|Deputy chairs||Antti Häkkänen|
|Founded||9 December 1918|
|Merger of||Finnish Party, Young Finnish Party|
|Headquarters||Kansakoulukuja 3 A, Helsinki|
|Youth wing||Youth of the National Coalition Party|
|Student wing||Student Union of National Coalition Party – Tuhatkunta|
|Women's wing||Kokoomuksen Naisten Liitto|
|LGBT wing||Kansallinen sateenkaariryhmä – Kasary|
|European affiliation||European People's Party|
|International affiliation||International Democrat Union|
|European Parliament group||European People's Party|
|Nordic affiliation||Conservative Group|
|Parliament of Finland|
38 / 200
3 / 14
1,492 / 8,999
289 / 1,379
Ideologically, the National Coalition Party is positioned on the centre-right on the political spectrum, and it has been described as liberal, conservative, conservative-liberal, and liberal-conservative. Founded in 1918, the National Coalition Party is one of the "big three" parties that have dominated Finnish national politics for several decades, along with the Social Democratic Party and the Centre Party. The current party chair is Petteri Orpo, elected on 11 June 2016. The party self-statedly bases its politics on "freedom, responsibility and democracy, equal opportunities, education, supportiveness, tolerance and caring" and supports multiculturalism and LGBT rights. Their foreign stances are pro-NATO and pro-European orientated, and they are a member of the European People's Party (EPP).
The party's vote share was approximately 20% in parliamentary elections in the 1990s and 2000s. It won 44 out of 200 seats in the parliamentary elections of 2011, becoming the largest party in the Finnish Parliament (Finnish: eduskunta; Swedish: riksdag) for the first time in its history. On the municipal level, it became the most popular party in 2008. In the 2015 election, the NCP lost its status as the country's largest party, finishing second in votes and third in seats, but again joined the governing coalition. After the 2019 election, it became the third-largest party in the Finnish Parliament, behind the Social Democrats and the Finns Party, and became the second-largest opposition party after being excluded from the Rinne Cabinet.
The National Coalition Party was founded on 9 December 1918 after the Finnish Civil War by the majority of the Finnish Party and the minority of the Young Finnish Party, both supporting Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse as the King of Finland in the new monarchy. The previous day, the republicans of both parties had founded the National Progressive Party. With over 600 representatives, the foundational meeting of NCP declared the following:
A national coalition is needed over old party lines that have lost meaning and have too long separated similarly thinking citizens. This coalition's grand task must be to work to strengthen in our nation the forces that maintain society. Lawful societal order must be strictly upheld and there must be no compromise with revolutionary aspirations. But simultaneously, determined constructive reform work must be pursued."
The party sought to accomplish their task by advocating for constitutional monarchy and, failing that, strong governmental powers within a republican framework. On the other hand, their goal was to implement a number of social and economic reforms, such as compulsory education, universal health care, and progressive income and property taxation. The monarchist aims failed and Finland became a parliamentary republic—in which NCP advocated for strong presidential powers. In the late 1920s and early 1930s, the threat posed by Joseph Stalin's communist Soviet Union influenced Finnish politics. Communists, backed by Soviet leaders, accelerated their activities while the ideological position of the National Coalition Party shifted to strongly conservative. The new ideology was poorly received, particularly by the youth, attracted instead more to irredentist and fascist movements, such as the Academic Karelia Society or Patriotic People's Movement.
In the 1933 parliamentary election, the party formed an electoral coalition with the Patriotic People's Movement, founded by former supporters of the radical nationalist Lapua Movement—even though P.E. Svinhufvud, the party's first President of Finland, played a key role in halting the Lapua Movement and vanquishing their Mäntsälä rebellion. The result was a major defeat as the NCP lost 24 of its 42 seats in Parliament. The NCP broke ties with the Patriotic People's Movement in 1934 under the newly elected party chair J.K. Paasikivi, but was nevertheless shut out from the Finnish Government until the outbreak of the Winter War in 1939 and only slowly regained support.
During the Winter War and the Continuation War in 1939–1944, the party took part in the war-time national unity governments and generally had strong support for its government policies. After the wars, the National Coalition Party sought to portray itself as a defender of democracy against the resurgent Finnish communists. Chair Paasikivi, who had advocated making more concessions to Soviet Union before the Winter War and taken a cautious line regarding cooperation with Germany before the Continuation War, acted first as Prime Minister of Finland (1944–1946) and then as President (1946–1956) of Finland. Paasikivi is remembered as the formulator of Finnish foreign policy after World War II. The conflict between the NCP and the communist Finnish People's Democratic League culminated when President Paasikivi fired the communist Minister of the Interior Yrjö Leino, who had used the State Police to spy on the party's youth wing among other abuses.
In 1951, the party changed its official name from the original Kansallinen Kokoomuspuolue to the current Kansallinen Kokoomus. The 1950s were also a time of ideological shifts, as the emphasis on individual liberty and free market reforms increased at the expense of social conservatism and maintenance of a strong government. A minor division in 1958 led to the formation of the Christian Democrats party. From 1966 to 1987, the party was in the opposition. By criticizing Finnish communists and President Urho Kekkonen of the Centre Party, the party had lost the President's trust—and thus governments formed by the Centre Party and left-wing parties followed one another. A new guard emerged within the NCP in the 1970s that sought to improve relations with long-serving President Kekkonen. Their work was partially successful in the late 1970s. However, even though the NCP supported Kekkonen for president in 1978 and became the second largest party in the country in the 1979 parliamentary election, a spot in the government continued to elude the NCP until the end of Kekkonen's time in office.
During the long years in opposition, the party's support grew steadily and in 1987 it attained the best parliamentary election result in its history so far. Harri Holkeri became the party's first prime minister since Paasikivi. During Holkeri's time in office, the Finnish economy suffered a downturn, precipitated by a multitude of factors, and the 1991 parliamentary election resulted in a loss. The party continued in government as a minor partner until 2003.
After losing six seats in the 2003 parliamentary election, the National Coalition Party spent the next electoral period in opposition. Jyrki Katainen was elected party chair in 2004 and in March 2006, vice-president of the European People's Party (EPP). Under the leadership of Katainen, chair until 2014, liberalism became the main attribute of the party. In the 2007 parliamentary election, the party increased its share to 50 seats in the largest gain of the election. The party held a close second place in Parliament, shy of the Centre Party and its 51 seats. After the election, the party entered into a coalition government together with the Centre Party, the Green League, and the Swedish People's Party. The NCP secured important ministerial portfolios, including finance and foreign affairs. In the 2011 parliamentary election, the party finished first place for the first time in its history with 44 seats, despite losing 6 seats, and party chair Jyrki Katainen formed his cabinet as a six-party coalition government from parties on the left and on the right after lengthy negotiations.
The National Coalition Party's candidate in the 2006 Finnish presidential election was former minister of finance and former party chair Sauli Niinistö. He qualified for the second round runoff as one of the top two candidates in the first round but was defeated by the incumbent Tarja Halonen with 51.8% of the vote against his 48.2%. The party nominated Sauli Niinistö again for the presidential election of 2012. Niinistö won the election, beating his Green League opponent Pekka Haavisto decisively on the second round with a 62.6% portion of the votes, and thus becoming the third president elected from the party and the first one since 1956. Niinistö's margin of victory was larger than that of any previous directly elected president in Finland. He won a majority in 14 of the country's 15 constituencies. Niinistö is described as a pragmatical fiscal conservative and a pro-European and supporting restraint of bailouts to partner countries. Upon taking office, Niinistö intended to strengthen interaction with the United States and China and maintain good relations with Russia as well as address the European debt crisis. Niinistö was re-elected in 2018 for a second six-year term. He ran as an independent but had the support of the National Coalition Party.
In 2014, Katainen stepped down as party chair and Prime Minister of Finland for a vice-president position in the European Commission. Katainen was replaced by Alexander Stubb as chair of the National Coalition Party in the June 2014 leadership election and thus became the prime minister. Katainen's cabinet was likewise succeeded by the cabinet of Alexander Stubb on 23 June 2014. Stubb went on to lead the party into the 2015 parliamentary election, in which the National Coalition Party placed second in votes and third in parliamentary seats. After the election, National Coalition joined a right-leaning majority coalition consisting of the three largest parties – the Centre Party, the Finns Party and the National Coalition Party. During his term, Stubb faced growing criticism for the NCP's poor poll results, the declining economy as well as compromises in the three-party government. After two years as party chair, Stubb was voted by 441 to 361 to be replaced by Petteri Orpo at the leadership election of June 2016.
Ideology and political positionEdit
According to its 2006-adopted party platform, the National Coalition Party's policy is based on "freedom, responsibility and democracy, equality of opportunity, education, supportiveness, tolerance and caring". The party is described by literature as a liberal and conservative as well as a liberal-conservative party in the centre-right with catch-all party characteristics. The non-profit Democratic Society described it as "the heir to both liberal and conservative strains of right-of-centre thought" that is becoming increasingly liberal compared to its official stance of conservatism.
Specifically, it contains elements of cultural and economic liberalism and social reformism. For example, it supports multiculturalism, work-based immigration, gay rights and same-sex marriage. Although it was previously considered to have been critical of the Nordic welfare model and campaigned for strict doctrines of economic liberalism, the party in the 1970s shifted to supporting more social liberalism, such as increased social security and a welfare state, which was justified by increased individual liberty. In international relations, the party advocates for multilateralism. It is pro-European and supports continued European integration within the European Union (EU). The party also advocates for Finnish membership in NATO.
The magazine Suomen Kuvalehti created a profile of a typical National Coalition Party voter from over 18,000 interviews in 2011: a 36-year-old lawyer or management consultant living with a family in the Capital region who supports economic liberalism and conservative values and enjoys alpine skiing and golf. Unlike other conservative parties in Europe, the party's voters are predominantly urban while rural regions favor the Centre Party. In 2005, the NCP had the highest proportion of women members out of the major parties. Membership in the party was momentarily on the rise in 2008, but had declined from 41,000 to 34,000 by 2016. In contrast, the party had 81,000 members in 1970. According to 2008 polling data, the National Coalition Party was the most positively viewed party by Finns and was the most favored party among young generations in 2008 and 2014 polls.
The main structure of the National Coalition Party comprises municipal and local chapters organized into districts and as well as the women's, student and youth wings. The party conference (Finnish: puoluekokous), the main decision-making body convening every two years with representatives from the suborganisations as its members, elects the party chair and three deputy chairs as well as the 61-member party council (Finnish: puoluevaltuusto).
The party chair and the deputy chairs lead the party board (Finnish: puoluehallitus), which is in charge of the daily management and is composed of a representative from each district and from each of the three wings. The party council also elects the party secretary to head the main office, located in Helsinki, and to coordinate the National Coalition Party's activities according to the board's decisions. Additionally, the NCP has separate groups for coordinating ministers, members of Parliament, and members of the European Parliament.
Two foundations, Kansallissäätiö and Porvarillisen Työn Arkiston Säätiö, assist the party with a source of funding and as an archive, respectively. Reportedly, donations to Kansallissäätiö are kept secret, but according to the treasurer, donations are a limited asset compared to the foundation's 5 million euro investment capital. In 2008, the foundation supported NCP with €400,000. The NCP owns two companies, Kansalliskustannus Oy and Suomen Kansallismedia Oy, to publish the party newspapers Nykypäivä and Verkkouutiset as well as to handle media communications. Additionally, some thematic organizations report themselves as close to the party, such as the Swedish-language group Borgerlig samling i Finland and the LGBT network Kansallinen sateenkaariryhmä – Kasary.
Parliament of FinlandEdit
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26 / 200
37 / 200
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|Election||Candidate||Popular vote||First ballot||Second ballot||Third ballot||Results|
68 / 300
68 / 300
80 / 300
|1931||Pehr Evind Svinhufvud||180,378||21.6||
64 / 300
88 / 300
98 / 300
151 / 300
|1937||Pehr Evind Svinhufvud||240,602||21.6||
63 / 300
94 / 300
104 / 300
|1940||Pehr Evind Svinhufvud||
1 / 300
4 / 300
|1946||Juho Kusti Paasikivi||
159 / 300
|1950||Juho Kusti Paasikivi||360,789||22.9||
68 / 300
171 / 300
|1956||Juho Kusti Paasikivi||340,311||17.9||
54 / 300
84 / 300
37 / 300
58 / 300
66 / 300
45 / 300
259 / 300
58 / 300
58 / 300
58 / 300
|1988[nb 1]||Harri Holkeri||603,180||20.2||
63 / 300
63 / 300
18 / 300
|Election||Candidate||1st round||2nd round||Result|
|1988[nb 1]||Harri Holkeri||570,340||18.4||Lost|
Prominent party leadersEdit
The following NCP members have held high offices:
- Lauri Ingman – Prime Minister 1918–1919, 1924–1925
- Antti Tulenheimo – Prime Minister 1925
- Pehr Evind Svinhufvud – President 1931–1937
- Edwin Linkomies – Prime Minister 1943–1944
- Juho Kusti Paasikivi – President 1946–1956, Prime Minister 1944–1946
- Harri Holkeri – Prime Minister 1987–1991
- Riitta Uosukainen – Minister of Education 1991–1994, Speaker of the Parliament 1994–2003
- Sauli Niinistö – Minister of Finance 1995–2003, Speaker of the Parliament 2007–2011, President 2012–
- Jyrki Katainen – Minister of Finance 2007–2011, Prime Minister 2011–2014, vice president of the European Commission 2014–
- Alexander Stubb – Prime Minister, 2014–2015, Minister of Finance 2015–2016
Notes and referencesEdit
- The newspapers Nykypäivä and Verkkouutiset are published by NCP-owned companies
- The 1988 presidential election was partially indirect. With no candidate achieving a majority of the popular vote, the president was elected by the electoral college which the voters voted for alongside the direct vote.
- "Puolueiden jäsenmäärien kehitys (ilmoitetut jäsenrekisteritiedot)" (in Finnish). Finnish Election Study Portal. 29 November 2016. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 26 November 2017.
- Terry, Chris (3 March 2014). "National Coalition Party (KOK)". The Democratic Society. Archived from the original on 19 November 2017.
- Lane, Jan-Erik; Ersson, Svante (2008). "The Nordic Countries: Compromise and Corporatism in the Welfare State". In Colomer, Josep (ed.). Political Institutions in Europe. Routledge. p. 260. ISBN 978-1-134-07354-2.
- Smolander, Jyrki (2000). Suomalainen oikeisto ja "kansankoti" : Kansallisen kokoomuksen suhtautuminen pohjoismaiseen hyvinvointivaltiomalliin jälleenrakennuskaudelta konsensusajan alkuun [The Finnish Right Wing and "Folkhemmet" – Attitudes of the National Coalition Party towards the Nordic Welfare Model from the Period of Reconstruction to the Beginning of Consensus]. University of Turku. ISBN 978-951-45-9652-0.
- Finn Laursen (2010). "The Nordic countries: between scepticism and adaptation". In Maurizio Carbone (ed.). National Politics and European Integration: From the Constitution to the Lisbon Treaty. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 188. ISBN 978-1-84980-514-8.
- Khan, Mehreen (12 June 2017). "Finnish government collapses after far-right elects hardline leader". Financial Times. Retrieved 21 December 2021.
- Ezrow, Lawrence (2011). "Electoral Systems and Party Responsiveness". In Norman Schofield; Gonzalo Caballero (eds.). Political Economy of Institutions, Democracy and Voting. Springer. p. 319. ISBN 978-3-642-19519-8.
- "Finland's coalition loses ground to opposition in local elections". euronews. 14 June 2021. Retrieved 21 December 2021.
- Outinen, Sami (8 August 2017). "From Steering Capitalism to Seeking Market Acceptance: Social Democrats and employment in Finland, 1975–1998". Scandinavian Journal of History. 42 (4): 389–413. doi:10.1080/03468755.2017.1336599. ISSN 0346-8755.
- Mads Dagnis Jensen (2015). "The Nordic countries and the European Parliament". In Caroline Howard Grøn; Peter Nedergaard; Anders Wivel (eds.). The Nordic Countries and the European Union: Still the Other European Community?. Routledge. p. 89. ISBN 978-1-317-53661-1.
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- Leino-Kaukiainen, Pirkko (1994). Suomalaiskansallinen Kokoomus osa 1: Suomalaisen puolueen ja Kansallisen kokoomuspuolueen historia vuoteen 1929. Helsinki: Suomen kansalliskirja.
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- Kansallisen Kokoomuspuolueen ohjelma [Programme of the National Coalition Party] (in Finnish). National Coalition Party. 2 February 1919.
- Ahtokivi, Ilkka (1996). "Kokoomus itsenäisessä Suomessa 1918–44". Verkkouutiset (in Finnish). Archived from the original on 13 May 2003. Retrieved 26 November 2017.
- Wilsford, David (1995). Political Leaders of Contemporary Western Europe: A Biographical Dictionary. Greenwood. pp. 347–352. ISBN 978-0-313-26213-5.
- Ahtokivi, Ilkka (1996). "Kokoomus Valpon silmätikkuna". Verkkojulkaisu (in Finnish). Archived from the original on 13 May 2003. Retrieved 26 November 2017.
- Valtala, Onni (1981). Suomen puolueiden muuttuminen 1945–1980. Turku: University of Turku.
- Saukkonen, Jussi; Rihtniemi, Juha; Korjus, Jaakko (1968). Kokoomus eilen ja tänään. National Coalition Party.
- Tuomisalo, Tomi (2006). Kokoomus, Kekkonen ja NKP:n luottamus. Kansallisen Kokoomuksen toiminta hallitusaseman saavuttamiseksi 1969–1981 (PDF) (in Finnish). University of Helsinki. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 December 2008.
- "Finnish PM to step down, seek new EU post". The Japan Times. 6 April 2014. ISSN 0447-5763. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 26 November 2017.
- Turner, B. (27 December 2016). The Statesman's Yearbook 2015: The Politics, Cultures and Economies of the World. Springer. pp. 459–460. ISBN 9781349672783. Archived from the original on 15 February 2018.
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- Henningsen, Bernd; Etzold, Tobias; Krister, Hanne (19 September 2017). The Baltic Sea Region: A Comprehensive Guide: History, Politics, Culture and Economy of a European Role Model. BWV Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag. p. 331. ISBN 9783830517481. Archived from the original on 9 January 2018.
- "Kokoomus: "Avioliitto sukupuolineutraaliksi"" [National Coalition Party: Marriage to be gender neutral]. Uusi Suomi (in Finnish). 13 June 2010. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 26 November 2017.
- Bucken-Knapp, Gregg; Hinnfors, Jonas; Spehar, Andrea; Levin, Pia (1 November 2014). "No nordic model: Understanding differences in the labour migration policy preferences of mainstream Finnish and Swedish political parties". Comparative European Politics. 12 (6): 584–602. doi:10.1057/cep.2014.22. ISSN 1472-4790. S2CID 145642640.
- "Centre Party split over immigration". Yle Uutiset. 7 March 2015. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 26 November 2017.
- "Kokoomus päätti Nato-linjastaan: Puolustusliittoon lähivuosina" [National Coalition Party's decision on their NATO policy: Join the Alliance in upcoming years] (in Finnish). Verkkouutiset. 12 June 2016. Archived from the original on 13 June 2016. Retrieved 12 June 2016.
- "Tällaisia ovat puolueiden peruskannattajat, katso profiilit ja kuvat". Suomen Kuvalehti (in Finnish). 20 January 2011. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
- "HS: Suurissa puolueissa miesenemmistö". Turun Sanomat (in Finnish). 18 September 2005. Archived from the original on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 26 November 2017.
- "Kokoomus, vihreät ja perussuomalaiset kasvattavat jäsenmääriään". Helsingin Sanomat. 8 February 2008. Archived from the original on 25 April 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Tutkimus: Kokoomus saa puolueista eniten myönteisyyttä". Uusi Suomi. 18 September 2008. Archived from the original on 30 April 2011.
- "Kokoomus ja vihreät kirivät nuorten suosioon". Yle Uutiset (in Finnish). 3 December 2008. Archived from the original on 29 February 2012. Retrieved 26 November 2017.
- "Kokoomus on yhä nuorten suosikki: SDP:n sanoma ei pure". Yle Uutiset (in Finnish). 31 December 2014. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 30 November 2017.
- "Kansallinen Kokoomus r.p:n säännöt" [Rules of the National Coalition Party] (PDF). National Coalition Party (in Finnish). 18 September 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 June 2017. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
- Poukka, Pentti (1996). Talo Pasilassa – Kansallissäätiö 1958–1994. Karisto.
- Poukka, Pentti (1984). Puolue ja säätiö: Kansallisen Kokoomuspuolueen Säätiö 1924–1984. Säätiö. ISBN 978-951-99568-4-8.
- "Kokoomus-säätiö pitää lahjoittajat salassa" [National Coalition Party foundation keeps its donors secret]. Yle Uutiset (in Finnish). 21 August 2009. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
- "Puolueen yhtiöt" [Party companies]. National Coalition Party (in Finnish). Archived from the original on 4 July 2017. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
- "Om oss". Borgerlig Samling i Finland (in Swedish). Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
- "Tästä on kyse". Kansallinen Sateenkaariryhmä (in Finnish). Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
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