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The European People's Party (EPP) is a conservative[6] and Christian democratic[6] European political party. A transnational organisation, it is composed of other political parties, not individuals. Founded by primarily Christian democratic parties in 1976, it has since broadened its membership to include liberal-conservative parties and parties with other centre-right political perspectives.[7][8][9][10]

European People's Party
Leader Donald Tusk PEC (PL)
Jean-Claude Juncker PEC (LU)
President Joseph Daul MEP (FR)
Group leader Manfred Weber MEP (DE)
Secretary-General Antonio López-Istúriz White MEP (ES)
Founded 8 July 1976 (1976-07-08)
Headquarters Rue du Commerce/Handelsstraat 10, 1000 — Brussels, Belgium
Think tank Wilfried Martens Centre for European Studies
Student wing European Democrat Students
Youth wing Youth of the European People's Party
Women's wing Women of the European People's Party
Ideology Liberal conservatism[1]
Conservatism[2]
Christian democracy[1]
Pro-Europeanism[3]
Political position Centre-right[2]
International affiliation Centrist Democrat International,[4]
International Democrat Union[5]
European Parliament group European People's Party
Colours      Blue
European Parliament
216 / 751
European Council
8 / 28
European Lower Houses
2,199 / 9,874
European Upper Houses
569 / 2,714
Website
www.epp.eu

The EPP has been the largest party in the European Parliament since 1999 and in the European Council since 2002. It is also by far the largest party in the current European Commission. The President of the European Council, President of the European Commission and the President of the European Parliament are all from the EPP. Many of the Founding fathers of the European Union were also from parties that later formed the EPP. Outside the EU the party also controls a majority in the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe. The EPP has alternated with its centre-left rival the Party of European Socialists (PES) as the largest European political party and parliamentary group.

The EPP includes major centre-right parties such as the Union of Germany (CDU/CSU), The Republicans of France, KDU-ČSL of the Czech Republic, Fine Gael of Ireland, Forza Italia of Italy, the People's Party (PP) of Spain and the Social Democratic Party of Portugal, the Civic Platform of Poland but also Fidesz of Hungary, a party with views often described as far-right and xenophobic.[11]

Contents

HistoryEdit

 
Logo of European People's Party from 1999 to 2015
 
From left to right:Tindemans, Bukman and Santer; former presidents of the EPP

According to its website, the EPP is "the family of the political centre-right, whose roots run deep in the history and civilisation of the European continent, and [which] has pioneered the European project from its inception".[12]

The EPP was founded in Luxembourg on 8 July 1976 on the initiative of Jean Seitlinger; Leo Tindemans, then Prime Minister of Belgium, who became the first President of the EPP; and Wilfried Martens, who later became both President of the EPP and Prime Minister of Belgium. It had been preceded by the Secretariat International des partis démocratiques d'inspiration chrétienne, founded in 1925,[13] the Nouvelles Equipes Internationales, founded in 1946[14] (or 1948),[13] and the European Union of Christian Democrats, founded in 1965.[14]

In the late 1990s the Finnish politician Sauli Niinistö negotiated the merger of the European Democrat Union (EDU), of which he was President, into the EPP. In October 2002 the EDU ceased its activities after being formally absorbed by the EPP at a special event in Estoril, Portugal. In recognition of his efforts Niinistö was elected Honorary President of the EPP the same year.

The EPP has had five Presidents:

No. Image Name Tenure Member state
1   Leo Tindemans 1976–1985   Belgium
2   Piet Bukman 1985–1987   Netherlands
3   Jacques Santer 1987–1990   Luxembourg
4   Wilfried Martens 1990–2013   Belgium
5   Joseph Daul 2013–present   France

Platform and manifestoEdit

 
Sauli Niinistö and Jyrki Katainen at an EPP summit in Helsinki

Political manifesto and platformEdit

During its Congress in Bucharest in 2012 the EPP updated its political platform after 20 years (since its Congress in Athens in 1992) and approved a political manifesto in which it summarised its main values and policies.

The manifesto highlights:

  • Freedom as a central human right, coupled with responsibility
  • Respect for traditions and associations
  • Solidarity to help those in need, who in turn should also make an effort to improve their situation
  • Ensuring solid public finances
  • Preserving a healthy environment
  • Subsidiarity
  • Pluralist democracy and a Social Market Economy

The manifesto also describes the EPP's priorities for the EU, including:

  • European Political Union
  • Direct election of the President of the European Commission
  • Completion of the European Single Market
  • Promotion of the family, improvements in education and health
  • Strengthening of the common immigration and asylum policy, and integrating immigrants
  • Continuation of enlargement of the EU, enhancement of the European Neighbourhood Policy and special relationship frameworks for countries that cannot, or do not want to, join the EU
  • Defining a true common EU energy policy
  • Strengthening European political parties

Electoral manifestoEdit

As a central part of its campaign for the European elections in 2009 the EPP approved its election manifesto at its Congress in Warsaw in April that year. The manifesto called for:

  • Creation of new jobs, continuing reforms and investment in education, lifelong learning, and employment in order to create opportunities for everyone.
  • Avoidance of protectionism, and coordination of fiscal and monetary policies.
  • Increased transparency and surveillance in financial markets.
  • Making Europe the market leader in green technology.
  • Increasing the share of renewable energy to at least 20 per cent of the energy mix by 2020.;.
  • Family-friendly flexibility for working parents, better child care and housing, family-friendly fiscal policies, encouragement of parental leave.
  • A new strategy to attract skilled workers from the rest of the world to make Europe’s economy more competitive, more dynamic and more knowledge-driven.
 
At its Congress in Warsaw in 2009 the EPP endorsed Barroso for a second term as President of the Commission.

GovernanceEdit

The EPP operates as an international non-profit association under Belgian law according to its by-laws, the Statutes of the European People's Party (Statuts du Parti Populaire Européen), originally adopted 29 April 1976.

PresidencyEdit

The Presidency is the executive body of the party. It decides on the general political guidelines of the EPP and presides over its Political Assembly. The Presidency is composed of the President, ten Vice-Presidents, the Honorary Presidents, the Secretary General and the Treasurer. The Chairperson of the EPP Group in the European Parliament, the Presidents of the Commission, the Parliament and the Council, and the High Representative (if they are a member of an EPP member party) are all ex officio Vice-Presidents.

 
President of the EPP Joseph Daul

As of 2015 the Presidency[15] of the EPP comprised:

Political AssemblyEdit

The Political Assembly defines the political positions of the EPP between Congresses, and decides on membership applications, political guidelines and the budget. The Political Assembly is composed of designated delegates from EPP member parties, associated parties, member associations and other affiliated groups. The Political Assembly meets at least three times a year.

CongressEdit

The Congress is the highest decision-making body of the EPP. It is composed of delegates from member parties, EPP associations, EPP Group MEPs, the EPP Presidency, national heads of party and government, and European Commissioners who belong to a member party, with the numbers of delegates being weighted according to the EPP's share of MEPs, and individual delegates being elected by member parties according to member parties' rules.[16]

Under the EPP's statutes the Congress must meet once every three years, but it also meets normally during the years of elections for the European Parliament (every five years), and extraordinary Congresses have also been summoned. The Congress elects the EPP Presidency every three years, decides on the main policy documents and electoral programmes, and provides a platform for the EPP's heads of government and party leaders.

Activities within the partyEdit

SummitEdit

EPP leaders meet for the EPP Summit a few hours before each meeting of the European Council in order to formulate common positions. Invitations are sent by the EPP President and attendees include, besides the members of the EPP's Presidency, all Presidents and Prime Ministers who are members of the European Council and belong to the EPP; the Presidents of the European Parliament, the European Commission and the European Council, as well as the High Representative for Foreign Affairs, provided that they belong to the EPP; Deputy Prime Ministers or other ministers in those cases where the Prime Minister of a country does not belong to an EPP member party; and, where no EPP member party is part of a government, the leaders of the main EPP opposition party.

 
Reunion Picture at 2011 Summit

Ministerial meetingsEdit

Following the pattern of the EPP Summit the party also organises regular EPP Ministerial meetings before each meeting of the Council of the European Union, with ministers, deputy ministers, secretaries of state and MEPs in the specific policy field attending:

  • General Affairs
  • Foreign Affairs
  • Economy and Finance
  • Home Affairs
  • Justice
  • Defence
  • Employment and Social Affairs
  • Industry
  • Agriculture
  • Energy
  • Environment[17]

Other activitiesEdit

The EPP also organises working groups on different issues and on an ad hoc basis, as well as meetings with its affiliated members in the European Commission. It also invites individual Commissioners to the EPP Summit meetings and to EPP Ministerial meetings.

Following amendments to the EU Regulation that governs Europarties in 2007, the EPP, like the other "Europarties", is responsible for organising a pan-European campaign for the European elections every five years. According to the Lisbon Treaty, the parties must present candidates for President of the European Commission, but the EPP had already done this by endorsing Jose Manuel Barroso for a second term in April 2009.

The year 2014 saw the first fully fledged campaign of the EPP ahead of the European elections of that year. The party nominated former Luxembourgish Prime Minister Jean-Claude Juncker as its candidate for President of the European Commission and led a pan-European campaign in coordination with the national campaigns of all its member parties.

Activities within European institutionsEdit

The EPP holds the Presidencies of two of the three main EU institutions: the European Commission, led by President Jean-Claude Juncker (CSV), and the European Council, led by Donald Tusk (PO), who has been nominated by the EPP and took office 1 December 2014.

Overview of the European institutionsEdit

Organisation Institution Number of seats
  European Union European Parliament
215 / 751
  European Union Committee of the Regions
125 / 350
  European Union European Commission
14 / 28
  European Union European Council
(Heads of Government)
8 / 28
  European Union Council of the European Union
(Participation in Government)
17 / 28

European CommissionEdit

In 2014 the EPP nominated Jean-Claude Juncker as its candidate for election as Commission President if it won the elections for the European Parliament that year. Because the EPP won Jean-Claude Juncker's nomination was endorsed by the European Council and he was elected by an absolute majority in the European Parliament.

On 1 November 2014 Jean-Claude Juncker Commission officially took office. Juncker's Commission includes 14 EPP Commissioners out of 28.

State Commissioner Portfolio Political party Photo
 
Luxembourg
JunckerJean-Claude Juncker President CSV  
 
Finland
KatainenJyrki Katainen European Commissioner for Jobs, Growth, Investment and Competitiveness Vice-President European Commissioner for Jobs, Growth, Investment and Competitiveness KO  
 
Poland
BieńkowskaElżbieta Bieńkowska European Commissioner for Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs PO  
 
Latvia
DombrovskisValdis Dombrovskis European Commissioner for the Euro and Social Dialogue Unity  
 
Belgium
ThyssenMarianne Thyssen European Commissioner for Employment, Social Affairs, Skills and Labour Mobility CD&V  
 
Hungary
NavracsicsTibor Navracsics European Commissioner for Education, Culture, Youth and Sport Fidesz  
 
Spain
CañeteMiguel Arias Cañete European Commissioner for Climate Action and Energy PP  
 
Bulgaria
GeorgievaKristalina Georgieva Vice-President European Commissioner for the Budget and Human Resources GERB  
 
Germany
OettingerGünther Oettinger European Commissioner for Digital Economy and Society CDU  
 
Austria
HahnJohannes Hahn European Commissioner for European Neighbourhood Policy and Enlargement Negotiations ÖVP  
 
Ireland
HoganPhil Hogan European Commissioner for Agriculture and Rural Development FG  
 
Portugal
MoedasCarlos Moedas European Commissioner for Research, Science and Innovation PPD-PSD  
 
Cyprus
HoganChristos Stylianides European Commissioner for Humanitarian Aid and Crisis Management DISY  
 
Greece
AvramopoulosDimitris Avramopoulos European Commissioner for Migration, Home Affairs and Citizenship New Democracy  

European ParliamentEdit

The EPP has the largest group in the European Parliament: the EPP Group. As of 2015 it has 216 Members of the European Parliament and its chairman is the German MEP Manfred Weber.

In every election for the European Parliament candidates elected on lists of member parties of the EPP are obliged to join the EPP Group in the European Parliament.

The EPP Group holds six of the fourteen vice-presidencies of the European Parliament.

European CouncilEdit

The EPP has 8 out of the 28 heads of state or government attending the EPP summits in preparation for the European Council (as of 1 July 2018):

Member state Representative Title Political party Member of the Council since Photo
  Austria Sebastian Kurz Chancellor ÖVP 17 December 2017  
  Bulgaria Boyko Borissov Prime Minister GERB 7 November 2014  
  Croatia Andrej Plenković Prime Minister HDZ 19 October 2016  
  Cyprus Nicos Anastasiades President DISY 28 February 2013  
  Germany Angela Merkel Chancellor CDU 22 November 2005  
  Hungary Viktor Orbán Prime Minister Fidesz 29 May 2010  
  Ireland Leo Varadkar Taoiseach[a 1] Fine Gael 22 June 2017  
  Romania Klaus Iohannis President PNL 21 December 2014  

The EPP also has other heads of state or government who do not normally take part in the European Council or EPP summits since that responsibility belongs to the other leaders of their countries: János Áder (Hungary, Fidesz), Sauli Niinistö (Finland, KOK).

National legislaturesEdit

Country Institution Number of seats
  Austria National Council
Lower house
50 / 183
Federal Council
Upper house
22 / 62
  Belgium Chamber of Representatives
Lower house
27 / 150
Senate
Upper house
12 / 60
  Bulgaria National Assembly
95 / 240
  Croatia Sabor
61 / 151
  Cyprus House of Representatives
18 / 56
  Czech Republic Chamber of Deputies
Lower house
17 / 200
Senate
Upper house
27 / 81
  Denmark The Folketing
6 / 179
  Estonia Riigikogu
12 / 101
  Finland Parliament
38 / 200
  France National Assembly
Lower house
100 / 577
Senate
Upper house
142 / 348
  Germany Bundestag
310 / 630
  Greece Parliament
76 / 300
  Hungary Országgyűlés
131 / 199
  Ireland Dáil
Lower house
50 / 166
Seanad
Upper house
19 / 60
  Italy Chamber of Deputies
Lower house
106 / 630
Senate
Upper house
65 / 315
  Latvia Saeima
23 / 100
  Lithuania Seimas
31 / 141
  Luxembourg Chamber of Deputies
23 / 60
  Malta House of Representatives
28 / 69
  Netherlands House of Representatives
Lower house
19 / 150
Senate
Upper house
12 / 75
  Poland Sejm
Lower house
152 / 460
Senate
Upper house
33 / 100
  Portugal Assembly of the Republic
107 / 230
  Romania Chamber of Deputies
Lower house
108 / 329
Senate
Upper house
47 / 136
  Slovakia National Council
11 / 150
  Slovenia National Assembly
25 / 90
  Spain Congress of Deputies
Lower house
134 / 350
Senate
Upper house
149 / 266
  Sweden Parliament
99 / 349
  United Kingdom House of Commons
Lower house
0 / 650
House of Lords
Upper house
0 / 793

Activities beyond the European UnionEdit

In third countriesEdit

Through its associate and observer parties the EPP has one head of state or government in non-EU countries, as well as the three members of the Bosnian Presidency, all of whom are invited to attend EPP summits and meetings:

State Representatives Title Political party In power since Photo
  Bosnia and Herzegovina Bakir Izetbegović
Mladen Ivanić
Dragan Čović
Bosniak Member of the Presidency
Serb Member of the Presidency
Croat Member of the Presidency
SDA
PDP
HDZ BiH
10 November 2010
17 November 2014
17 November 2014
 
 
  Norway Erna Solberg Prime Minister Høyre 16 October 2013  

The EPP also has other heads of state or government who do not normally attend the meetings, since the other leaders of their countries attend instead. They include Prime Minister Denis Zvizdić (Bosnia-Herzegovina, SDA) and President Gjorge Ivanov (Republic of Macedonia, VMRO-DPMNE).

In the Council of EuropeEdit

The Group of the EPP in the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe defends freedom of expression and information, as well as freedom of movement of ideas and religious tolerance. It promotes the principle of subsidiarity and local autonomy, as well as the defence of national, social and other minorities. The EPP/CD Group is led by Pedro Agramunt, a member of the Spanish Popular Party.

The EPP/CD group also includes members from parties that are not related to the EPP itself, including members of the Patriotic Union (Liechtenstein), the Progressive Citizens' Party (Liechtenstein), the National and Democratic Union (Monaco) and the Serbian Progressive Party.[18]

In the Organization for Security and Co-operation in EuropeEdit

The "EPP and like-minded Group" in the Parliamentary Assembly of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the most active political group in that body. The Group meets on a regular basis and promotes the EPP's positions. The members of the EPP Group also participate in the election-monitoring missions of the OSCE.

The Group is chaired by Walburga Habsburg Douglas (Sweden), and its Vice-Presidents are Consiglio Di Nino (Canada), Vilija Aleknaitė Abramikiene (Lithuania), Laura Allegrini (Italy) and George Tsereteli (Georgia).

The Group also includes members of parties not related to the EPP, accounting for the "like-minded" part of its name. Among them are members of the Patriotic Union (Liechtenstein), the Union for the Principality (Monaco), the Conservative Party of the United Kingdom, the Conservative Party of Canada and the Republican Party of the United States.

In the North Atlantic Treaty OrganizationEdit

The EPP is also present and active in the Parliamentary Assembly of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and forms the "EPP and Associated Members" Group there. It is led by the German CDU politician Karl Lamers, who is also the current President of the Assembly. The Group also includes members of the Conservative Party of Canada and the Republican Party of the United States.

 
From left to right: López-Istúriz, McCain & Martens

Relations with the United StatesEdit

The EPP has close relations with the International Republican Institute (IRI), an organisation funded by the U.S. government specially to promote democracy and democratisation. The EPP and the IRI cooperate within the framework of the European Partnership Initiative.[19]

The EPP's President, Wilfried Martens, endorsed Senator John McCain, the Republican nominee for president, in the presidential election in 2008[20] McCain is also Chairman of the IRI. In 2011 Martens and McCain made joint press statements expressing their concern about the state of democracy in Ukraine.[21][22]

Global networksEdit

The EPP is a member of two global centre-right organisations, the International Democrat Union (IDU) and the Christian Democrat International (CDI).

Wilfried Martens Centre for European StudiesEdit

Following the revision in 2007 of the EU Regulation that governs European political parties, allowing the creation of European foundations affiliated to Europarties, the EPP established in the same year its official foundation/think tank, the Centre for European Studies (CES). The CES includes as members all the major national think tanks and foundations affiliated to EPP member parties: the Konrad Adenauer Foundation (CDU), the Hanns Seidel Foundation (CSU), the Foundation for Analysis and Social Studies (PP), the Constantinos Karamanlis Institute for Democracy (ND), the Jarl Hjalmarson Foundation (MOD), the Political Academy of the Austrian People's Party (ÖVP) and others. During the European Parliament election campaign in 2009 the CES launched a web-based campaign module, tellbarroso.eu, to support Jose Manuel Barroso, the EPP's candidate for re-election as Commission President.

In 2014, the CES changed its name to Wilfried Martens Centre for European Studies in honour of Wilfried Martens, the late President of the EPP who was also President of the CES.

The current President of the WMCES is former Slovak Prime Minister Mikuláš Dzurinda.

The Budapest-based Robert Schuman Institute and the Luxembourg-based Robert Schuman Foundation are also affiliated with the European People's Party.[citation needed]

EPP associationsEdit

The EPP is linked to several specific associations that focus on specific groups and organise seminars, forums, publications and other activities.

Small and Medium Entrepreneurs Europe (SME Europe)Edit

SME Europe is the official business organisation of the EPP, and serves as a network for pro-business politicians and political organisations. Its main objective is to shape EU policy in a more SME-friendly way in close cooperation with the SME Circle of the EPP Group in the European Parliament, the DG Enterprise and the pro-business organisations of the EPP's member parties. Its top priorities are to reform the legal framework for SMEs all over Europe, and to promote and support the interests of small and medium-sized enterprises. SME Europe was founded in May 2012 by three Members of the European Parliament, Paul Rübig, Nadezhda Neynsky and Bendt Bendtsen.

European Democrat StudentsEdit

European Democrat Students (EDS) is now the official students’ organisation of the EPP, though it was founded in 1961, 15 years before the EPP itself. Led by Virgilio Falco, EDS has 40 member organisations, representing nearly 1,600,000 students and young people[23] in 31 countries, including Belarus and Georgia. Every year EDS hosts Summer and Winter "universities", and several seminars. It also regularly publishes a magazine, Bullseye, and organises topical campaigns.

European Senior UnionEdit

Founded in Madrid in 1995 and led by Ann Hermans of the CD&V, the European Senior Union (ESU) is the largest political senior citizens’ organisation in Europe. The ESCU is represented in 26 states with 45 organisations and about 500,000 members.

European Union of Christian Democratic WorkersEdit

The European Union of Christian Democratic Workers (EUCDW) is the labour organisation of the EPP, with 24 member organisations in 18 different countries. As the officially recognised EPP association of workers, the EUCDW is led by Elmar Brok, MEP. It aims at the political unification of a democratic Europe, the development of the EPP on the basis of Christian social teaching, and the defence of workers' interests in European policy-making.

Women of the European People’s PartyEdit

The Women of the European People’s Party (EPP Women) is recognised by the EPP as the official association of women from all like-minded political parties of Europe. EPP Women has more than 40 member organisations from countries of the European Union and beyond. All of them are women‘s organisations of political parties that are members of the EPP. EPP Women is led by Doris Pack.

Youth of the European People’s PartyEdit

The Youth of the European People’s Party (YEPP), led by Andrianos Giannou, is the EPP‘s official youth organisation. It has 64 member organisations, bringing together between one and two million young people in 40 countries.

MembershipEdit

Within the EPP there are three kinds of member organisations: full members, associate members and observers.

Full members are parties from EU states. They have absolute rights to vote in all the EPP's organs and on all matters.

Associate members have the same voting rights as full members except for matters concerning the EU's structure or policies. These associate membres are parties from EU candidate countries and EFTA countries.

Observer parties can participate in all the activities of the EPP, and attend the Congresses and Political Assemblies, but they do not have any voting rights.

A special status of "supporting member" is granted by the Presidency to individuals and associations. Although they do not have voting rights, they can be invited by the President to attend meetings of certain organs of the party. Three EU Commissioners, Dacian Cioloș, Kristalina Georgieva and Andris Piebalgs, are members of the EPP even though they do not belong to any national member party.

Full member partiesEdit

Country Party Name Abbr. Legislature Lower House Seats Legislature Upper House Seats
  Austria Austrian People's Party ÖVP
62 / 183
22 / 61
  Belgium Christian Democratic and Flemish CD&V
18 / 150
8 / 60
Humanist Democratic Centre cdH
9 / 150
4 / 60
  Bulgaria Citizens for the European Development of Bulgaria GERB
95 / 240
Democrats for a Strong Bulgaria DSB
0 / 240
Union of Democratic Forces SDS
0 / 240
Democratic Party DP
0 / 240
Movement "Bulgaria of the Citizens" BCM
0 / 240
  Croatia Croatian Democratic Union HDZ
56 / 151
Croatian Peasant Party HSS
5 / 151
  Cyprus Democratic Rally DISY
18 / 56
  Czech Republic TOP 09
7 / 200
2 / 81
Christian and Democratic Union – Czechoslovak People's Party KDU–ČSL
10 / 200
16 / 81
  Denmark Conservative People's Party C
6 / 179
Christian Democrats KD
0 / 179
  Estonia Pro Patria I
12 / 101
  Finland National Coalition Party KOK
38 / 200
  France The Republicans LR
112 / 577
144 / 348
  Germany Christian Democratic Union CDU
200 / 709
Christian Social Union in Bavaria CSU
46 / 709
  Georgia Movement for Liberty - European Georgia EG
21 / 150
  Greece New Democracy ND
76 / 300
  Hungary Fidesz
114 / 199
Christian Democratic People's Party KDNP
16 / 199
  Ireland Fine Gael
50 / 158
19 / 60
  Italy Forza Italia FI
104 / 630
61 / 315
Popular Alternative AP
2 / 630
1 / 315
Union of the Centre UdC
0 / 630
3 / 315
Populars for Italy PpI
0 / 630
0 / 315
  Latvia Unity V
23 / 100
  Lithuania Homeland Union – Lithuanian Christian Democrats TS-LKD
31 / 141
  Luxembourg Christian Social People's Party CSV/PSC
23 / 60
  Malta Nationalist Party
28 / 67
  Netherlands Christian Democratic Appeal CDA
19 / 150
12 / 75
  Poland Civic Platform PO
136 / 460
33 / 100
Polish People's Party PSL
15 / 460
0 / 100
  Portugal Social Democratic Party PSD
89 / 230
Democratic and Social Centre - People's Party CDS-PP
18 / 230
  Romania National Liberal Party PNL
69 / 329
30 / 136
Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania UDMR
21 / 329
9 / 136
People's Movement Party PMP
18 / 329
8 / 136
  Slovakia Christian Democratic Movement KDH
0 / 150
Most–Híd
15 / 150
Party of the Hungarian Community SMK/MKP
0 / 150
  Slovenia Slovenian Democratic Party SDS
21 / 90
Slovenian People's Party SLS
0 / 90
New Slovenia NSi
5 / 90
  Spain People's Party PP
134 / 350
148 / 265
  Sweden Moderate Party
83 / 369
Christian Democrats
16 / 369

Associate membersEdit

  Albania

  Macedonia

  Norway

  Serbia

   Switzerland

Observer membersEdit

  Armenia

  Belarus

  Bosnia and Herzegovina

  Finland

  Georgia

  Italy

  Moldova

  Norway

  San Marino

  Kosovo

  Ukraine

Former membersEdit

  Belarus

  France

  Italy

  Romania

  Slovakia

  Spain

  Turkey

  Ukraine

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The Irish Prime Minister is commonly referred to as the Taoiseach in both Irish and English. See: Article 28.5.1° of the Constitution of Ireland.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Nordsieck, Wolfram (2015). "European Union". Parties and Elections in Europe. Retrieved 2017-05-28.
  2. ^ a b Maushagen, Peter (4 September 2018). "German conservative seeks to front center-right in EU elections". Reuters. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
  3. ^ Macron, Merkel say ready to change EU treaties if needed
  4. ^ https://idc-cdi.com/en/organizacion/
  5. ^ https://www.idu.org/members/
  6. ^ a b Slomp, Hans (26 September 2011). Europe, A Political Profile: An American Companion to European Politics. ABC-CLIO. p. 246. ISBN 978-0-313-39182-8. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
  7. ^ José María Magone (2006). The New World Architecture: The Role of the European Union in the Making of Global Governance. New York: Transaction Publishers. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-7658-0279-8.
  8. ^ Vít Hloušek; Lubomír Kopeček (2010). Origin, Ideology and Transformation of Political Parties: East-Central and Western Europe Compared. London: Ashgate Publishing. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-7546-7840-3.
  9. ^ Josep Maria Colomer (2008). "The European Union: A Federal Democratic Empire?". In Josep Maria Colomer. Comparative European Politics. London: Taylor & Francis. p. 288. ISBN 978-0-415-43755-4.
  10. ^ Karl Magnus Johansson (2009). "The Emergence of Political Parties at European Level: Integration Unaccomplished". In Sverker Gustavsson; Lars Oxelheim; Lars Pehrson. How Unified Is the European Union?: European Integration Between Visions and Popular Legitimacy. Springer. p. 160. ISBN 978-3-540-95855-0.
  11. ^ "Hungarian government rehashes UKIP anti-migrant poster in new ad". Euronews. Retrieved 2018-03-30.
  12. ^ administrator. "EPP | European People's Party". Epp.eu. Archived from the original on 1 September 2011. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
  13. ^ a b "On the Road Towards Transnational Party Cooperation in Europe" by Steven van Hecke[dead link] in "European View", Volume 3, 2006, from the Centre for European Studies Archived 3 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
  14. ^ a b Claey, P. H.; Loeb-Mayer, N. (1979). "Trans-European Party Groupings: Emergence of New and Alignment of Old Parties in the Light of the Direct Elections to the European Parliament". Government and Opposition. 14 (4): 455. doi:10.1111/j.1477-7053.1979.tb00257.x.
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BibliographyEdit

  • Jansen, Thomas (1998). The European People's Party: Origins and Development. MacMillans.
  • Jansen, Thomas; Van Hecke, Steven (2011). At Europe's Service: The Origins and Evolution of the European People's Party. Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-19414-6. ISBN 978-3-642-19413-9. LCCN 2011927265.
  • Kaiser, Wolfram (2004). Michael Gehler; Wolfram Kaiser, eds. Transnational Christian Democracy: From the Nouvelles Equipes Internationales to the European People's Party. Christian Democracy in Europe since 1945. Routledge. pp. 194–208. ISBN 0-7146-5662-3.

External linksEdit