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Chancellor of the Exchequer

The Chancellor and Under-Treasurer of Her Majesty's Exchequer, commonly known as the Chancellor of the Exchequer,[1] or simply the Chancellor,[2] is a senior official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of Her Majesty's Treasury. The office is a British Cabinet-level position.

United Kingdom
Chancellor of the Exchequer
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (HM Government).svg
Royal Arms as used by Her Majesty's Government
Official portrait of Mr Philip Hammond crop 2.jpg
Incumbent
Philip Hammond

since 13 July 2016
Her Majesty's Treasury
Style The Right Honourable
(Formal prefix)
Chancellor
Member of British Cabinet
Privy Council
National Security Council
Reports to The Prime Minister
Residence 11 Downing Street
Westminster, London
United Kingdom
Seat Westminster, London
Appointer The British Monarch
on advice of the Prime Minister
Term length No fixed term
Inaugural holder Hervey de Stanton
(England only)
Formation 22 June 1316
Deputy Elizabeth Truss
(Chief Secretary to the Treasury)
Website GOV.uk

The chancellor is responsible for all economic and financial matters, equivalent to the role of Secretary of the Treasury or Minister of Finance in other nations. The position is considered one of the four Great Offices of State, and in recent times has come to be the most powerful office in British politics after the Prime Minister.

The Chancellor of the Exchequer is now always Second Lord of the Treasury as one of the Lords Commissioners for executing the office of Lord High Treasurer. In the 18th and early 19th centuries it was common for the Prime Minister also to serve as Chancellor of the Exchequer if he sat in the Commons; the last Chancellor who was simultaneously Prime Minister and Chancellor of the Exchequer was Stanley Baldwin in 1923. Formerly, in cases when the Chancellorship was vacant, the Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench would act as Chancellor pro tempore.[3] The last Lord Chief Justice to serve in this way was Lord Denman in 1834.

The Chancellor is the third-oldest major state office in English and British history;[citation needed] it originally carried responsibility for the Exchequer, the medieval English institution for the collection and auditing of royal revenues which dates from the Anglo-Saxon period[4] and survived the Norman conquest of England.[5]:149 The earliest surviving records which are the results of the exchequer's audit, date from 1129–30 under King Henry I and show continuity from previous years.[6] The Chancellor controlled monetary policy as well as fiscal policy until 1997, when the Bank of England was granted independent control of its interest rates. The Chancellor also has oversight of public spending across Government departments.

The current Chancellor of the Exchequer is Philip Hammond.

Contents

Roles and responsibilitiesEdit

A previous Chancellor, Robert Lowe, described the office in the following terms in the House of Commons, on 11 April 1870: "The Chancellor of the Exchequer is a man whose duties make him more or less of a taxing machine. He is entrusted with a certain amount of misery which it is his duty to distribute as fairly as he can."

Fiscal policyEdit

The Chancellor has considerable control over other departments as it is the Treasury which sets Departmental Expenditure Limits. The amount of power this gives to an individual Chancellor depends on his personal forcefulness, his status within his party and his relationship with the Prime Minister. Gordon Brown, who became Chancellor when Labour came into Government in 1997, had a large personal power base in the party. Perhaps as a result, Tony Blair chose to keep him in the same position throughout his ten years as Prime Minister; making Brown an unusually dominant figure and the longest serving Chancellor since the Reform Act of 1832.[7] This has strengthened a pre-existing trend towards the Chancellor occupying a clear second position among government ministers, elevated above his traditional peers, the Foreign Secretary and Home Secretary.

One part of the Chancellor's key roles involves the framing of the annual year budget. As of 2017, the first is the Autumn Budget, also known as Budget Day which forecasts government spending in the next financial year and also announces new financial measures. The second is a Spring Statement, also known as a "mini-Budget". Britain's tax year has retained the old Julian end of year: 24 March (Old Style) / 5 April (New Style, i.e. Gregorian). From 1993, the Budget was in spring, preceded by an annual autumn statement. This was then called Pre-Budget Report. The Autumn Statement usually took place in November or December. The 1997, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2012 and 2016 Budgets were all delivered on a Wednesday, summarised in a speech to the House of Commons.

Monetary policyEdit

Although the Bank of England is responsible for setting interest rates, the Chancellor also plays an important part in the monetary policy structure. He sets the inflation target which the Bank must set interest rates to meet. Under the Bank of England Act 1998 the Chancellor has the power of appointment of four out of nine members of the Bank's Monetary Policy Committee – the so-called 'external' members. He also has a high level of influence over the appointment of the Bank's Governor and Deputy Governors, and has the right of consultation over the appointment of the two remaining MPC members from within the Bank.[8] The Act also provides that the Government has the power to give instructions to the Bank on interest rates for a limited period in extreme circumstances. This power has never been officially used.

Ministerial arrangementsEdit

At HM Treasury the Chancellor is supported by a political team of four junior ministers and by permanent civil servants. The most important junior minister is the Chief Secretary to the Treasury, a member of the Cabinet, to whom the negotiations with other government departments on the details of government spending are delegated, followed by the Paymaster General, the Financial Secretary to the Treasury and the Economic Secretary to the Treasury. Two other officials are given the title of a Secretary to the Treasury, although neither is a government minister in the Treasury: the Parliamentary Secretary to the Treasury is the Government Chief Whip in the House of Commons; the Permanent Secretary to the Treasury is not a minister but the senior civil servant in the Treasury.

The holder of the office of Chancellor is ex officio Second Lord of the Treasury. As Second Lord, his official residence is Number 11 Downing Street in London, next door to the residence of the First Lord of the Treasury (a title that has for many years been held by the Prime Minister), who resides in 10 Downing Street. While in the past both houses were private residences, today they serve as interlinked offices, with the occupant living in an apartment made from attic rooms previously resided in by servants.

The Chancellor is obliged to be a member of the Privy Council, and thus is styled the Right Honourable (Rt. Hon.). Because the House of Lords is excluded from Finance Bills under the Parliament Acts, the office has since the early 20th century been effectively limited to members of the House of Commons. The Chancellor holds the formerly independent office of Master of the Mint as a subsidiary office.[9]

Perquisites of the officeEdit

Official residenceEdit

The Chancellor's official residence, since 1828, is No. 11 Downing Street.[10] In 1997, the then First and Second Lords, Tony Blair and Gordon Brown respectively, swapped apartments, as the Chancellor's apartment in No. 11 was bigger and thus better suited to the needs of Blair (who had children living with him, including one born during his tenure) than Brown who was at that stage unmarried.

DorneywoodEdit

Dorneywood is the summer residence that is traditionally made available to the Chancellor, though it is the Prime Minister who ultimately decides who may use it. Gordon Brown, on becoming Chancellor in 1997, refused to use it and the house, which is set in 215 acres (87 ha)[11] of parkland, was allocated to Deputy Prime Minister John Prescott. It reverted to the Chancellor in 2007, then Alistair Darling.[12]

Budget boxEdit

 
Budget box or Gladstone box, c. 1860

The Chancellor traditionally carries his Budget speech to the House of Commons in a particular red Despatch Box. The Chancellor's red briefcase is identical to the briefcases used by all other government ministers (known as ministerial boxes or "Despatch Boxes") to transport their official papers but is better known because the Chancellor traditionally displays the briefcase, containing the Budget speech, to the press in the morning before delivering the speech.

The original Budget briefcase was first used by William Ewart Gladstone in 1853 and continued in use until 1965 when James Callaghan was the first Chancellor to break with tradition when he used a newer box. Prior to Gladstone, a generic red Despatch Box of varying design and specification was used. The practice is said to have begun in the late 16th century, when Queen Elizabeth I's representative Francis Throckmorton presented the Spanish Ambassador, Bernardino de Mendoza, with a specially constructed red briefcase filled with black puddings.[citation needed]

In July 1997, Gordon Brown became the second Chancellor to use a new box for the Budget. Made by industrial trainees at Babcock Rosyth Defence Ltd ship and submarine dockyard in Fife, the new box is made of yellow pine, with a brass handle and lock, covered in scarlet leather and embossed with the Royal cypher and crest and the Chancellor's title. In his first Budget, in March 2008, Alistair Darling reverted to using the original budget briefcase and his successor, George Osborne, continued this tradition for his first budget, before announcing that it would be retired due to its fragile condition.[13] The key to the original budget box has been lost.[14]

Budget tippleEdit

By tradition, the Chancellor has been allowed to drink whatever he or she wishes while making the annual Budget Speech to parliament. This includes alcohol, which is otherwise banned under parliamentary rules.

Previous Chancellors have opted for whisky (Kenneth Clarke), gin and tonic (Geoffrey Howe), brandy and water (Benjamin Disraeli), spritzer (Nigel Lawson) and sherry and beaten egg (William Gladstone).[15]

The recent Chancellors, George Osborne, Alistair Darling and Gordon Brown,[16] opted for water. In fact Darling drank what was named "Standard Water" in reference to, and support of, the London Evening Standard newspaper's campaign to have plain tap water available in restaurants at no charge to customers.[17]

Robe of officeEdit

The Chancellor has a robe of office,[18] similar to that of the Lord Chancellor (as seen in several of the portraits depicted below). In recent times, it has only regularly been worn at Coronations, but some Chancellors (at least until the 1990s) have also worn it when attending the Trial of the Pyx as Master of the Mint. According to George Osborne, the robe (dating from Gladstone's time in office, and worn by the likes of Lloyd George and Churchill)[19] 'went missing' during Gordon Brown's time as Chancellor.[20]

List of Chancellors of the ExchequerEdit

Chancellors of the Exchequer of England, c. 1221 – c. 1558Edit

Portrait Name Term of office Monarch
(Reign)
Eustace of Fauconberg
Bishop of London
c. 1221 Henry III
 
(1216–1272)
John Maunsell 1234
Ralph de Leicester temp[*] Henry III
Edward of Westminster 1248
Albric de Fiscamp temp Henry III
John Chishull 1263 1265
Walter Giffard
Bishop of Bath and Wells
1265 1266
Godfrey Giffard 1266 1268
John Chishull 1268 1269
Richard of Middleton 1269 1272
Roger de la Leye temp Henry III
Edward I
 
(1272–1307)
Geoffrey de Neuband temp Edward I
Philip de Willoughby 1283 1305
John Benstead 1305 1306
John Sandale
Bishop of Winchester
1307 1308 Edward II
 
(1307–1327)
John of Markenfield 1309 1312
John Hotham
Bishop of Ely
1312 1316
Hervey de Stanton 1316
Walter de Stapledon 1323
Hervey de Stanton 1324 1327
Adam de Harvington (or Herwynton) 1327 1330 Edward III
 
(1327–1377)
Robert Wodehouse 1330 1331
Robert de Stratford
Bishop of Chichester
1331 1334
John Hildesle c. 1338
William de Everdon 1341
William Askeby
Archdeacon of Northampton
1363
Sir Robert de Ashton 1375 1377
Sir Walter Barnham 1377 1399 Richard II
 
(1377–1388)
  Henry Somer 1410 1437 Henry IV
(1399–1413)
        Henry V
(1413–1422)
        Henry VI
 
(1422–1461)
John Somerset 1441 1447
Thomas Browne 1440? 1450?
Thomas Witham 1454
Thomas Thwaites 1461 Edward IV
(1461–1470)
Thomas Witham 1465 1469
Richard Fowler 1469 1471
Henry VI
(1470–1471)
Thomas Thwaites 1471 1483 Edward IV
(1471–1483)
William Catesby 1483 Edward V
(1483)
Richard III
(1483–1485)
Sir Thomas Lovell 1485 1524 Henry VII
(1485–1509)
Henry VIII
 
(1509–1547)
  John Bourchie
2nd Baron Berners
1524 1533?
  Thomas Cromwell
1st Earl of Essex
1533 1540
  Sir John Baker 1545 1558
Edward VI
(1547–1533)
Mary I
(1533–1558)

^ "temp" is short for tempore, i.e. "in the time [of]".

Chancellor of the Exchequer of England c. 1558–1708Edit

Chancellor of the Exchequer of England[21]
Portrait Name Term of office Monarch
(Reign)
Ref
  Sir Richard Sackville
MP for Sussex
February
1559
21 April
1566†
Elizabeth I
 
(1558–1603)
[22]
  Sir Walter Mildmay
MP for Northamptonshire
1566 31 May
1589†
[23]
  Sir John Fortescue
MP for Buckinghamshire until 1598
MP for Middlesex after 1601
1589 1603 [24]
James I
 
(1603–1625)
  Sir George Home
The Earl of Dunbar

KG PC
Baron Hume of Berwick from 1604
Earl of Dunbar from 1605
24 May
1603
April
1606
  Sir Julius Caesar
MP for Westminster 1607–1611
11 April
1606
1614
[25]
  Sir Fulke Greville
MP for Warwickshire 1621
15 October
1614
1621 [26]
  Sir Richard Weston
MP for Arundel until 1622
MP for Bossiney 1624–1625
MP for Callington 1625
MP for Bodmin 1626
Baron Weston from 1628
29 January
1621
15 July
1628
[27]
Charles I
 
(1625–1649)
  Edward Barrett
The Lord Barrett of Newburgh

PC
14 August
1628
1629 [28]
  Francis Cottington
The Lord Cottington

PC
(Baron Cottington from 1631)
18 April
1629
6 January
1642
[29]
  Sir John Colepeper
MP for Kent
6 January
1642
22 February
1643
[30]
  Sir Edward Hyde February
1643
1646
Fled to Jersey with
Prince Charles
[31]
Commonwealth of England (1649–60)
  Sir Edward Hyde 1660
(restored)
13 May
1661
Charles II
 
(1660–1685)
  Anthony Ashley Cooper
The Lord Ashley

PC
13 May
1661
22 November
1672
[32]
  Sir John Duncombe
MP for Bury St Edmunds
22 November
1672
2 May
1676
[33]
         
  Sir John Ernle
MP for Cricklade until 1679
MP for New Windsor 1679
MP for Great Bedwyn 1679–1685
MP for Marlborough after 1685
2 May
1676
9 April
1689
James II
 
(1685–1688)
[34]
        Mary II
 
(1689–1694)
William III
 
(1689–1702)
 
  Henry Booth
The Lord Delamere

PC
9 April
1689
18 March
1690
[35]
  Richard Hampden
MP for Buckinghamshire
18 March
1690
10 May
1694
[36]
  Charles Montagu
MP for Maldon before 1695
MP for Westminster after 1695
10 May
1694
31 May
1699
[37]
  Sir John Smith
MP for Andover
31 May
1699
23 March
1701
[38]
         
  Henry Boyle
MP for Cambridge University until 1705
MP for Westminster after 1705
27 March
1701
22 April
1708
Anne
 
(1702–1714)
[39]

Chancellors of the Exchequer of Great Britain, 1708–1817Edit

Portrait Name Term of office Political party Government Monarch
(Reign)
Ref
    The Right Honourable
Sir John Smith
MP for Andover
22 April
1708
11 August
1710
Whig Godolphin–Marlborough
(III & IV)
Anne
 
(1702–1714)
  The Right Honourable
Robert Harley
MP for Radnor
11 August
1710
4 June
1711
Tory Harley
(I–IV)
[40]
  The Right Honourable
Robert Benson
MP for York
4 June
1711
21 August
1713
Tory
  The Right Honourable
Sir William Wyndham
Bt
MP for Somerset
21 August
1713
13 October
1714
Tory
George I
 
(1714–1727)
  The Right Honourable
Sir Richard Onslow
Bt
MP for Surrey
13 October
1714
12 October
1715
Whig Townshend
(I & II)
  The Right Honourable
Robert Walpole
MP for King's Lynn
12 October
1715
15 April
1717
Whig
  The Right Honourable
James Stanhope
The Viscount Stanhope

PC
15 April
1717
20 March
1718
Whig Stanhope–Sunderland I
  The Right Honourable
John Aislabie
MP for Ripon
20 March
1718
23 January
1721
Whig Stanhope–Sunderland II
  The Right Honourable
Sir John Pratt
PC
Lord Chief Justice
(interim)
2 February
1721
3 April
1721
Whig
  The Right Honourable
Sir Robert Walpole
MP for King's Lynn
3 April
1721
12 February
1742
Whig Walpole–Townshend
(I–III)
Walpole
(IV–VI)
George II
 
(1727–1760)
  The Right Honourable
Samuel Sandys
MP for Worcester
12 February
1742
12 December
1743
Whig  
Carteret
 
Broad Bottom ministry
(I–III)
  The Right Honourable
Henry Pelham
FRS
MP for Sussex
12 December
1743
8 March
1754†
Whig
  The Right Honourable
Sir William Lee
Lord Chief Justice
(interim)
8 March
1754
6 April
1754
Whig Newcastle
(I & II)
  The Right Honourable
Henry Bilson-Legge
MP for Orford
6 April
1754
25 November
1755
Whig
  The Right Honourable
Sir George Lyttelton
Bt
MP for Okehampton
25 November
1755
16 November
1756
Whig
  The Right Honourable
Henry Bilson-Legge
MP for Orford
16 November
1756
13 April
1757
Whig Pitt–Devonshire
  The Right Honourable
The Lord Mansfield
Lord Chief Justice
(interim)
13 April
1757
2 July
1757
Whig
1757 Caretaker
    The Right Honourable
Henry Bilson-Legge
MP for Orford before 1759
MP for Hampshire after 1759
2 July
1757
19 March
1761
Whig Pitt–Newcastle
(I & II)
  George III
 
(1760–1820)
  The Right Honourable
The Viscount Barrington
MP for Plymouth
19 March
1761
29 May
1762
Whig
  The Right Honourable
Sir Francis Dashwood
Bt FRS
MP for Weymouth and Melcombe Regis
29 May
1762
16 April
1763
Tory Bute
  The Right Honourable
George Grenville
MP for Buckingham
16 April
1763
16 July
1765
Whig Grenville
  The Right Honourable
William Dowdeswell
MP for Worcestershire
16 July
1765
2 August
1766
Whig Rockingham I
  The Right Honourable
Charles Townshend
MP for Harwich
2 August
1766
4 September
1767†
Whig Chatham
(I & II)
  The Right Honourable
Lord North
MP for Banbury
11 September
1767
27 March
1782
Tory
Grafton
North
(I–III)
  The Right Honourable
Lord John Cavendish
MP for York
27 March
1782
10 July
1782
Whig Rockingham II
  The Right Honourable
William Pitt 'the Younger'
MP for Appleby
10 July
1782
31 March
1783
Whig Shelburne
  The Right Honourable
Lord John Cavendish
MP for York
2 April
1783
19 December
1783
Whig Fox–North
  The Right Honourable
William Pitt 'the Younger'
MP for Appleby before 1784
MP for Cambridge University after 1784
19 December
1783
14 March
1801
Tory Pitt
(I–IV)
  The Right Honourable
Henry Addington
MP for Devizes
14 March
1801
10 May
1804
Tory Addington
(I & II)
  The Right Honourable
William Pitt 'the Younger'
MP for Cambridge University
10 May
1804
23 January
1806†
Tory Pitt V
  The Right Honourable
The Lord Ellenborough
Lord Chief Justice
(interim)
23 January
1806
5 February
1806
Tory All the Talents
(I & II)
  The Right Honourable
Lord Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice
MP for Cambridge University
5 February
1806
26 March
1807
Whig
  The Right Honourable
Spencer Perceval
MP for Northampton
26 March
1807
11 May
1812†
Tory Portland
(II & III)
Perceval
  The Right Honourable
Nicholas Vansittart
MP for East Grinstead 1812
MP for Harwich after 1812
9 June
1812
12 July
1817
Tory Liverpool
(I & II)
[41]

Chancellors of the Exchequer of the United Kingdom, 1817–presentEdit

Although the Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland had been united by the Acts of Union 1800 (39 & 40 Geo. III c. 67), the Exchequers of the two Kingdoms were not consolidated until 1817 under 56 Geo. III c. 98.[42][43] For the holders of the Irish office before this date, see Chancellor of the Exchequer of Ireland.

Portrait Name Term of office Political party Government Monarch
(Reign)
Ref
  The Right Honourable
Nicholas Vansittart
MP for Harwich
12 July
1817
31 January
1823
Tory Liverpool
(II–V)
George III
 
(1760–1820)
  George IV
 
(1820–1830)
  The Right Honourable
F. J. Robinson
MP for Ripon
31 January
1823
27 April
1827
Tory [44]
  The Right Honourable
George Canning
FRS
MP for Seaford
27 April
1827
8 August
1827†
Tory Canning
(CanningiteWhig)
[45]
  The Right Honourable
The Lord Tenterden
PC SL
Lord Chief Justice
(interim)
8 August
1827
5 September
1827
Tory Goderich
(CanningiteWhig)
  The Right Honourable
John Charles Herries
MP for Harwich
5 September
1827
26 January
1828
Tory [46]
  The Right Honourable
Henry Goulburn
MP for Armagh
26 January
1828
22 November
1830
Tory Wellington
  The Right Honourable
Viscount Althorp
DL FRS
MP for Northamptonshire before 1832
MP for South Northamptonshire after 1832
22 November
1830
14 November
1834
Whig Grey
(I–III)
William IV
 
(1830–1837)
Melbourne I
  The Right Honourable
The Lord Denman
Lord Chief Justice
(interim)
14 November
1834
15 December
1834
Whig Wellington Caretaker
  The Right Honourable
Sir Robert Peel
Bt
MP for Tamworth
15 December
1834
8 April
1835
Conservative Peel I
  The Right Honourable
Thomas Spring Rice
MP for Cambridge
18 April
1835
26 August
1839
Whig Melbourne
(II & III)
Victoria
 
(1837–1901)
  The Right Honourable
Francis Baring
MP for Portsmouth
26 August
1839
30 August
1841
Whig
  The Right Honourable
Henry Goulburn
MP for Cambridge University
3 September
1841
27 June
1846
Conservative Peel II
  The Right Honourable
Sir Charles Wood
Bt
MP for Halifax
6 July
1846
21 February
1852
Whig Russell
(I & II)
  The Right Honourable
Benjamin Disraeli
MP for Buckinghamshire
27 February
1852
17 December
1852
Conservative Who? Who?
(I & II)
  The Right Honourable
William Ewart Gladstone
MP for Oxford University
28 December
1852
28 February
1855
Peelite Aberdeen
(PeeliteWhig)
  The Right Honourable
Sir George Cornewall Lewis
Bt
MP for Radnor
28 February
1855
21 February
1858
Whig Palmerston
(I & II)
  The Right Honourable
Benjamin Disraeli
MP for Buckinghamshire
26 February
1858
11 June
1859
Conservative Derby III
  The Right Honourable
William Ewart Gladstone
MP for Oxford University before 1865
MP for South Lancashire after 1865
18 June
1859
26 June
1866
Liberal Palmerston
(III & IV)
Russell III
  The Right Honourable
Benjamin Disraeli
MP for Buckinghamshire
6 July
1866
29 February
1868
Conservative Derby IV
  The Right Honourable
George Ward Hunt
MP for North Northamptonshire
29 February
1868
1 December
1868
Conservative Disraeli I
  The Right Honourable
Robert Lowe
MP for London University
9 December
1868
11 August
1873
Liberal Gladstone I
  The Right Honourable
William Ewart Gladstone
MP for Greenwich
11 August
1873
17 February
1874
Liberal
  The Right Honourable
Sir Stafford Northcote
Bt
MP for North Devonshire
21 February
1874
21 April
1880
Conservative Disraeli II
  The Right Honourable
William Ewart Gladstone
MP for Midlothian
28 April
1880
16 December
1882
Liberal Gladstone II
  The Right Honourable
Hugh Childers
MP for Pontefract
16 December
1882
9 June
1885
Liberal
  The Right Honourable
Sir Michael Hicks Beach
Bt
MP for Bristol West
24 June
1885
28 January
1886
Conservative Salisbury I
  The Right Honourable
Sir William Vernon Harcourt
KC
MP for Derby
6 February
1886
20 July
1886
Liberal Gladstone III
  The Right Honourable
Lord Randolph Churchill
MP for Paddington South
3 August
1886
22 December
1886
Conservative Salisbury II
  The Right Honourable
George Goschen
MP for St George Hanover Square
14 January
1887
11 August
1892
Liberal Unionist
  The Right Honourable
Sir William Vernon Harcourt
KC
MP for Derby
18 August
1892
21 June
1895
Liberal Gladstone IV
Rosebery
  The Right Honourable
Sir Michael Hicks Beach
Bt
MP for Bristol West
29 June
1895
11 August
1902
Conservative Salisbury
(III–V)

(Cons.Lib.U.)
Edward VII
 
(1901–1910)
  The Right Honourable
Charles Ritchie
MP for Croydon
11 August
1902
9 October
1903
Conservative Balfour
(Cons.Lib.U.)
  The Right Honourable
Austen Chamberlain
MP for East Worcestershire
9 October
1903
4 December
1905
Liberal Unionist
  The Right Honourable
H. H. Asquith
KC
MP for East Fife
10 December
1905
16 April
1908
Liberal Campbell-Bannerman
(I & II)
  The Right Honourable
David Lloyd George
MP for Caernarvon Boroughs
16 April
1908
25 May
1915
Liberal Asquith
(I–III)
[47]
George V
 
(1910–1936)
  The Right Honourable
Reginald McKenna
MP for North Monmouthshire
25 May
1915
10 December
1916
Liberal Asquith IV
(Lib.Cons.Lab.)
  The Right Honourable
Bonar Law
MP for Bootle before 1918
MP for Glasgow Central after 1918
10 December
1916
10 January
1919
Conservative Lloyd George
(I & II)

(Lib.Cons.Lab.)
  The Right Honourable
Austen Chamberlain
MP for Birmingham West
10 January
1919
1 April
1921
Conservative
  The Right Honourable
Sir Robert Horne
GBE KC
MP for Glasgow Hillhead
1 April
1921
19 October
1922
Conservative
  The Right Honourable
Stanley Baldwin
JP
MP for Bewdley
27 October
1922
27 August
1923
Conservative Law
(I & II)
Baldwin I
  The Right Honourable
Neville Chamberlain
MP for Birmingham Ladywood
27 August
1923
22 January
1924
Conservative
  The Right Honourable
Philip Snowden
MP for Colne Valley
22 January
1924
3 November
1924
Labour MacDonald I
  The Right Honourable
Winston Churchill
CH TD
MP for Epping
6 November
1924
4 June
1929
Conservative Baldwin II
  The Right Honourable
Philip Snowden
MP for Colne Valley
7 June
1929
5 November
1931
Labour MacDonald II
National Labour 1st National
(Lab.Nat.Cons.Lib.Nat.
Lib.
  The Right Honourable
Neville Chamberlain
FRS
MP for Birmingham Edgbaston
5 November
1931
28 May
1937
Conservative 2nd National
(Lab.Nat.Cons.Lib.Nat.
Lib. until 1932
)
   
3rd National
(Cons.Lab.Nat.Lib.Nat.)
Edward VIII
 
(1936)
              George VI
 
(1936–1952)
  The Right Honourable
Sir John Simon
MP for Spen Valley
28 May
1937
12 May
1940
Liberal National 4th National
(Cons.Lab.Nat.Lib.Nat.)
Chamberlain War
(Cons.Lab.Nat.Lib.Nat.)
  The Right Honourable
Sir Kingsley Wood
MP for Woolwich West
12 May
1940
21 September
1943†
Conservative Churchill War
  The Right Honourable
Sir John Anderson
GCB GCSI GCIE
MP for Combined Scottish Universities
24 September
1943
26 July
1945
National Independent
Churchill Caretaker
  The Right Honourable
Hugh Dalton
MP for Bishop Auckland
27 July
1945
13 November
1947
Labour Attlee
(I & II)
  The Right Honourable
Sir Stafford Cripps
MP for Bristol East before 1950
MP for Bristol South East after 1950
13 November
1947
19 October
1950
Labour
  The Right Honourable
Hugh Gaitskell
CBE
MP for Leeds South
19 October
1950
26 October
1951
Labour
  The Right Honourable
R. A. Butler
CH
MP for Saffron Walden
26 October
1951
20 December
1955
Conservative  
Churchill III
 
Elizabeth II
 
(1952–present)
Eden
(I & II)
  The Right Honourable
Harold Macmillan
MP for Bromley
20 December
1955
13 January
1957
Conservative
  The Right Honourable
Peter Thorneycroft
MP for Monmouth
13 January
1957
6 January
1958
Conservative Macmillan
(I & II)
Link The Right Honourable
Derick Heathcoat-Amory
MP for Tiverton
6 January
1958
27 July
1960
Conservative
  The Right Honourable
Selwyn Lloyd
MP for Wirral
27 July
1960
13 July
1962
Conservative
  The Right Honourable
Reginald Maudling
MP for Barnet
16 July
1962
16 October
1964
Conservative [48]
Douglas-Home
  The Right Honourable
James Callaghan
MP for Cardiff South East
17 October
1964
29 November
1967
Labour Wilson
(I & II)
[49]
  The Right Honourable
Roy Jenkins
MP for Birmingham Stechford
29 November
1967
19 June
1970
Labour [50]
  The Right Honourable
Iain Macleod
MP for Enfield West
20 June
1970
20 July
1970†
Conservative Heath
  The Right Honourable
Anthony Barber
MP for Altrincham and Sale
25 July
1970
4 March
1974
Conservative
  The Right Honourable
Denis Healey
MP for Leeds East
5 March
1974
4 May
1979
Labour Wilson
(III & IV)
Callaghan
  The Right Honourable
Sir Geoffrey Howe
QC
MP for East Surrey
4 May
1979
11 June
1983
Conservative Thatcher I
  The Right Honourable
Nigel Lawson
MP for Blaby
11 June
1983
26 October
1989
Conservative  
Thatcher II
 
Thatcher III
  The Right Honourable
John Major
MP for Huntingdon
26 October
1989
28 November
1990
Conservative
  The Right Honourable
Norman Lamont
MP for Kingston-upon-Thames
28 November
1990
27 May
1993
Conservative  
Major I
 
Major II
  The Right Honourable
Kenneth Clarke
QC
MP for Rushcliffe
27 May
1993
2 May
1997
Conservative
  The Right Honourable
Gordon Brown
MP for Dunfermline East before 2005
MP for Kirkcaldy and Cowdenbeath after 2005
2 May
1997
27 June
2007
Labour Blair
(I–III)
  The Right Honourable
Alistair Darling
MP for Edinburgh South West
29 June
2007
11 May
2010
Labour Brown [51]
  The Right Honourable
George Osborne
MP for Tatton
12 May
2010
13 July
2016
Conservative Cameron–Clegg
(Cons.Lib.Dem.)
[52]
Cameron II
  The Right Honourable
Philip Hammond
MP for Runnymede and Weybridge
13 July
2016
Incumbent Conservative May I [53]
May II

See alsoEdit

Notes and referencesEdit

  1. ^ This is used in almost all cases, including formal uses, for example in Parliament where it is common to refer to the position as 'Mr Chancellor of the Exchequer'. An example use of the full title is on writs appointing people to offices in the Manor of Northstead or the Chiltern Hundreds.
  2. ^ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/business/2016/07/13/who-is-philip-hammond-britains-new-chancellor-and-what-are-like/
  3. ^ Joseph Haydn, Horace Ockerby (ed.): The Book of Dignities, 3rd edition, Part III (Political and Official), p. 164. W.H. Allen & Co., London 1894, reprinted by Firecrest Publishing Ltd, Pancakes, 1969
  4. ^ Loyn, Henry (1984). The Governance of Anglo-Saxon England, 500-1087. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-1217-4. 
  5. ^ Stafford, Pauline (1989). Unification and Conquest: A Political and Social History of England in the Tenth and Eleventh Centuries. London: Edward Arnold. ISBN 0-7131-6532-4. 
  6. ^ Chrimes Administrative History pp. 62–63
  7. ^ "Gordon Brown: Chancellor of the Exchequer". Encyclopedia II. Experiencefestival.com. Retrieved 2 May 2010. 
  8. ^ "Monetary Policy | Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) | Framework". Bank of England. 6 May 1997. Retrieved 2 May 2010. 
  9. ^ Owen, James (19 December 2012). "Sir Isaac Newton – did you know?". The Royal Mint. Retrieved 6 June 2017. 
  10. ^ "History of Number 11 Downing Street". UK Government. Retrieved 16 October 2014. 
  11. ^ "Local History". Burnham Parish Council. 
  12. ^ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/politics/article2532776.ece Archived 5 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  13. ^ The Guardian, 11 March 2011
  14. ^ Alistair Darling, Back from the Brink(2011)
  15. ^ "The Budget and Parliament". Parliament of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 8 November 2015. 
  16. ^ Lydall, Ross (6 March 2008). "Chancellor names his preferred Budget tipple – a glass of plain London tap water". The Scotsman. Retrieved 2 May 2010. 
  17. ^ Murphy, Joe (5 March 2008). "Darling chooses tap water for Budget Day to support Standard campaign". London Evening Standard. Retrieved 9 February 2012. 
  18. ^ "Photograph". 
  19. ^ "Portrait". 
  20. ^ Vina, Gonzalo (10 December 2010). "www.bloomberg.com". Bloomberg. 
  21. ^ "Past Chancellors of the Exchequer". GOV>UK. Retrieved 3 July 2017. 
  22. ^ "SACKVILLE, Sir Richard (by 1507-66), of Buckhurst, Suss. and Westenhanger, Kent.". The History of Parliament. Retrieved 8 July 2017. 
  23. ^ "MILDMAY, Sir Walter (bef.1523-89), of Apethorpe, Northants. and St. Bartholomew-the-Great, London.". The History of Parliament. Retrieved 8 July 2017. 
  24. ^ "FORTESCUE, John I (1533-1607), of Holborn, London; Welford, Berks. and Salden, Bucks.". Retrieved 9 July 2017. 
  25. ^ "CAESAR, Sir Julius (1558-1636), of Mitcham, Surr.; the Inner Temple, London; the Rolls House, Chancery Lane, London; Doctors' Commons, London; The Strand, Westminster; later of Humberton Street, Hackney, Mdx.". The History of Parliament. Retrieved 9 July 2017. 
  26. ^ "GREVILLE, Sir Fulke (1554-1628), of Brooke House, Holborn, London and Warwick Castle; formerly of Beauchamps Court, Alcester, Warws.". The History of Parliament. Retrieved 9 July 2017. 
  27. ^ "WESTON, Richard II (1577-1635), of Roxwell Park, Essex and Nayland, Suff.". The History of Parliament. Retrieved 9 July 2017. 
  28. ^ "BARRETT, Sir Edward (1581-1644), of Belhus, Aveley, Essex and Smithfield, London". The History of Parliament. Retrieved 9 July 2017. 
  29. ^ "COTTINGTON, Sir Francis, 1st Bt. (c.1579-1652), of Charing Cross, Westminster and Hanworth, Mdx.; later of Fonthill Gifford, Wilts.". The History of Parliament. Retrieved 9 July 2017. 
  30. ^ DNB
  31. ^ DNB
  32. ^ "COOPER, Sir Anthony Ashley, 2nd Bt. (1621-83), of Wimborne St. Giles, Dorset and The Close, Salisbury, Wilts.". The History of Parliament. Retrieved 9 July 2017. 
  33. ^ "DUNCOMBE, Sir John (1622-87), of Battlesden, Beds. and Pall Mall, Westminster.". The History of Parliament. Retrieved 9 July 2017. 
  34. ^ "ERNLE (EARNLEY), John (c.1620-97), of Burytown, Blunsdon, Wilts.". The History of Parliament. Retrieved 9 July 2017. 
  35. ^ "BOOTH, Hon. Henry (1652-94), of Dunham Massey, Cheshire.". The History of Parliament. Retrieved 9 July 2017. 
  36. ^ "HAMPDEN, Richard (1631-95), of Great Hampden, nr. Wendover, Bucks.". The History of Parliament. Retrieved 9 July 2017. 
  37. ^ "MONTAGU, Charles (1661-1715), of Jermyn Street, Westminster.". The History of Parliament. Retrieved 9 July 2017. 
  38. ^ "SMITH, John I (c.1655-1723), of South Tidworth, Hants.". The History of Parliament. Retrieved 8 July 2017. 
  39. ^ "BOYLE, Hon. Henry (1669-1725), of Carleton House, Pall Mall, Westminster". The History of Parliament. Retrieved 8 July 2017. 
  40. ^ "HARLEY, Robert (1661-1724), of Brampton Bryan, Herefs.". The History of Parliament. Retrieved 9 July 2017. 
  41. ^ "No. 16611". The London Gazette. 9 June 1812. p. 1111. 
  42. ^ "Consolidated Fund Act 1816". legislation.gov.uk. UK Government. p. Section 2. Retrieved 18 November 2016. 
  43. ^ Joseph Haydn, Horace Ockerby (ed.): The Book of Dignities, 3rd edition, Part X (Ireland), p. 562. W.H. Allen & Co., London 1894, reprinted by Firecrest Publishing Ltd, Bath, 1969
  44. ^ "No. 17893". The London Gazette. 4 February 1823. p. 193. 
  45. ^ "No. 18356". The London Gazette. 27 April 1827. p. 937. 
  46. ^ "No. 18394". The London Gazette. 7 September 1827. p. 1892. 
  47. ^ "No. 28129". The London Gazette. 17 April 1908. p. 2937. 
  48. ^ "No. 42733". The London Gazette. 17 July 1962. p. 5731. 
  49. ^ "No. 43470". The London Gazette. 23 October 1964. p. 9014. 
  50. ^ "No. 44469". The London Gazette. 5 December 1967. p. 13287. 
  51. ^ "No. 58389". The London Gazette. 11 July 2007. p. 9979. 
  52. ^ "No. 59425". The London Gazette. 21 May 2010. p. 9405. 
  53. ^ "Philip Hammond appointed chancellor". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. 13 July 2016. Retrieved 7 July 2017. 

Further readingEdit

  • Barber, Stephen. "‘Westminster’s wingman’? Shadow chancellor as a strategic and coveted political role." British Politics 11.2 (2016): 184-204.
  • Baxter, Stephen B. The Development of the Treasury, 1660-1702 (1957) online
  • Browning, Peter. The Treasury and Economic Policy: 1964-1985 (Longman, 1986).
  • Dell, Edmund. The Chancellors: A History of the Chancellors of the Exchequer, 1945-90 (HarperCollins, 1997) 619pp; 17 chapters covering the terms of each Chancellor.
  • Holt, Richard. Second Amongst Equals: Chancellors of the Exchequer and the British Economy (Profile Books, 2001).
  • Jenkins, Roy. The Chancellors (1998); 497pp; covers entire career as well as term in office of 19 chancellors from 1886 to 1947.
  • Kynaston, David. The chancellor of the exchequer (T. Dalton, 1980).
  • Peden, G. CThe Treasury and British Public Policy, 1906-1959 (Oxford UP, 2000). online
  • Vincent, Nicholas C. "The Origins of the Chancellorship of the Exchequer." English Historical Review 108.426 (1993): 105-121. in JSTOR
  • Woodward, Nicholas. The management of the British economy, 1945-2001 (Manchester University Press, 2004).

External linksEdit