson Ahn Cheol-soo defected on December 13."
- Wolfram Nordsieck. "SPAIN". Parties and Elections in Europe. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
Unión, Progreso y Democracia (UPD): Social liberalism
- UPyD. Ideology: centralism, social liberalism. Political Position: Centre, European Social Survey
- Caribbean Elections|People's National Movement
- Hans Slomp (2011). Europe, A Political Profile: An American Companion to European Politics: An American Companion to European Politics. ABC-CLIO. p. 343. ISBN 978-0-313-39182-8.
- Alistair Clark (2012). "The Liberal Democrats". Political Parties in the UK. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 89. ISBN 978-0-230-36868-2.
- Grigsby, Ellen (2008). Analyzing Politics: An Introduction to Politics Science. Florence: Cengage Learning. pp. 106–7. ISBN 0495501123.
Its liberalism is for the most part the later version of liberalism—modern liberalism.
- Arnold, N. Scott (2009). Imposing values: an essay on liberalism and regulation. Florence: Oxford University Press. p. 3. ISBN 0495501123.
Modern liberalism occupies the left-of-center in the traditional political spectrum and is represented by the Democratic Party in the United States.
- James Walter (2010). What Were They Thinking?: The Politics of Ideas in Australia (Large Print 16pt). ReadHowYouWant.com. p. 430. ISBN 978-1-4596-0494-0.
- European: Webster's Timeline History 1973–1977. John Wiley & Sons. 2009. p. 207. ISBN 9780546976427.
- Wilhelm Mirow (2016). Strategic Culture, Securitisation and the Use of Force: Post-9/11 Security Practices of Liberal Democracies. Taylor & Francis. p. 189. ISBN 978-1-317-40660-0.
- Bram Wauters; Marco Lisi; Juan-Rodríguez Teruel (2016). "Democratising Party Leadership Selection in Belgium and Israel". In Giulia Sandri; Antonella Seddone; Fulvio Venturino. Party Primaries in Comparative Perspective. Routledge. p. 86. ISBN 978-1-317-08356-6.
- Dimitri Almeida (2012). The Impact of European Integration on Political Parties: Beyond the Permissive Consensus. Routledge. p. 107. ISBN 978-0-415-69374-5.
- Udo Kempf (2007). Das politische System Frankreichs. Springer DE. p. 190. ISBN 978-3-531-32973-4.
- Scott Lash (1987). The End of Organized Capitalism. Univ of Wisconsin Press. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-299-11670-5.
- Liesbeth van de Grift (2012). Securing the Communist State: The Reconstruction of Coercive Institutions in the Soviet Zone of Germany and Romania, 1944-1948. Lexington Books. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-7391-7178-3.
- "Hungary" by Gabor Batonyi
- NSD, European Election Database, Iceland
- Agust Thor Arnason (2006). "The European Union Seen From the Top – the View of an Inside-Outsider". In Joakim Nergelius. Nordic And Other European Constitutional Traditions. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 31. ISBN 90-04-15171-0.
- Paolo Pombeni (2015). "Christian Democracy in power, 1946–63". In Erik Jones; Gianfranco Pasquino. The Oxford Handbook of Italian Politics. Oxford University Press. p. 258. ISBN 978-0-19-966974-5.
- Jörg Seißelberg (1995). "Berlusconis Forza Italia. Wahlerfolg einer Persönlichkeitspartei". In Winfried Steffani; Uwe Thaysen. Demokratie in Europa: Zur Rolle der Parlamente. Springer-Verlag. p. 209. ISBN 978-3-322-93517-5.
- Globalization, democratization and development: European and Japanese views of change in South East Europe edited by Vojmir Franičević and Hiroshi Kimura. As quoted in the text: "Towards the end of the 1990s the social-liberal Minshuto (Democratic Party of Japan, DPJ) consolidated and replaced Shinshinto as a rival of LDP."
- Daniele Caramani (2013). The Europeanization of Politics. Cambridge University Press. p. 310. ISBN 978-1-107-11867-6.
- Dominique Auzias; Jean-Paul Labourdette; Collectif (2012). Vilnius 2012 (avec cartes et avis des lecteurs). Petit Futé. p. 22. ISBN 2-7469-6092-3.
- Marek Jan Chodakiewicz (2012). Intermarium: The Land between the Black and Baltic Seas. Transaction Publishers. p. 331. ISBN 978-1-4128-4786-5.
- Gebhard Moldenhauer (2001). Die Niederlande und Deutschland: einander kennen und verstehen. Waxmann Verlag. p. 113. ISBN 978-3-89325-747-8.
- Vít Hloušek; Lubomír Kopeček (2010). Origin, Ideology and Transformation of Political Parties: East-Central and Western Europe Compared. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 121. ISBN 978-0-7546-7840-3.
- Igor Guardiancich (2012). Pension Reforms in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe: From Post-Socialist Transition to the Global Financial Crisis. Routledge. p. 144. ISBN 978-1-136-22595-6.
- The European Union Encyclopedia and Directory 1999. Psychology Press. 1999. p. 332. ISBN 978-1-85743-056-1.
- Dimitri Almeida (2012). The Impact of European Integration on Political Parties: Beyond the Permissive Consensus. Taylor & Francis. p. 102. ISBN 978-1-136-34039-0.
- Dr Vít Hloušek; Dr Lubomír Kopecek (2013). Origin, Ideology and Transformation of Political Parties: East-Central and Western Europe Compared. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 120. ISBN 978-1-4094-9977-0.
- Lachner, Andreas (2006), "Das Parteiensystem der Schweiz", Die Parteiensysteme Westeuropas, VS Verlag, p. 400
- Stephen Driver (2011). Understanding British Party Politics. Polity. p. 117. ISBN 978-0-7456-4077-8. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
- Ian Adams (1998). Ideology and Politics in Britain Today. Manchester University Press. p. 63. ISBN 978-0-7190-5056-5. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
- Cardoso Rosas, João (2008). "Socialismo ou liberalismo social?". DiarioEconomico.com. Archived from the original on 15 January 2009. Retrieved 2008-05-21.
- Luiz Carlos Bresser-Pereira (2003). Building the Republican State. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199261185.
- Meadowcroft, John (Autumn 2000). "The Origins of Community Politics" (PDF). Journal of Liberal Democrat History. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 August 2009.
- Avital Simhony; David Weinstein (2001). The new liberalism: reconciling liberty and community. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521794046.
- "James Hobson". Archived from the original on 31 March 2008. Retrieved 19 May 2008.
- Merquior, J.G. (1991). Liberalism Old and New. Boston: Twayne Publishers. ISBN 0805786279.
- Seidman, Steven (2004). Contested knowledge: social theory today. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 9780631226710.
- W. Russell, James (2006). Double standard: social policy in Europe and the United States. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9780742546936.
- Thompson, Alastair (2000). Left Liberals, the State, and Popular Politics in Wilhelmine Germany. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198205432.
- F. Biagini, Eugenio (2002). Citizenship and Community: Liberals, Radicals and Collective Identities in the British Isles, 1865–1931. Cambridge: Published by Cambridge University Press. p. 228. ISBN 9780521893602.
- Till van Rahden; Marcus Brainard (2008). Jews and Other Germans: Civil Society, Religious Diversity, and Urban Politics in Breslau, 1860–1925. Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 9780299226947.
- Ronald Findlay; Lars Jonung; Mats Lundahl (2002). Bertil Ohlin: a centennial celebration, 1899–1999. Cambridge: MIT Press. ISBN 9780262062282. Archived from the original on 2006-09-10.
- Klausen, Jytte (2001). War and Welfare: Europe and the United States, 1945 to the Present. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9780312238834.
- "Espaço Cultural Miguel Reale". Jornal da Universidade de São Paulo (in Portuguese). Universidade de São Paulo. 2000. Archived from the original on 2007-08-25. Retrieved 2009-04-05.
- Reale, Miguel (2000). Crise do capitalismo e crise do Estado (in Portuguese). São Paulo: Senac. ISBN 9788573591415.
- Watson, Graham (Spring 1998). "The Two Davids" (PDF). Journal of Liberal Democrat History. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 August 2009.
- Vincent, Andrew (2007). The Nature of Political Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199297955.
- Paul Aron; Luke Miller (2007). "The Third Team: A brief history of the Australian Democrats after 30 years" (PDF). Australian Democrats. Retrieved 2009-04-05.
- Flach, Karl-Hermann (1984). Noch eine Chance für die Liberalen. Frankfurt am Main: Fischer S. Verlag GmbH. ISBN 978-3100210012.
- Gotovac, Vlado (1996). In Defence of Freedom: Zagreb 1971–1996. Zagreb: Matica hrvatska; Croatian PEN Centre. p. 11. ISBN 953-150-066-5.
- Rodriguez, Ángel Rivero (1993). "Liberalismo, democracia y pragmatismo" (PDF). Isegoría (8).
- Verhofstadt, Dirk. "Liberalism is the best Cure for Poverty". Archived from the original on 2006-10-12. Retrieved 2008-08-17.
- Fotopoulos, Takis (October 2004). "Why an Inclusive Democracy? The multidimensional crisis, globalisation and inclusive democracy". The International Journal of Inclusive Democracy. 1 (1). Retrieved 2008-05-21.
- Tosto, Milton (2005). The meaning of liberalism in Brazil. Lanham: Lexington Books. ISBN 9780739109861. Archived from the original on 24 May 2006. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
- Krugman, Paul (2007). Conscience Of A Liberal. New York: Ww Norton & Co. ISBN 9780141035772.
- Adams, Ian. Political ideology today. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2001. ISBN 0 7190 6019 2
- De Ruggiero, Guido. The history of European liberalism. Boston: Beacon Press, 1959.
- Faulks, Keith. Political sociology: a critical introduction. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1999. ISBN 0 7486 1356 0
- Feuchtwanger, E.J. Democracy and empire: Britain 1865-1914. London: Edward Arnold Publishers Ltd., 1985. ISBN 0-7131-6162-0
- Richardson, James L. Contending liberalisms in world politics. London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc., 2001. ISBN 1-55587-915-2
- Slomp, Hans. European politics Into the twenty-first century: integration and division. Westport: Praeger Publishers, 2000. ISBN 0-275-96814-6
- Green, Thomas Hill (2006). Lectures on the Principles of Political Obligation. New Jersey: The Lawbook Exchange. ISBN 1584776145.
- Hobhouse, L. T. (1994). Liberalism and Other Writings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521437261.
- Hobson, John Atkinson (2000). The Crisis of Liberalism: New Issues of Democracy. Delaware: Adamant Media Corporation. ISBN 1421227819.
- Martin, Keith D. (2010). A Liberal Mandate: Reflections on our Founding Vision and Rants on how we have Failed to Achieve it. Silver Spring, MD: Weit Press. ISBN 978-0-578-04365-4.
- Merquior, J.G. (1991). Liberalism Old and New. Cambridge: Twayne Publishers. ISBN 0805786279.
- Mill, John Stuart (1989). 'On Liberty' and Other Writings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521379172.
- Rawls, John (2005). A Theory of Justice. Harvard: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674017722.
- Rawls, John (2005). Political Liberalism. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231130899.
- Simhony, Avital; Weinstein, David (2001). The New Liberalism: Reconciling Liberty and Community. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521794048.
- Media related to Social liberalism at Wikimedia Commons