Serbian Progressive Party

The Serbian Progressive Party (Serbian Cyrillic: Српска напредна странка, romanizedSrpska napredna stranka, SNS) has been the ruling political party of Serbia since 2012.

Serbian Progressive Party
Српска напредна странка
Srpska napredna stranka
AbbreviationSNS
PresidentAleksandar Vučić
Deputy PresidentJorgovanka Tabaković
Vice Presidents
Parliamentary leaderMilenko Jovanov
Founders
Founded8 September 2008 (2008-09-08)
Registered10 October 2008 (2008-10-10)
Split fromSerbian Radical Party
HeadquartersPalmira Toljatija 5/3, Belgrade
NewspaperSNS Informator
Youth wingYouth Union
Women's wingWomen Union
Membership (2021)800,000
Ideology
Political positionBig tent
National affiliationTogether We Can Do Everything
European affiliationEuropean People's Party (associate)
International affiliationInternational Democrat Union
Colors  Blue
National Assembly
95 / 250
Assembly of Vojvodina
65 / 120
City Assembly of Belgrade
37 / 110
Party flag
Flag of the Serbian Progressive Party
Website
sns.org.rs

Founded by Tomislav Nikolić and Aleksandar Vučić in 2008 as a split from the far-right Serbian Radical Party (SRS), the SNS served in opposition to the Democratic Party (DS) for the next several years. Running on an anti-corruption platform, it managed a strong performance in the 2009 Belgrade local elections, and in the same year, became the strongest opposition party. After signing a cooperation agreement with New Serbia (NS), the Movement of Socialists (PS), and the Strength of Serbia Movement (PSS), it organized protests in 2011, demanding early parliamentary elections. General elections were called for May 2012, in which SNS won 25% of the popular vote, while Nikolić was elected president. SNS formed a government with the Socialist Party of Serbia (SPS) and the United Regions of Serbia (URS), with Vučić serving as the first deputy prime minister. After accusing businessman Miroslav Mišković of corruption and arresting him, Vučić called for early parliamentary elections to be held in March 2014. SNS campaigned on an anti-corruption platform while criticizing its opponents, which led to SNS winning 158 out of 250 seats in the National Assembly. Vučić was elected prime minister after the election, while Siniša Mali was elected mayor of Belgrade after the 2014 City Assembly election. The first major anti-government protests under the SNS took place in 2015, in which demonstrators called for the termination of the Belgrade Waterfront, an urban development project headed by the Government.

Another early parliamentary election was called for April 2016; the SNS campaigned on ensuring economic reforms and supporting the European Union. It won 131 seats in the National Assembly, and 63 out of 120 seats in the provincial election in Vojvodina; Vučić was re-elected prime minister, while Igor Mirović was elected president of the Government of Vojvodina. Vučić was chosen by SNS as its presidential candidate for the 2017 presidential election, in which he won 55% of the popular vote in the first run-off; mass protests were held until his inauguration on 31 May 2017. Ana Brnabić succeeded Vučić as prime minister. Zoran Radojičić replaced Mali as mayor after the March 2018 City Assembly election, while later that year, a series of anti-government protests began; demonstrators demanded more media freedom and an end to political violence. SNS launched a campaign in February 2019 which effectively silenced the protests. The major opposition Alliance for Serbia (SzS) boycotted the 2020 parliamentary election, which led SNS to winning a supermajority of 188 seats; CeSID stated that the election was met with "minimum democratic standards", while OSCE noted the presence of political polarization. Brnabić formed a government with SPS and the Serbian Patriotic Alliance (SPAS); the latter merged into SNS in May 2021. The SNS-led government was faced with environmental protests in 2021 and early 2022, while the constitutional changes that it proposed were voted in favor by a majority of voters in the January 2022 constitutional referendum. In the 2022 Serbian general election, Vučić was re-elected with 60% of the popular vote, while the SNS won 120 seats in the National Assembly; Aleksandar Šapić was elected mayor of Belgrade after the City Assembly election.

Scholars and political scientists consider the SNS a populist party, with some stating that it does not have a coherent ideology or that populist ideas are integral to its ideological profile. The party is supportive of Serbia's accession to the European Union, although political scientists have noted that its support is rather pragmatic. Scholars and authors have also described the SNS as a catch-all party; some have also positioned it as either a centrist, centre-right, or a right-wing party. SNS is economically neoliberal; it advocates for austerity, privatization, and liberalization of labour laws. Critics have assessed that after it came to power, Serbia has suffered from democratic backsliding into authoritarianism, as well as a decline in media freedom and civil liberties, with the V-Dem Institute categorizing Serbia as an electoral autocracy and Freedom House categorizing it as a hybrid regime. As of 2021, the SNS has at least 800,000 members, and is the largest political party in Europe by membership.

History

Formation

 
Tomislav Nikolić and Aleksandar Vučić at the founding convention on 21 October 2008

The conflict between Tomislav Nikolić and Vojislav Šešelj came to light after Nikolić's statement that the Serbian Radical Party (SRS) in the National Assembly would support the Stabilisation and Association Process agreement for the accession of Serbia to the European Union; Nikolić's statement was met with the resistance from Šešelj and his supporters.[1][2] Nikolić, who was the head of the SRS parliamentary group and a deputy president of the party since 1992, resigned from these posts on 7 September 2008.[2] A day later, Nikolić formed the "Forward, Serbia" parliamentary group with 10 other MPs;[3] five more MPs joined the parliamentary group in the following days.[4][5] Božidar Delić and Jorgovanka Tabaković, high-ranking members of SRS, were one of the founding members of the parliamentary group.[3]

On 11 September, Nikolić announced that the "Forward, Serbia" parliamentary group would transform itself into a political party.[6][7] It was speculated that Aleksandar Vučić, the general-secretary of SRS, would join the newly-formed party; Nikolić later that day confirmed that he would join the party.[6] A day later, SRS dismissed Nikolić and 17 other MPs from the party due to their opposition to Šešelj, while Vučić left SRS on 13 September.[8][9] Nikolić stated that the newly-formed party would be the party of the "modern right", whilst supporting strengthening relations with the European Union and Russia.[9] On 24 September, Nikolić announced that the party would be called the Serbian Progressive Party (SNS).[10][11] SNS was registered as a political party on 10 October, while the founding convention was held on 21 October, in which a 20-man presidency was presented with Nikolić as the president and Vučić as deputy president.[12][13] By that period, SNS received support from SRS members, while the SNS parliamentary group sat at 21 MPs.[14][15][16]

2008–2011

 
Nikolić was the president of SNS between 2008 and 2012

In November 2008, SNS called for snap parliamentary elections to be held by October 2009;[17] this proposal was also later supported by Čedomir Jovanović, leader of the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP).[18] Later that month, Vučić stated that SNS would act in opposition to the Democratic Party (DS).[19] SNS opposed the initiative regarding constitutional changes in May 2009, which it described as "frivolous".[20] A month later, SNS took part in local elections in Zemun, a Belgrade municipality known for being the stronghold of SRS; SNS won 34% of the popular vote, while SRS only won 10%.[21] By July 2009, SNS established itself as the strongest opposition party in Serbia.[22] SNS later campaigned and voted against the proposed Media Law, which they described as "anti-democratic".[23] SNS also called for resignation of prime minister Mirko Cvetković in October 2009.[24] It took part in local elections in Voždovac and Kostolac in December 2009;[25] in Voždovac, it won 37% of the popular vote and 26 seats in the Local Assembly, while in Kostolac it won 12% of the popular vote.[26][27] Following the elections, SNS formed a local government with the Democratic Party of Serbia (DSS) and New Serbia (NS) in Voždovac.[28] CeSID, a non-governmental and electoral monitoring organization, argued that the reason behind their electoral success was due to their anti-corruption promises.[29]

SNS announced in February 2010 that it collected over 500,000 signatures in favor of snap parliamentary elections;[30] a month later, it claimed that the number grew to over a million signatures.[31] After March 2010, SNS claimed that DS "was pulling the country into a deep crisis", and that in response it would hold anti-government protests in Belgrade.[32][33] SNS declaratively supported the Srebrenica Declaration [sr], which condemned the 1995 massacre in Srebrenica, although it abstained the vote in the National Assembly.[34][35] It announced in December 2010, that it would organize protests in February 2011;[36] NS also stated that it would join the protests.[37] The Government of Serbia stated that it would want to discuss with SNS, although SNS declined the offer.[38] SNS handed over 304,580 signatures in favor of changing the constitution in January 2011.[39] A series of anti-government protests that were organized by SNS began in February 2011.[40][41] SNS demanded the government to call snap elections by December 2011.[42][43][44] Initially it was held in Belgrade, although the protests spread through out other cities in Serbia in March and April 2011.[45][46][47] Nikolić went on a hunger strike in mid-April, after demanding president Boris Tadić to call snap parliamentary elections.[48] During a protest in October 2011, its high-party officials occupied the building of TV Kopernikus [sr].[49] In the National Assembly, SNS sent an initiative to lower the amount of MPs from 250 to 125 after collecting 280,000 signatures in support of the change.[50]: 181 

2012–2013

 
SNS members campaigning during the 2012 general election campaign period

Back in November 2010, SNS signed a cooperation agreement with NS and two other parties, the Movement of Socialists (PS) and Strength of Serbia Movement (PSS).[51] The parties later held a meeting in February 2011 and took part together in protests that were organized by SNS.[52][53] The protests played a role in boosting the popularity of SNS, while opinion polls showed that SNS received had support from voters than then-ruling DS.[54][55] Due to the anti-government protests, President Tadić called for general elections to be held in spring of 2012.[56][57] In January 2012, it was confirmed that SNS would take part in a joint parliamentary list together with NS, PS, PSS, and eight minor parties and associations.[58][59] The coalition was later dubbed "Let's Get Serbia Moving".[60] Nikolić was chosen as the presidential candidate of SNS, while Tabaković was chosen as the candidate for prime minister.[61][62] During the campaign period, SNS criticized DS whilst campaigning on a pro-European platform, as well as promising to "correct the mistakes of DS".[54] Rudy Giuliani, the former mayor of New York City, met with Nikolić and Vučić during the campaign period in Belgrade in order to consult with them.[63][64] In the parliamentary election, the SNS-led coalition topped at the first place with 25% of the popular vote and won 73 seats in the National Assembly; SNS itself won 55 seats.[65][66] Nikolić accused DS of vote fraud; during a press conference he showed a bag with about three thousand ballots that were allegedly thrown into a trash can.[54] In the presidential election, Nikolić ended up in a run-off against President Tadić; Nikolić ended up winning the second run-off.[67] SNS did not receive the highest amount of votes in the provincial and Belgrade City Assembly elections, and was unable to form governments in Vojvodina and Belgrade.[68][69] Shortly after the presidential election, Nikolić resigned as the president of SNS and was succeeded by Vučić in September 2012;[70][71] Tabaković was also elected deputy president.[71]

Nikolić held consultations with parliamentary parties after the election.[72] After the consultations, Ivica Dačić, the leader of the Socialist Party of Serbia (SPS), was given the mandate to form a government.[54][73] Dačić reached a deal with SNS and the United Regions of Serbia (URS), and on 27 July the new government was sworn in.[74][75][76] Vučić became the first deputy prime minister.[77] After becoming the first deputy prime minister, Vučić entered into a conflict with oligarch businessman Miroslav Mišković; he claimed that Mišković allegedly "gained illegal profit" in the 2000s.[78] Mišković was arrested in December 2012 on suspicion of corruption,[79][80] although in July 2013 he was released from custody.[81] In October 2012, it was reported that SNS had over 330,000 members.[82] The People's Party (NP), led by former mayor of Novi Sad Maja Gojković, merged into SNS in December 2012.[83] By February 2013, SNS received over 40% of support in opinion polls, while DS, now in opposition, had 13% of support.[84] Euractiv reported that SNS was accused of eyeing a snap parliamentary election, although it declined that it was conducting a smear campaign.[85] In April 2013, a majority of Main Board members voted in favor of the Brussels Agreement, a normalization agreement between Serbia and Kosovo.[86] In July 2013, SNS and SPS concluded that they continue leading the government without URS;[87][88] the SNS–SPS government was reshuffled in early September 2013.[89] Veroljub Arsić, who served as the head of the SNS parliamentary group, was replaced by Zoran Babić in August 2013.[90] A month later, Dragan Đilas, the mayor of Belgrade, was dismissed after a vote of no confidence that was called by SNS and DSS; SPS and the Party of United Pensioners of Serbia (PUPS) also voted in support of the vote.[91] Guy de Launey, a BBC correspondent, Dragoljub Žarković, the co-founder of the Vreme newspaper, and journalist Koča Pavlović, stated that Vučić held the most influence and power in the government due to his status as the president of the largest party in the coalition government.[92][93][94] Freedom House, a non-profit research organization, noted that the efforts to curb corruption during 2013 received mixed results.[95]: 546 

2014–2016

 
A series of protests against the construction of the Belgrade Waterfront, an urban development project headed by the Government of Serbia that began during Vučić's first cabinet, were held in 2015 and 2016. A scale model of the project can be seen in this picture.

SNS held an assembly on 26 January 2014 during which Vučić was re-elected unopposed as the party's president.[96] At the assembly, he proposed to "test the will of the people" and called for a snap parliamentary election.[96][97] President Nikolić dissolved the National Assembly on 29 January and set the parliamentary election to be held on 16 March 2014.[98] In February, SNS presented its ballot list under the name "Future We Believe In".[99] Additionally, it was announced that the Social Democratic Party of Serbia (SDPS), Serbian Renewal Movement (SPO), and Christian Democratic Party of Serbia (DHSS) would appear on its list, alongside NS, PS, and PSS, who appeared on the SNS list in 2012.[99][100] SNS campaigned on an anti-corruption platform,[101] although Aleksandar Pavković, a Macquarie University professor, noted that there was no evidence that the platform decreased corruption.[102] SNS also based its platform on criticizing its opponents, especially DS.[103] In the parliamentary election, the SNS-led coalition won a majority of 158 seats in the National Assembly.[104] Simultaneously, the City Assembly elections were held in Belgrade, in which the SNS-led coalition won 63 out of 110 seats.[105] Siniša Mali, an independent nominated by SNS, was elected mayor of Belgrade on 24 April 2014.[106] Vučić was elected and sworn in as prime minister three days later.[107] His first cabinet was mostly composed of SNS and SPS individuals.[108][109]: 4  The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) noted that the SNS now had "complete political dominance" due to the status of Vučić as prime minister.[110] BBC News described the victory as an "unprecedent event".[111] In October 2014, Radomir Nikolić, the son of President Nikolić, was brought to power in Kragujevac, the fourth largest city in Serbia by population, after successfully removing Veroljub Stevanović from power after a vote of no confidence.[112][113] By early 2015, SNS reported that it had around 500,000 members.[114] Since coming to power, no major protests in Serbia were held until the anti-government protests in April 2015.[115] The Do not let Belgrade drown (NDB) initiative, which headed the protests, opposed the Belgrade Waterfront, an urban development project headed by the Government of Serbia;[116] one of its representatives described it as a "big scam".[117][118] The project previously received criticism, with Milan Nešić, a Radio Free Europe journalist, describing it as a "pre-election trick".[119] The protests lasted up to September 2015.[120] After the cuts in public sector, protests were also held in December 2015.[103][121] Freedom House criticized the SNS-led government by stating that it displayed "a sharp intolerance for any kind of criticism either from opposition parties, independent media, civil society, or even ordinary citizens".[122]

In January 2016, Vučić announced that parliamentary elections will be held in April 2016.[123] Der Standard, an Austrian daily newspaper, stated that "he [Vučić] now has an absolute majority, and he wants to insure it for the next four years".[124] Vučić stated that the reason behind the snap election was to "ensure a fresh mandate to push European Union accession".[125] SNS began its campaign in late February 2016.[126] In early March, President Nikolić dissolved the National Assembly and scheduled the parliamentary elections for 24 April 2016.[127][128] This time, SNS took part under the "Serbia Is Winning" banner, while individuals from the Party of United Pensioners of Serbia (PUPS) and Serbian People's Party (SNP) were also on its ballot list, including individuals from parties that took part with SNS in the 2014 election.[129][130] It was also reported that Aleksandar Martinović would replace Babić as the head of the SNS parliamentary group.[131] During the campaign, SNS expressed its support for the European Union and military neutrality, while maintaining cooperation with NATO, and ensuring economic reforms, and a Western-type economy.[132] The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) noted that billboards and posters that promoted SNS were dominant during the campaign.[109]: 10  In the parliamentary election, the SNS-led coalition won a majority of 131 seats in the National Assembly.[109]: 26 [133] Simultaneously, the provincial election was held in Vojvodina, in which SNS won 63 out of 120 seats in the Assembly of Vojvodina.[134] Florian Bieber, a Luxembourgian political scientist, noted that "the landslide victory did not come as a surprise".[135] DS, DSS, the Social Democratic Party (SDS), Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), League of Social Democrats of Vojvodina (LSV), Dveri, and Enough is Enough (DJB), all whom were in opposition to SNS, claimed that SNS allegedly stole the elections.[136] Shortly after the election, opposition parties organized a protest in Belgrade.[137] Another series of anti-government protests began in Belgrade in May 2016 after the demolition of private objects in Savamala, an urban neighborhood in Belgrade where the Belgrade Waterfront project is supposed to be built.[138] The NDB initiative organized the protests which ended up lasting until October 2016.[139][140] Vučić was re-elected president of SNS in May 2016.[141] Igor Mirović was elected president of the Government of Vojvodina in June 2016.[142] Vučić was given the mandate by President Nikolić to form a government, which he did with SPS in August 2016.[143][144] Ana Brnabić, an openly lesbian and independent politician, was appointed minister in the Vučić's cabinet.[144][145] In December 2016, Vučić affirmed that he would not run in the 2017 presidential election, although he also stated that the main body of SNS would decide its presidential candidate.[146] Freedom House noted that "Serbia's democracy further deteriorated" in 2016.[147]

2017–2019

 
After the election of Vučić as president, protests sparked in Belgrade and other locations across Serbia

In January 2017, President Nikolić stated that he would want to run for re-election,[148] although ministers such as Zorana Mihajlović and Aleksandar Vulin persuaded Vučić to run instead.[149][150] A month later, SNS announced Vučić as its presidential candidate.[151] Vučić received support from the coalition partners of SNS, and SPS, Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians (VMSZ), and United Serbia (JS).[152] During the campaign period, it was reported that major newspapers, such as Alo!, Blic, Večernje novosti, Politika, Dnevnik, Kurir, and Srpski telegraf, printed the campaign posters of SNS on its front pages; Voice of America reported it as an "unprecedented move".[153] Vučić campaigned on raising living standards, selling or shutting down state-owned companies, and austerity cuts.[154] Robert Creamer, an American political consultant, criticized him and stated that "Vučić would be in a position to select a prime minister of his choice, [and] control the judiciary, and the election apparatus — eliminating all checks and balances in the Serbian government".[155] In the presidential election, Vučić won 55% of the popular vote in the first run-off.[156] Shortly after his election, mass protests erupted in Belgrade, Novi Sad, Niš, and other locations across Serbia.[157][158][159] The protests lasted until Vučić's inauguration, which occurred on 31 May 2017.[160] In June 2017, Vučić proposed Brnabić as prime minister.[161] She was sworn in on 29 June 2017.[162] Radio Free Europe noted that, even though the presidency is a ceremonial role, Vučić has retained de facto power of SNS,[163] while the Belgrade Centre for Human Rights noted that the political system de facto turned into a presidential one, similar to the era of Slobodan Milošević.[164]: 25  Zoran Panović [sr], a journalist for Danas, reported that by October 2017 SNS was close to reaching 600,000 members.[165]

SNS announced its participation in the 2018 Belgrade City Assembly election under the "Because We Love Belgrade" banner in January 2018.[166] Zoran Radojičić, a pediatric surgeon, was chosen to be the first candidate on its ballot list.[167] At a conference in Belgrade Youth Center in February 2018, its ballot list candidates and election program were presented.[168] In the City Assembly election, SNS won 64 seats.[169] CRTA [sr], a non-governmental organization, noted that opposition politicians were mostly criticized by SNS during the campaign period.[170] Radojičić replaced Mali and was appointed mayor in June 2018.[171] In July 2018, political scientist Boban Stojanović noted that SNS had around 700,000 members.[172] A series of anti-government protests began in December 2018 after an assault on Borko Stefanović, an opposition politician.[173] The demonstrators criticized Vučić and SNS, demanded the end to political violence and stifling media freedom and freedom of expression.[174][175] The protests, which were attended by tens of thousands, continued into 2019.[174][176] In January 2019, SNS organized a meeting in support of Vladimir Putin's visit to Belgrade.[177][178] A month later, SNS launched a campaign named "Future of Serbia", in contrary to the anti-government protests.[179][180] Journalist Slobodan Georgiev noted that the campaign effectively silenced the protests.[181] Prime Minister Brnabić joined SNS in October 2019.[182]

2020–present

 
Brnabić, an independent politician who later joined SNS, has been the prime minister since 2017. Since then, she was re-elected in 2020 and 2022.

In January 2020, Vučić announced that the electoral threshold would be lowered to 3-percent.[183] Critics saw this as a way that SNS would allow the "controlled opposition" to enter the National Assembly.[183] SNS announced in February 2020 that it would take part under the "For Our Children" banner in the 2020 parliamentary election, stating that more than 50 percent of its ballot list would be comprised of young people.[184] The SNS-led ballot list was headed over to the Republic Electoral Commission (RIK) on 5 March,[185] although the government postponed the election on 16 March due to the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic in Serbia.[186] Initially supposed to be held on 26 April, the election was postponed to 21 June 2020.[187] In the same month, the anti-government protests which began in December 2018, formally ended in March 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[188] The Alliance for Serbia (SzS), the major opposition alliance, announced that it would boycott the election, claiming that the elections "would not be free and fair".[189][190] Freedom House stated in May 2020 that it labeled Serbia as a hybrid regime, citing alleged "increased state capture, abuse of power, and terror tactics" by Vučić.[191] In the parliamentary election, the SNS-led coalition won a supermajority of 188 seats;[192] alongside SNS, the SPS–JS coalition and the Serbian Patriotic Alliance (SPAS) only crossed the electoral threshold.[193] Vučić described it as "historical moment".[194] Journalist Milenko Vasović saw the SNS election campaign as a promotion of Vučić and not the party itself.[195] Simultaneously, a provincial election was held in Vojvodina in which SNS also won a supermajority of 76 seats.[196] CeSID concluded that the election was met with "minimum democratic standards",[197] while OSCE characterized that the election was met with political polarization.[198] Bieber described it as a pyrrhic victory for SNS, and noted that the incoming legislation would not include opposition parties.[199] Although, journalist Patrick Kingsley stated that the election could allow "for greater momentum in peace talks with Kosovo".[200] After gaining a supermajority in the National Assembly, the Government of Serbia submitted a constitutional amendment regarding judiciary.[201] In early July 2020, a series of protests and riots against Vučić and the announced tightening of measures due to the spread of COVID-19 began in Belgrade.[202] It was reported that demonstrators took a peaceful approach in the protests, although that a group of far-right demonstrators also stormed the building of the National Assembly; the police shortly after cleared the building, although the clashes continued outside.[203][204][205] The government responded by taking a violent approach towards the protests.[204][206] The protests lasted until the first constitutive session of the post-2020 election legislation, which occurred on 3 August 2020.[207][208] After the first constitutive session, the SNS parliamentary group changed its name to "Aleksandar Vučić – For Our Children".[209] In September 2020, it was announced that SNS had around 750,000 members.[210] Prime Minister Brnabić was re-elected in October 2020, while her new cabinet was mostly composed of members of SNS, SPS, and SPAS.[211] The National Assembly adopted the proposal for constitutional changes in December 2020.[212]

Vučić announced in early May 2021 that he submitted a proposal to merge SPAS into SNS.[213] Aleksandar Šapić, the leader of SPAS, stated that he supported the proposal.[214] The merge was completed on 26 May, after which Šapić was appointed vice president of SNS, while SPAS MPs joined SNS in June 2021.[215][216][217] Dialogues to improve election conditions between government and opposition parties, in which SNS took part, began in May 2021 and lasted until late October 2021.[218][219] In June 2021, newspaper Danas reported that SNS had over 800,000 members.[220] A series of environmental protests began in September 2021 due to the concerns about the Project Jadar, a lithium mining project headed by Rio Tinto, an Anglo-Australian mining company.[221] The Government of Serbia supported the Project Jadar,[222] whilst SNS also officials criticized the protests.[223][224] The protests lasted until 15 February 2022.[225] The Government of Serbia adopted changes for the law on referendum and people's initiative on 10 November 2021.[226] The changes received criticism due to the abolishment of the 50% turnout that was needed for referendums to pass.[227][228] At the end of the November 2021, Vučić was re-elected president of SNS.[229] In January 2022, a constitutional referendum was held.[230] A majority of 60% of voters voted in favor of proposed changes,[230] an option which was supported by SNS.[231] In preparation for the 2022 general election, SNS and SPS announced that they would not run on a joint parliamentary list and that SPS would support the presidential candidate of SNS.[232] Additionally, SNS announced Šapić as its mayoral candidate for the Belgrade City Assembly election.[233] The National Assembly was dissolved in February 2022 in order to call snap parliamentary elections; presidential elections were called next month.[234][235] In the 2022 election, SNS took part under the "Together We Can Do Everything" banner,[236] while Vučić was announced as the presidential candidate of SNS in March 2022.[237] Transparency Serbia noted that SNS had "a significant domination in the media" during the campaign period, while CRTA alleged that the campaign period was met in worse conditions than in 2020.[238][239] In the presidential election, Vučić was re-elected after winning 60% of the popular vote, while in the parliamentary election, the SNS-led coalition won 120 seats.[240][241] In the Belgrade City Assembly election, the SNS-led coalition won 48 seats.[242] Šapić was elected mayor of Belgrade in June 2022.[243] Milenko Jovanov was appointed head of the SNS parliamentary group in August 2022, replacing Martinović, who was its head since 2016.[244] Later that month, Prime Minister Brnabić was given another mandate to form a government.[245] The composition of her third cabinet was announced on 23 October, while the cabinet was sworn in on 26 October.[246][247]

Political positions

Domestic policies

Following the establishment of SNS, Aleksandar Vučić denounced his previous support for the establishment of Greater Serbia, while Tomislav Nikolić stated that SNS would continue the accession of Serbia to the European Union.[248][249] SNS declared its main tasks to be "fight against corruption and the realization of the rule of law",[250] while describing itself as a "state-building party".[251] Its white paper (election program) was published in October 2011.[50]: 189  Jovan Teokarević, an associate professor at the Belgrade Faculty of Political Sciences, described their ideological orientation as a "complete u-turn" in comparison with the Serbian Radical Party (SRS).[252] Bojana Barlovac, a Balkan Insight journalist, stated that SNS "became much closer to DS on its policy profile", although in 2013, she described the party as conservative.[253][254] Slobodan Antonić, a political scientist and sociologist, stated in 2014 that "ideological differences between DS and SNS are now non-existent".[255] A year later, Antonić described SNS as a "party of personal power one leader and political marketing as its only true ideology".[256]

SNS has been described as a populist party. Biserko stated that SNS is populist and that it built its ideological image on "social dissatisfaction".[257]: 20–21  Dan Bilefsky, a New York Times journalist, also described the party as populist.[258] Zoran Lutovac, a political scientist and future president of DS, described SNS as populist.[259]: 91  He also added that SNS does not have a "coherent ideology" and added that its coalition "includes everyone, regardless of its ideology".[259]: 88  Scholars and political scientists such as Justin Vaïsse, Chiara Milan, and Florian Bieber also agreed that SNS is populist.[260][261][262] The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) described SNS as populist as early as in January 2009.[263] Sociologist Jovo Bakić described SNS as a "pragmatically re-profiled" and moderately conservative party, and compared its development to Gianfranco Fini's projects in Italy.[264] Additionally, he stated that "since its foundation SNS had wanted to remodel itself as a conservative party".[265] Scholars and journalists had also described SNS as conservative,[266] liberal-conservative,[267][268] and national-conservative.[269][270] Marko Stojić, a Metropolitan University Prague lecturer, stated that "even though SNS claimed it was conservative" it cannot be described as conservative due to its pragmatic and weak ideological profile.[271]: 71  Zoran Stojiljković and Dušan Spasojević, professors at the Belgrade Faculty of Political Sciences, noted that following the formation of SNS, the Serbian political system acquired characteristics of moderate pluralism, and described SNS as a catch-all party.[272]: 448  Additionally, they noted that SNS was formed as a centre-right party,[273]: 115  although that its image shifted to the centre after the 2012 elections.[272]: 452  Stojiljković and Spasojević also noted that SNS showed "clear populistic elements",[273]: 115  and that "populist ideas are integral and important for its ideological profile".[273]: 116  Radio Free Europe also described the party as centrist and catch-all, although it noted that "some analysts also stated that the party is right-leaning and conservative".[274] Bieber described SNS centre-right but also as "non-ideological".[275] BBC News noted that SNS "does not have a clear programmatic nor ideological vision", and added that SNS functions as a catch-all party.[276] Stojić described SNS as a "typical catch-all party".[271]: 135  Bojan Klačar of CeSID stated that SNS "espouses a right-of-centre ideology", but stated that "more importantly, SNS is a catch-all party" that captures a wide variety of opinions, and that SNS can be also considered to be liberal and pro-European.[277][278] Political scientists Đorđe Pavićević and Boban Stojanović, journalist Ivan Radovanović, and authors Aleksandar Marinković and Novak Gajić also described SNS as a catch-all party.[279][280][281] Additionally, authors had described SNS as centrist,[282][283] and centre-right;[284][285] some also described it as right-wing.[286][287]

SNS is economically neoliberal,[271]: 138 [288][289] and it advocates for austerity, market economy reforms, privatization, reduced spending, and liberalization of labour laws.[290] Stojiljković and Spasojević noted that SNS already displayed their neoliberal position during the 2012 election period, and that SNS campaigned on significantly reducing subsidies, but also the number of MPs, ministries, agencies, institutes, and the state administration.[273]: 115  Additionally, Stojiljković described its position as "neoliberal populist".[291] SNS has enacted centralization policies, especially in Vojvodina.[292]: 14  During the 2015 European migrant crisis, the SNS-led government did not impose any restrictions on migrants while crossing into the European Union,[293] which author Vedran Džihić as a pragmatic move.[294] Stojić described the move as "populist-Euroenthusiastic".[271]: 250 

Since coming to power in 2012, observers have assessed that Serbia has suffered from democratic backsliding into authoritarianism,[295][296] followed by a decline in media freedom and civil liberties.[297][298] A research that was conducted by Cenzolovka in 2015 noted that SNS used media outlets to further their influence.[299] Additionally, SNS was accused of paying internet trolls to praise the government and condemn those who think the opposite on internet forums and social networks.[300] In 2020, Twitter removed 8,558 reportedly fake accounts that promoted SNS and Vučić, whilst criticizing the opposition.[301][302] In 2021, the V-Dem Institute, categorized Serbia as an electoral autocracy; the institute also stated that the standards of judiciary and electoral integrity had declined in the past ten years.[303]: 12–23  According to the Freedom House's report from 2022, SNS has "eroded political rights and civil liberties, putting pressure on independent media, the political opposition, and civil society organizations".[304] Additionally, it reported that internet portals close to the government that "manipulate facts and slander independent media" continued to receive public funds on state and local levels.[305] As a response, Vučić and Brnabić criticized Freedom House's report.[306][307] In a Voice of America interview, Vladimir Orlić also stated that "Serbia is ranked higher than some EU countries on the freedom index".[308]

Foreign policies

Journalists have described SNS as pro-European.[309][310] Biserko stated that its support for European Union is rather a "declarative support", and not a substantial one.[50]: 614  Stojić described SNS as "soft Euroenthusiast".[271]: 232  Additionally, Vladimir Goati, a political scientist, described the position of SNS towards the European Union rather as pragmatic, than ideological,[311] while economic anthropologist Jovana Diković described SNS as "euro-pragmatic".[312] In a 2014 report, Freedom House noted that the SNS-led government advanced Serbia's efforts regarding the European Union.[95]: 544  Dragan Đukanović, a Belgrade Faculty of Political Sciences professor, noted that SNS received support from the U.S. and European Union due to its pro-European agenda.[313] Sonja Biserko, a human rights activist, argued in 2013 that SNS declaratively adopted the agenda of DS and the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) regarding the views on the European Union.[314] Jacobin, an American socialist magazine, described SNS as a fusion of "a nationalist, pro-Russian wing and a modernizing, pro-European wing", while describing Nikolić as being represented in the pro-Russian wing, and Vučić in the pro-European wing, although that the both wings agree on neoliberal austerity.[315] A European Parliament-published study noted that the SNS-led government continued the "four-pillar policy", a policy that seeks cooperation with European Union, United States, Russia, and China, which was introduced by Boris Tadić, the former president of Serbia and leader of DS.[316] SNS supports military neutrality and it opposes joining NATO, although Serbia has continued militarily cooperating with NATO.[317][318]

Organization

SNS has a presidency which acts as the operational and political body of the party; it is composed of 30 members.[319] It also has a main board and an executive board.[320][321] The current president of SNS is Aleksandar Vučić, who was elected in 2012 and most recently re-elected in 2021; Jorgovanka Tabaković is the deputy president.[71][229] Aleksandar Šapić, Ana Brnabić, Marko Đurić, Miloš Vučević, Nevena Đurić, Siniša Mali, and Vladimir Orlić are the current vice-presidents of SNS; all of them were elected in 2021.[229] Milenko Jovanov has been the head of the SNS parliamentary group since 2022.[244]

The headquarters of SNS are located at Palmira Toljatija 5/3 in Belgrade.[322] SNS publishes SNS Informator, the party's newspaper.[323] It also has a youth and women's wing.[324][325] SNS also operates the For the Serbian People and Country Foundation [sr], which it formed in 2019.[326] SNS has received most of its support because of Vučić;[292]: 29  an opinion poll conducted by Faktor Plus in December 2014 noted that 80% of SNS voters would not vote for SNS if someone else than Vučić was the head of the party.[327] With at least 800,000 members as of 2021,[220] SNS is the largest political party in Europe by membership as of 2019.[328]

Foreign cooperation

SNS representatives in the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe joined the European People's Party (EPP) in 2013.[329] In the same year, SNS received support from the Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU) due to the Brussels Agreement.[292]: 38  SNS has received support from the CDU in regards to membership in the EPP in 2015.[330] A year later, SNS and its youth wing became associate members of EPP.[331][332] SNS officials attended CDU's congress in 2018.[333] SNS became a member of the International Democrat Union in 2018.[334]

SNS took part in a meeting with Chinese Communist Party (CCP) officials in 2019.[335] At the meeting, the parties "pledged to forge ever-closer links".[336] SNS officials were also present in a 2021 summit that was organized by CCP.[337] SNS established connections with United Russia (YeR) in 2010.[338] Tomislav Nikolić was present at a YeR congress in 2011, while a year later, SNS officials were present at a YeR conference.[339][340] Since then, SNS and YeR have signed several cooperation agreements,[341][342] most recently being in 2021.[343]

In 2011, SNS signed a cooperation agreement with the Freedom Party of Austria.[344] SNS also cooperated with Fidesz, the ruling party of Hungary; Fidesz members attended a SNS rally in 2019.[345] SNS has ties with the New Serb Democracy in Montenegro,[346] while SNS officials also attended a Democratic Party of Socialists (DPS) rally in 2015.[347] The Serb List in Kosovo has been accused of being under the control of SNS.[348][349]

List of presidents of SNS

# President Birth–Death Term start Term end
1 Tomislav Nikolić   1952– 21 October 2008 24 May 2012
2 Aleksandar Vučić   1970– 24 May 2012 Incumbent

Electoral performance

Parliamentary elections

Year Leader Popular vote % of popular vote # # of seats Seat change Coalition Status
2012 Tomislav Nikolić 940,659 25.16%   1st
58 / 250
  37 PS Government
2014 Aleksandar Vučić 1,736,920 49.96%   1st
128 / 250
  70 BKV Government
2016 1,823,147 49.71%   1st
93 / 250
  35 SP Government
2020 1,953,998 63.02%   1st
157 / 250
  64 ZND Government
2022 1,635,101 44.27%   1st
95 / 250
  62 ZMS Government

Presidential elections

President of Serbia
Year Candidate 1st round popular vote % of popular vote 2nd round popular vote % of popular vote
2012 Tomislav Nikolić 2nd 979,216 26.22% 1st 1,552,063 51.16%
2017 Aleksandar Vučić 1st 2,012,788 56.01%
2022 1st 2,224,914 60.01%

Provincial elections

Assembly of Vojvodina
Year Leader Popular vote % of popular vote # # of seats Seat change Coalition Status
2012 Igor Mirović 185,311 19.26%   2nd
22 / 120
  22 PV Opposition
2016 428,452 45.78%   1st
63 / 120
  41 SP Government
2020 498,495 61.58%   1st
76 / 120
  13 ZND Government

Belgrade City Assembly elections

City Assembly of Belgrade
Year Leader Popular vote % of popular vote # # of seats Seat change Coalition Status
2012 Tomislav Nikolić 219,198 26.83%   2nd
37 / 110
  37 PS Opposition
2014 Aleksandar Vučić 351,183 43.62%   1st
63 / 110
  26 BKV Government
2018 366,461 44.99%   1st
64 / 110
  1 ZSVB Government
2022 348,345 38.83%   1st
48 / 110
  28 ZMS Government

See also

References

  1. ^ Pavlović, Dušan (2 July 2009). "DS i SNS – borba za srednjeg glasača". Politika (in Serbian). Retrieved 11 April 2022.
  2. ^ a b "Serb opposition leader resigns". BBC News. 7 September 2008. Retrieved 11 April 2022.
  3. ^ a b "Nikolić oformio poslanički klub". B92 (in Serbian). 8 September 2008. Retrieved 11 April 2022.
  4. ^ Maksimović, Marina (9 September 2008). "Toma podelio stranku". Deutsche Welle (in Serbian). Retrieved 11 April 2022.
  5. ^ "Tomislav Nikolić: Ono što je bila SRS više ne postoji". Radio Television of Serbia (in Serbian). 8 September 2008. Retrieved 11 April 2022.
  6. ^ a b "Nikolić osniva novu stranku". Radio Television of Serbia (in Serbian). 11 September 2008. Retrieved 11 April 2022.
  7. ^ "Nikolić i Vučić osnivaju stranku?". Radio Free Europe (in Serbian). 14 September 2008. Retrieved 11 April 2022.
  8. ^ "Nikolić nije više u SRS-u". B92 (in Serbian). 12 September 2008. Retrieved 11 April 2022.
  9. ^ a b "Zbogom SRS". Deutsche Welle (in Serbian). 13 September 2008. Retrieved 11 April 2022.
  10. ^ "Nikolić party to be called "Serb Progressive"". B92 (in Serbian). 14 September 2008. Archived from the original on 28 September 2008. Retrieved 11 April 2022.
  11. ^ "Nikolić osniva naprednu stranku". Mondo (in Serbian). 24 September 2008. Retrieved 11 April 2022.
  12. ^ "Nikolić: Službeno osnovana Srpska napredna stranka". Radio Free Europe (in Serbian). 10 October 2008. Retrieved 11 April 2022.
  13. ^ "Nikolić party holds founding congress". B92. 22 October 2008. Retrieved 11 April 2022.
  14. ^ Političke stranke i zakonodavna aktivnost Narodne skupštine Republike Srbije: studije u okviru projekta: jačanje odgovornosti Narodne skupštine Republike Srbije. Zoran Stojiljković, Jelena Lončar, Dušan Spasojević. Beograd: Fakultet političkih nauka, Centar za demokratiju. 2012. p. 36. ISBN 978-86-84031-53-4. OCLC 808939935.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  15. ^ "Nikolić: Poslanički klub "Napred Srbijo" ima 20 članova". Radio Television of Vojvodina (in Serbian). 26 September 2022. Retrieved 11 April 2022.
  16. ^ "Nikolićeva stranka: Do 21. oktobra sve spremno". Radio Television of Vojvodina (in Serbian). 21 September 2008. Retrieved 11 April 2022.
  17. ^ "Vučić: Parlamentarni izbori do oktobra 2009 godine". Radio Television of Vojvodina (in Serbian). 11 November 2009. Retrieved 24 May 2022.
  18. ^ "Jovanović i Vučić za izbore 2009". Blic (in Serbian). 17 December 2008. Retrieved 24 May 2022.
  19. ^ "SNS će biti opozicija". Radio Television of Serbia (in Serbian). 25 November 2008. Retrieved 24 May 2022.
  20. ^ "SNS: Inicijativa za promenu Ustava neozbiljna". Radio Television of Vojvodina (in Serbian). 10 May 2009. Retrieved 24 May 2022.
  21. ^ "Konačni rezultati u Zemunu". Radio Television of Serbia (in Serbian). 11 June 2009. Retrieved 24 May 2022.
  22. ^ Džihić, Vedran; Kramer, Helmut (2009). Kosovo After Independence: Is the EU's EULEX Mission Delivering on its Promises? (PDF). Berlin: Friedrich Ebert Foundation. p. 5. ISBN 978-3-86872-152-2.
  23. ^ "SNS glasa protiv "medijskog zakona"". Istinomer (in Serbian). 29 October 2009. Retrieved 24 May 2022.
  24. ^ "SNS: Nema vremena za čekanje". Radio Television of Serbia (in Serbian). 4 October 2009. Retrieved 24 May 2022.
  25. ^ Didanović, Vera (10 December 2009). "Naprednjaci napred, demokrate stoj". Vreme (in Serbian). Retrieved 24 May 2022.
  26. ^ "SNS pobedila na Voždovcu - četiri liste prešle cenzus". Radio Television of Vojvodina (in Serbian). 7 December 2009. Retrieved 24 May 2022.
  27. ^ "Voždovac: SNS pobedio, G17+ ispod cenzusa!". Deutsche Welle (in Serbian). 7 December 2009. Retrieved 24 May 2022.
  28. ^ "Naprednjaci formiraju vlast na Voždovcu". Radio Television of Serbia (in Serbian). 15 December 2009. Retrieved 24 May 2022.
  29. ^ Borba protiv korupcije: između norme i prakse (PDF) (in Serbian). CeSID. 2016. p. 8.
  30. ^ "SNS: Više od pola miliona potpisa". Radio Television of Serbia (in Serbian). 15 December 2010. Retrieved 1 September 2022.
  31. ^ "SNS: Sve više razloga za izbore". Radio Television of Serbia (in Serbian). 28 March 2010. Retrieved 1 September 2022.
  32. ^ "SNS: Vlada stvara novu krizu". Radio Television of Serbia (in Serbian). 14 March 2010. Retrieved 1 September 2022.
  33. ^ "Beogradski SNS najavljuje demonstracije". Radio Television of Vojvodina (in Serbian). 25 March 2010. Retrieved 1 September 2022.
  34. ^ Cvetković, Ljudmila; Martinović, Iva (30 March 2010). "Skupština Srbije usvojila Deklaraciju o Srebrenici". Radio Free Europe (in Serbian). Retrieved 1 September 2022.
  35. ^ "Usvojena Deklaracija o Srebrenici". Radio Television of Serbia (in Serbian). 30 March 2010. Retrieved 1 September 2022.
  36. ^ "Naprednjaci najavili miting za 4. februar u Beogradu". Danas (in Serbian). 24 December 2010. Retrieved 1 September 2022.
  37. ^ "SNS najavila miting za 4. februar". Radio Television of Vojvodina (in Serbian). 24 December 2010. Retrieved 1 September 2022.
  38. ^ "SNS za miting, Vlada za dijalog". Radio Television of Serbia (in Serbian). 24 December 2010. Retrieved 1 September 2022.
  39. ^ "SNS predao potpise za izmenu Ustava". B92 (in Serbian). 13 January 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2022.
  40. ^ Vasović, Aleksandar (5 February 2011). "Serbia holds biggest opposition protest in years". Reuters. Retrieved 1 September 2022.
  41. ^ "Serbian opposition rally calls for early elections". Deutsche Welle. 2 February 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2022.
  42. ^ "SNS i NS: Protesti do ispunjenja". B92 (in Serbian). 1 February 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2022.
  43. ^ "SNS: Izbori ili protesti". B92 (in Serbian). 5 February 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2022.
  44. ^ "Novi rok SNS-a". Radio Television of Serbia (in Serbian). 10 April 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2022.
  45. ^ "Protest ispred Predsedništva Srbije". B92 (in Serbian). 19 April 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2022.
  46. ^ "SNS: Tadićev režim u histeriji". B92 (in Serbian). 7 April 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2022.
  47. ^ "Miting SNS u Nišu". Južne vesti (in Serbian). 28 October 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2022.
  48. ^ "Nikolić stabilan, izbori cilj". Nezavisne novine (in Serbian). 17 April 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2022.
  49. ^ "SNS zakupio TV stanicu do izbora". B92 (in Serbian). 21 October 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2022.
  50. ^ a b c Biserko, Sonja (2011). Opstrukcija Evropskog puta (in Serbian). Belgrade: Helsinški odbor za ljudska prava u Srbiji. ISBN 978-86-7208-185-5.
  51. ^ "Opozicija se okuplja oko Srpske napredne stranke". Boom93 (in Serbian). 16 November 2010. Retrieved 2 September 2022.
  52. ^ "Miting opozicije u Beogradu". Radio Television of Republika Srpska (in Serbian). 5 February 2011. Retrieved 2 September 2022.
  53. ^ Mrdić, Uglješa (15 April 2011). "Tomislav Nikolić: Posle izbora moguća je samo proevropska vlada". Pečat (in Serbian). Retrieved 2 September 2022.
  54. ^ a b c d Kojić, Nikola (5 June 2020). "Izbori 2012: Poraz Tadića i DS, Dačićev preokret i dolazak SNS na vlast". N1 (in Serbian). Retrieved 2 September 2022.
  55. ^ Milovanović, Bojana (8 August 2011). "Parties jockey for support well ahead of Serbia's elections". Southeast European Times. Archived from the original on 17 October 2011. Retrieved 2 September 2022.
  56. ^ "Report: Elections to be held in spring 2012". B92. 29 June 2011. Retrieved 2 September 2022.
  57. ^ "Raspisani parlamentarni izbori". Radio Television of Serbia (in Serbian). 13 March 2012. Retrieved 2 September 2022.
  58. ^ "NS: Nikolić nosilac liste SNS-NS-PSS-PS". Mondo (in Serbian). 22 January 2012. Retrieved 2 September 2022.
  59. ^ "Ko su kandidati za poslanike". Vreme (in Serbian). 22 March 2012. Retrieved 2 September 2022.
  60. ^ "Proglašena izborna lista SNS". B92 (in Serbian). 20 March 2012. Retrieved 2 September 2022.
  61. ^ "Tomislav Nikolić kandidat SNS za predsednika". Blic (in Serbian). 5 April 2012. Retrieved 2 September 2022.
  62. ^ "Jorgovanka Tabaković kandidatkinja SNS za premijerku Srbije". Blic (in Serbian). 26 April 2012. Retrieved 2 September 2022.
  63. ^ Stilin, Bojan (20 April 2012). "Rudy Giuliani došao u Srbiju podržati Tomu Nikolića". tportal (in Croatian). Retrieved 2 September 2022.
  64. ^ Kirchick, James (24 May 2012). "Rudy Giuliani Hits a New Low: Consulting for Serbian Nationalists". Tablet. Retrieved 2 September 2022.
  65. ^ "SNS najjači u Skupštini, Nikolić i Tadić u drugom krugu, Đilas vodi u Beogradu". Radio Free Europe (in Serbian). 6 May 2012. Retrieved 2 September 2022.
  66. ^ "RIK: Rezultati parlamentarnih izbora na osnovu 97,51 odsto biračkih mesta". eizbori (in Serbian). 7 May 2012. Archived from the original on 10 October 2012. Retrieved 2 September 2022.
  67. ^ "Konačni rezultati predsedničkih izbora". Radio Television of Serbia (in Serbian). 2 September 2022. Retrieved 2 September 2022.
  68. ^ "Konačni rezultati pokrajinskih izbora". Radio Television of Serbia (in Serbian). 2 September 2022. Retrieved 2 September 2022.
  69. ^ "Konačni rezultati za Beograd". Radio Television of Serbia (in Serbian). 2 September 2022. Retrieved 2 September 2022.
  70. ^ "Nikolić podneo ostavku i zaplakao". B92 (in Serbian). 24 May 2012. Retrieved 2 September 2022.
  71. ^ a b c "Progressives elect new leader, deputy leader". B92. 29 September 2012. Archived from the original on 4 February 2014. Retrieved 29 September 2012.
  72. ^ "Nikolić počeo konsultacije o vladi sa SPS-PUPS-JS". Nezavisne novine (in Serbian). 11 June 2012. Retrieved 2 September 2022.
  73. ^ "Sve izvesnija koalicija SNS -SPS". B92 (in Serbian). 26 June 2012. Retrieved 2 September 2022.
  74. ^ "Nova vlada položila zakletvu". B92 (in Serbian). 27 July 2012. Retrieved 2 September 2022.
  75. ^ Petrović, Vesna; Joksimović, Vladan (2013). Ljudska prava u Srbiji: pravo, praksa i međunarodni standardi ljudskih prava (PDF) (in Serbian). Belgrade: Beogradski centar za ljudska prava. p. 244. ISBN 978-86-7202-141-7.
  76. ^ "Srbija ima novu vladu". Deutsche Welle (in Serbian). 27 July 2012. Retrieved 2 September 2022.
  77. ^ "Sastav Dačićevog kabineta". Radio Television of Serbia (in Serbian). 27 July 2012. Retrieved 2 September 2022.
  78. ^ Gligorijević, Jovana (31 October 2012). "Udario junak na junaka". Vreme (in Serbian). Retrieved 2 September 2022.
  79. ^ Barlovac, Bojana (12 December 2012). "Serbian Police Arrest Miroslav Miskovic". Balkan Insight. Retrieved 2 September 2022.
  80. ^ Vasović, Aleksandar (12 December 2012). "Police arrest Serbia's richest man in anti-graft probe". Reuters. Retrieved 2 September 2022.
  81. ^ "Serbia Tycoon Miskovic Pays 12 Million Euro Bail". Balkan Insight. 22 July 2013. Retrieved 2 September 2022.
  82. ^ Cvejić, Bojan (21 January 2013). "SNS najmasovnija, DS napustilo 3.000 članova". Danas (in Serbian). Retrieved 2 September 2022.
  83. ^ "Maja Gojković: Narodna partija kolektivno prešla u SNS". Blic (in Serbian). 3 December 2012. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
  84. ^ "SNS na istorijskom maksimumu - 41%". B92 (in Serbian). 27 February 2013. Retrieved 3 September 2022.
  85. ^ "Serbia says it thwarted mafia plot to bring down government jet". Euractiv. 15 February 2013. Retrieved 3 September 2022.
  86. ^ "Postignut dogovor Beograda i Prištine". Vreme (in Serbian). 18 April 2013. Retrieved 3 September 2022.
  87. ^ "Rekonstrukcija vlade Vučiću se obila o glavu?". Deutsche Welle (in Serbian). 31 July 2013. Retrieved 3 September 2022.
  88. ^ Vasović, Aleksandar (14 August 2013). "McKinsey consultant Krstic to be Serbian finance minister". Reuters. Retrieved 3 September 2022.
  89. ^ "Jedanaest novih ministara". Politika (in Serbian). 29 August 2013. Retrieved 3 September 2022.
  90. ^ "Zoran Babić šef poslaničke grupe SNS". Kurir (in Serbian). 27 August 2013. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  91. ^ "Belgrade Mayor Dragan Đilas dismissed". European Forum. 24 September 2013. Retrieved 3 September 2022.
  92. ^ De Launey, Guy (24 January 2014). "Serbia transforming from pariah to EU partner". BBC News. Retrieved 3 September 2022.
  93. ^ Žarković, Dragoljub (13 November 2013). "Tužni tok ministarkine karijere – Ko je sklonio Zoranu Mihajlović da se Aleksej Miler ne bi iznervirao?". Vreme (in Serbian). Retrieved 3 September 2022.
  94. ^ Pavlović, Koča (23 March 2014). "Living the Serbian dream: a look at Aleksandar Vučić's election victory". openDemocracy. Retrieved 19 September 2022.
  95. ^ a b Savić, Miša (2014). "Serbia" (PDF). Freedom House. Retrieved 20 September 2022.
  96. ^ a b Gligorijević, Jovana (29 January 2014). "Tamo gde je sve po mom". Vreme (in Serbian). Retrieved 19 September 2022.
  97. ^ "Neću da budem premijer bez izbora". B92 (in Serbian). 26 January 2014. Retrieved 19 September 2022.
  98. ^ "Nek su nam srećni novi izbori". B92.net (in Serbian). 29 January 2014. Retrieved 19 September 2022.
  99. ^ a b "SNS predstavila izbornu listu". Nezavisne novine (in Serbian). 4 February 2014. Retrieved 19 September 2022.
  100. ^ Vasiljević, P. (3 February 2014). "Vučić: Bićemo uvek uz narod". Novosti (in Serbian). Retrieved 19 September 2022.
  101. ^ "Programi ili parole". Deutsche Welle (in Serbian). 1 March 2014. Retrieved 19 September 2022.
  102. ^ Pavković, Aleksandar (2 April 2014). "Serbian election: after a landslide victory, is EU accession next?". The Conversation. Retrieved 19 September 2022.
  103. ^ a b Savić, Miša (2015). "Serbia". Freedom House. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  104. ^ Kojić, Nikola (11 June 2020). "Izbori 2014: Najniža izlaznost u istoriji, ubedljiva pobeda SNS, Vučić premijer". N1 (in Serbian). Retrieved 19 September 2022.
  105. ^ "Konačni rezultati izbora za Beograd". Radio Television of Serbia (in Serbian). 17 March 2014. Retrieved 19 September 2022.
  106. ^ "Siniša Mali gradonačelnik Beograda". Nezavisne novine (in Serbian). 24 April 2014. Retrieved 19 September 2022.
  107. ^ "Serbia swears in new prime minister". Deutsche Welle. 27 April 2014. Retrieved 19 September 2022.
  108. ^ "Srbija ima novu vladu". Deutsche Welle (in Serbian). 28 April 2014. Retrieved 19 September 2022.
  109. ^ a b c Prevremeni parlamentarni izbori 24. april 2016 (PDF) (in Serbian). Warsaw: Kancelarija za demokratske institucije i ljudska prava. 2016.
  110. ^ "The 2014 CSO Sustainability Index for Central and Eastern Europe and Eurasia" (PDF). United States Agency for International Development. 2014. p. 195. Retrieved 2 September 2022.
  111. ^ "Serbia election: Pro-EU Prime Minister Vucic claims victory". BBC News. 24 April 2016. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  112. ^ "Naprednjaci srušili Stevanovića: Nikolić na čelu Kragujevca". N1 (in Serbian). 28 October 2014. Retrieved 20 September 2022.
  113. ^ Gligorijević, Jovana (5 November 2014). "Prvi sin u svom gradu". Vreme (in Serbian). Retrieved 20 September 2022.
  114. ^ Femić, Ratko (31 January 2015). "Srbija, država partijskih knjižica". Al Jazeera (in Bosnian). Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  115. ^ Ćetković, Kristina (26 April 2015). "Protest zbog potpisivanja ugovora "Beograd na vodi"". Analitika (in Serbian). Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  116. ^ "Potpisan ugovor o Beogradu na vodi". Vreme (in Serbian). 30 April 2015. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  117. ^ Mihajlović, Branka (21 September 2015). "Ugovor o Beogradu na vodi otkriva veliku prevaru". Radio Free Europe (in Serbian). Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  118. ^ Rudić, Mirko (8 April 2015). "Ko nam nudi patku". Vreme (in Serbian). Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  119. ^ Nešić, Milan (17 February 2014). "Beograd na vodi: Predizborni trik ili realnost". Radio Free Europe (in Serbian). Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  120. ^ "Protesti zbog projekta "Beograd na vodi"". Radio Television of Serbia (in Serbian). 27 September 2015. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  121. ^ Nešić, Milan (24 December 2015). "Protest paora ispred Skupštine Srbije: Čija je naša zemlja?". Radio Free Europe (in Serbian). Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  122. ^ Damnjanović, Miloš (2016). "Serbia". Freedom House. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  123. ^ Petrović, Ivica (18 January 2016). "Zašto su raspisani izbori u Srbiji?". Deutsche Welle (in Serbian). Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  124. ^ Bojić, Saša (19 January 2016). "Izbori – može mu se". Deutsche Welle (in Serbian). Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  125. ^ Macdowall, Andrew (19 January 2016). "Serb election likely to result in government romp". Politico. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  126. ^ Nikitović, Vladimir (26 February 2016). "SNS kampanja od vrata do vrata: Da li glasaš za nas ili ne?". Radio Free Europe (in Serbian). Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  127. ^ "Nikolić raspisao izbore: Želim da pobedi SNS". B92 (in Serbian). 4 March 2016. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  128. ^ Stojanović, Boban; Casal Bértoa, Fernando (22 April 2016). "There are 4 reasons countries dissolve their parliaments. Here's why Serbia did". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  129. ^ "Proglašena prva lista - "Aleksandar Vučić - Srbija pobeđuje"". Radio Television of Serbia (in Serbian). 6 March 2016. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  130. ^ "Kandidati za poslanike 2016: Lista Aleksandar Vučić – Srbija pobeđuje". Vreme (in Serbian). 10 March 2016. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  131. ^ Milenković, M. R. (3 March 2016). "Martinović budući šef poslaničke grupe?". Danas (in Serbian). Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  132. ^ Glavonjić, Zoran (19 April 2016). "Gde ko stoji: Ključni stavovi pred izbore". Radio Free Europe (in Serbian). Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  133. ^ "Izborni rezultat 2016". Vreme (in Serbian). 28 April 2016. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  134. ^ "Izbori Vojvodina 2016: SNS dobio većinu od 120 mandata". 021.rs (in Serbian). 26 April 2016. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  135. ^ Stavljanin, Dragan (28 April 2016). "Serbian Elections: The Ghost of Milosevic Haunts Serbia's European Path". Radio Free Europe. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  136. ^ "Lideri četiri opozicione stranke podnose krivične prijave protiv Pošta Srbije". Nova Ekonomija (in Serbian). 28 April 2016. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  137. ^ "Srbija: Protest opozicije zbog sumnje u izbornu krađu". Radio Free Europe (in Serbian). 30 April 2016. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  138. ^ "Čiji je Beograd: drugi protest, dvaput više ljudi na ulicama". Vice (in Serbian). 25 May 2016. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  139. ^ Zorić, Jelena (3 June 2016). "Ne davimo Beograd: Ko su i ko ih finansira". N1 (in Serbian). Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  140. ^ Veselinović, Stefan (21 October 2016). "Posle 15 godina muzika je opet deo jednog građanskog protesta". Vice (in Serbian). Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  141. ^ Zorić, Ognjen (28 May 2016). "Skupština SNS izabrala novo rukovodstvo". Radio Free Europe (in Serbian). Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  142. ^ Šinković, Norbert (20 June 2016). "Mirović novi predsednik Pokrajinske vlade". Radio Free Europe (in Serbian). Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  143. ^ Nasaković, Đorđe (8 August 2016). "Objavljen sastav nove Vlade". N1 (in Serbian). Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  144. ^ a b "New Serbian government gets parliament approval". Reuters. 11 August 2016. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  145. ^ Pantović, Milivoje (10 August 2016). "New Serbian Cabinet is Mix of Old and New". Balkan Insight. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  146. ^ "Vučić: Nikolić je imao dobre rezultate". N1 (in Serbian). 27 December 2016. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  147. ^ Damnjanović, Miloš (2017). "Serbia". Freedom House. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  148. ^ "Nikolić: Iznenadila bi me kandidatura Vučića". Radio Television of Serbia (in Serbian). 6 January 2017. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  149. ^ "Vulin: Građani žele Vučićevu kandidaturu". Radio Television of Serbia (in Serbian). 1 January 2017. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  150. ^ "Mihajlović: Glasam da Vučić bude kandidat SNS-a za predsednika". Radio Television of Serbia (in Serbian). 6 January 2017. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  151. ^ Živanović, Maja (15 February 2017). "PM Aleksandar Vucic to Run for Serbian Presidency". Balkan Insight. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  152. ^ "Kandidature za predsedničke izbore". Vreme (in Serbian). 4 March 2017. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  153. ^ Nenadović, Aleksandra (31 March 2017). "Major Serbian Newspapers Print Ruling Party Campaign Posters". Voice of America. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  154. ^ Filipović, Gordana (28 March 2017). "How a Premier May Become a Strongman in Serbia". Bloomberg. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  155. ^ Crosby, Alan (31 March 2017). "Vucic's Bid To Cement Power In Serbia Raises Concerns Ahead Of Presidential Vote". Radio Free Europe. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  156. ^ "Zvanični rezultati predsedničkih izbora 2017". Vreme (in Serbian). 21 April 2017. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  157. ^ da Silva, Chantal (8 April 2017). "Media 'turning blind eye' to Serbian anti-corruption rallies". The Independent. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  158. ^ Živanović, Maja (10 April 2017). "Serbia Protests: Thousands Demand Vucic's Resignation". Balkan Insight. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  159. ^ Crosby, Alan; Martinović, Iva (17 April 2017). "Whistles And Passports: Serbia's Young Protesters Take On 'The System'". Radio Free Europe. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  160. ^ "Svetski mediji o inauguraciji Vučića". N1 (in Serbian). 31 May 2017. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  161. ^ Petrović, Ivica (22 June 2017). "Lažna drama u Srbiji oko Brnabićke". Deutsche Welle (in Croatian). Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  162. ^ "Serbian Lawmakers, In Historic First, Elect Openly Gay, Female Prime Minister". Radio Free Europe. 30 June 2017. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  163. ^ "Serbian President Discusses Borders, Trade With Bosnian Leaders". Radio Free Europe. 7 September 2017. Retrieved 23 September 2022.
  164. ^ Petrović, Vesna (2018). Ljudska prava u Srbiji 2017: Pravo, praksa i međunarodni standardi ljudskih prava (in Serbian). Belgrade: Beogradski centar za ljudska prava. ISBN 978-86-7202-188-2.
  165. ^ Panović, Zoran (16 October 2017). "Sto pedeset godina "Kapitala" Karla Marksa". Demostat (in Serbian). Retrieved 23 September 2022.
  166. ^ "SNS predala listu za izbore u Beogradu". N1 (in Serbian). 15 January 2018. Retrieved 23 September 2022.
  167. ^ "Ko je u prvih 20 na listi SNS za Beograd". Radio Television of Serbia (in Serbian). 14 January 2018. Retrieved 23 September 2022.
  168. ^ "SNS predstavio kandidate za odbornike i program za bolji i lepši Beograd". Novinska agencija Beta (in Serbian). 5 February 2018. Retrieved 23 September 2022.
  169. ^ "Konačni rezultati beogradskih izbora 2018". N1 (in Serbian). 5 March 2018. Retrieved 24 September 2022.
  170. ^ Beogradski izbori 2018: finalni izveštaj CRTA posmatračke misije (PDF) (in Serbian). Belgrade: CRTA. 2018. p. 59.
  171. ^ "Zvanično - Zoran Radojičić novi gradonačelnik Beograda". B92 (in Serbian). 7 June 2018. Retrieved 24 September 2022.
  172. ^ Petrović, Ivica (13 July 2018). "Vlast u Srbiji – neupitni autoritet". Deutsche Welle (in Bosnian). Retrieved 24 September 2022.
  173. ^ "Thousands protest in Serbia over attack on opposition politician". Reuters. 8 December 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  174. ^ a b "Serbia: thousands rally in fourth week of anti-government protests". The Guardian. 30 December 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  175. ^ "Serbia Leader Announces Arrest of Mayor Over Attack on Journalist". Voice of America. 25 January 2019. Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  176. ^ "More than 10,000 protest in Belgrade against Serbian president". Reuters. 19 January 2019. Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  177. ^ Miladinović, Aleksandar (17 January 2019). "Pet stvari koje su obeležile "Putindan" u Beogradu". BBC News (in Serbian). Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  178. ^ Marković, Tomislav (3 February 2019). "Srpska napredna stranka, kula od članskih karata". Al Jazeera (in Bosnian). Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  179. ^ ""Budućnost Srbije" na jugu". Radio Television of Serbia (in Serbian). 7 February 2019. Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  180. ^ "Nadežda Gaće o Vučićevoj kampanji Budućnost Srbije". N1 (in Serbian). 8 February 2019. Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  181. ^ Georgiev, Slobodan (24 April 2019). "Vucic Rally May Have Silenced Serbia's Protest Movement". Balkan Insight. Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  182. ^ "PM Brnabic joins Vucic's ruling Serbian Progressive Party". N1 (in Serbian). 10 October 2019. Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  183. ^ a b Petrović, Ivica (12 January 2020). "Cenzus od tri odsto – makijavelistički potez?". Deutsche Welle (in Serbian). Belgrade. Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  184. ^ Pujkilović, Milica (18 February 2020). "Zagrevanje za kampanju – slogan SNS-a i rasprava o bojkotu". Radio Television of Serbia (in Serbian). Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  185. ^ "Srpska napredna stranka prva predala listu za izbore". Radio Free Europe (in Serbian). 5 March 2020. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  186. ^ "Serbia postpones April 26 elections due to coronavirus outbreak - state election commission". Reuters. 16 March 2020. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  187. ^ "Serbia to hold general election despite pandemic". Associated Press. 4 May 2020. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  188. ^ "Srbija: Obustava protesta subotom dok se ne popravi epidemiološka situacija". Radio Free Europe (in Serbian). 10 March 2020. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  189. ^ "Serbia calls election; opposition to boycott". Al Jazeera. 4 March 2020. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  190. ^ "Učvršćivanje Vučićeve dominacije". Radio Free Europe (in Serbian). 22 June 2020. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  191. ^ Božić Krainčanić, Svetlana (6 May 2020). "Fridom Haus: Srbija i Crna Gora više nisu u kategoriji demokratija". Radio Free Europe (in Serbian). Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  192. ^ "RIK objavio konačne rezultate parlamentarnih izbora, izlaznost oko 49 odsto". Danas (in Serbian). 5 July 2020. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  193. ^ "SNS-u više od 60 odsto glasova, u parlament ulaze SPS-JS i Šapićeva lista". Radio Television of Serbia (in Serbian). 21 June 2020. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  194. ^ Pantović, Milivoje (19 June 2020). "Serbia election: Vucic declares landslide win in controversial vote". euronews. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  195. ^ Vasović, Milenko (19 June 2020). "Serbia's Infallible Leader no Longer Needs a Party". Balkan Insight. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  196. ^ "Konačni rezultati pokrajinskih izbora: Mandate podelilo sedam lista, SNS uzela 76 od 120 mandata". 021.rs (in Serbian). 2 July 2020. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  197. ^ "Procena RIK-a: Izlaznost 50,32 odsto, SNS osvojio 61,59 odsto ili 191 mandat". Voice of America (in Serbian). 22 June 2020. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  198. ^ "Serbian parliamentary elections well run, but ruling party dominance and lack of media diversity limited voters' choice, international observers say". Organization for Security and Co-opeartion in Europe. 22 June 2020. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  199. ^ "Ruling Conservatives Set to Win Serbian Parliamentary Vote". Voice of America. 21 June 2020. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  200. ^ Kingsley, Patrick (22 June 2020). "Serbia's Strongman Wins Big in Election Boycotted by the Opposition". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  201. ^ "Predlog za promenu Ustava Republike Srbije" (PDF). National Assembly of Serbia. Belgrade. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  202. ^ Marinković, Lazara; Anđelković, Nataša; Mitrović, Nemanja (8 July 2020). "Srbija, protesti i policija: Kratak pregled prekomerne upotrebe sile". BBC News (in Serbian). Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  203. ^ "Coronavirus: Belgrade protesters storm Serb parliament over curfew". BBC News. 8 July 2020. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  204. ^ a b "Thousands protest against Serbian leader despite warnings of virus risk". Reuters. 8 July 2020. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  205. ^ "Antivladini protesti u Beogradu večeras bez nasilja". Al Jazeera (in Bosnian). 11 July 2020. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  206. ^ "Policija pendrecima tukla muškarce koji su mirno sedeli na klupi u beogradskom parku". 021.rs (in Serbian). 8 July 2020. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  207. ^ "Serbian parliament meets in constitutive session". N1 (in Serbian). 3 August 2020. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  208. ^ "Eggs and tomatoes thrown to the Assembly". B92. 3 August 2020. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  209. ^ "Poslanička grupa "Aleksandar Vučić – za našu decu"". National Assembly of Serbia (in Serbian). Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  210. ^ Jelovac, Jelena (19 September 2020). "Svaki deveti građanin Srbije ima člansku kartu SNS". NOVA portal (in Serbian). Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  211. ^ "Srbija dobila novu vladu, Brnabić drugi put premijerka". Al Jazeera (in Bosnian). 28 October 2020. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  212. ^ "Vlada predlaže promenu Ustava u delu koji se odnosi na sudove i javna tužilaštva". Danas (in Serbian). 3 December 2020. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  213. ^ "Vučić pozvao Šapića na ujedinjenje". Radio Television of Serbia (in Serbian). 5 May 2021. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  214. ^ "Šapić: Do kraja meseca SPAS i SNS deo zajedničke organizacije, najviše mogu da pružim na lokalu". Danas (in Serbian). 7 May 2021. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  215. ^ "Danas: Šapić gasi SPAS zbog ujedinjenja sa SNS". N1 (in Serbian). 26 May 2021. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  216. ^ "SPAS zvanično pristupio SNS, Šapić izabran za potpredsednika Glavnog odbora". N1 (in Serbian). 29 May 2021. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  217. ^ "Skupština Srbije od danas ima jednu poslaničku grupu manje". N1 (in Serbian). 7 June 2021. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  218. ^ "Završen prvi sastanak Radne grupe za međustranački dijalog bez posrednika iz EU". N1 (in Serbian). 18 May 2021. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  219. ^ Popović, Aleksandra (29 October 2021). "Sporazum sa vlašću: Dveri i DJB potpisali, ali nisu sasvim zadovoljni". Danas (in Serbian). Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  220. ^ a b Lazarević, Milan (18 June 2020). "Kako se zaposliti bez članstva u SNS". Danas (in Serbian). Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  221. ^ Slavković, Stefan (23 September 2021). "In Serbia, the Fight for 'Green' Votes Turns Ugly". Balkan Insight. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
  222. ^ "Projekat Jadar – Kompanija Rio Tinto nastavlja ulaganje u rudnik litijuma kod Loznice". Insajder (in Serbian). 24 July 2017. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
  223. ^ "Mihajlović: Ekološki skup iskorišćen za promociju pojedinih koji žele u politiku". N1 (in Serbian). 11 September 2021. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
  224. ^ "Vučić o ekološkom protestu: Pored antivaksera, u Srbiji se pojavili i antirudari". N1 (in Serbian). 12 September 2021. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
  225. ^ "Police cordon stops environmental activists' march". N1 (in Serbian). 15 February 2022. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
  226. ^ "Vlada usvojila Predlog zakona o referendumu i narodnoj inicijativi". Danas (in Serbian). 9 November 2021. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
  227. ^ "Predlog o ukidanju cenzusa na referendumu: NVO strahuju od zloupotreba". N1 (in Serbian). 10 November 2021. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
  228. ^ "Serbian Lawmakers Pass Law Removing Turnout Threshold In Referendums". Radio Free Europe. 26 November 2021. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
  229. ^ a b c "Vučić predsednik SNS do izbora, izabrani novi potpredsednici". Danas (in Serbian). 27 November 2021. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
  230. ^ a b Stojanović, Milica (16 January 2022). "Serbia Votes 'Yes' to Judiciary Constitution Changes". Balkan Insight. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
  231. ^ "Vučić: Ovaj referendum je važan za budućnost naše zemlje". B92 (in Serbian). 11 January 2022. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
  232. ^ "SNS i SPS s posebnim listama na izbore, zajednički kandidat za predsednika". N1 (in Serbian). 29 January 2022. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
  233. ^ "Nova.rs: Aleksandar Šapić prvi na listi SNS za Beograd". N1 (in Serbian). 26 January 2022. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
  234. ^ "Raspisani parlamentarni i lokalni izbori, Vučić poručio - neka su vam srećni". N1 (in Serbian). 15 February 2022. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
  235. ^ "Ivica Dačić raspisao predsedničke izbore". Radio Television of Serbia (in Serbian). 2 March 2022. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
  236. ^ Stanković, Stefan (17 February 2022). "Ko je sve na listi naprednjaka za parlamentarne i beogradske izbore". N1 (in Serbian). Retrieved 27 September 2022.
  237. ^ "Vučić kandidat SNS-a za predsednika Srbije". B92 (in Serbian). 6 March 2022. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
  238. ^ "Transparentnost: Izrazita medijska dominacija vladajuće stranke i kandidata". N1 (in Serbian). 31 March 2022. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
  239. ^ Komazec, Marija (31 March 2022). "Istraživanje Crte: Izborna kampanja u lošijim uslovima nego ona iz 2020. godine". N1 (in Serbian). Retrieved 27 September 2022.
  240. ^ "RIK usvojio konačne rezultate predsedničkih izbora". Danas (in Serbian). 9 May 2022. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
  241. ^ "79. sednica Republičke izborne komisije". Republic Electoral Commission (in Serbian). 5 July 2022. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
  242. ^ "Objavljeni konačni rezultati izbora u Beogradu, SNS-u najviše mandata". Radio Free Europe (in Serbian). 9 May 2022. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
  243. ^ "Šapić izabran za gradonačelnika Beograda, obećava pomoć oko "lažnih doktorata"". Danas (in Serbian). 20 June 2022. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
  244. ^ a b "SNS nakon konstitutivne sednice: Milenko Jovanov novi šef poslaničke grupe". Danas (in Serbian). 1 August 2022. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
  245. ^ Kovačević, Emina (27 August 2022). "Ana Brnabić mandatar za sastav nove vlade". N1 (in Serbian). Retrieved 27 September 2022.
  246. ^ Sovrlić, Sanja (23 October 2022). "Vučić objavio imena ministara u novoj vladi, i već je oročio - na dve zime". N1 (in Serbian). Retrieved 24 October 2022.
  247. ^ "Izglasana nova Vlada Srbije, premijerka i ministri položili zakletvu". N1 (in Serbian). 26 October 2022. Retrieved 26 October 2022.
  248. ^ "Velika Srbija nerealna". Radio Television of Serbia (in Serbian). 30 October 2008. Retrieved 1 September 2022.
  249. ^ "Nikolić: Srbija na dobrom putu ka EU". Radio Television of Serbia (in Serbian). 3 July 2009. Retrieved 1 September 2022.
  250. ^ Dulić, Jasminka (2012). Političko-ideološke orijentacije i stranačke preferencije stanovnika Vojvodine (PDF) (in Serbian). Belgrade: Faculty of Political Studies. p. 90.
  251. ^ Zgodić, Esad (2015). "O jednoj zlotvornoj uobrazilji: državotvorne i stožerne nacionalne partije". Godišnjak 2015 (PDF) (in Bosnian). Sarajevo: Preporod. p. 132. ISSN 1512-8180.
  252. ^ Teokarević, Jovan (June 2011). The Western Balkans and the EU: The Hour of Europe. Paris: Institute for Security Studies. p. 63. doi:10.2815/24268. ISBN 978-92-9198-187-8. ISSN 1017-7566.
  253. ^ Barlovac, Bojana (27 September 2010). "Key Parties in Serbia". Balkan Insight. Retrieved 2 September 2022.
  254. ^ Barlovac, Bojana (29 January 2013). "Tensions Rise over Status of Serbian Province". Balkan Insight. Retrieved 3 September 2022.
  255. ^ Gligorijević, Jovana (23 September 2014). "Prečicom u provaliju". Vreme (in Serbian). Retrieved 19 September 2022.
  256. ^ Švarm, Filip (13 May 2015). "Posle Vučića Srbija će biti olupina". Vreme (in Serbian). Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  257. ^ Biserko, Sonja (2011). Ljudska prava: odraz institucionalne nemoći (in Serbian). Belgrade: Helsinški odbor za ljudska prava u Srbiji. ISBN 978-86-7208-179-4.
  258. ^ Bilefsky, Dan (25 July 2012). "Next Premier of Serbia Is From Party of Milosevic". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2 September 2022.
  259. ^ a b Lutovac, Zoran (2017). Populizam (in Serbian). Belgrade: Institut društvenih nauka. ISBN 978-86-7093-190-9.
  260. ^ Vaïsse, Justin; Dennison, Susi (2013). European Foreign Policy: Scoreboard (PDF). London: European Council on Foreign Relations. p. 80. ISBN 978-1-906538-73-6.
  261. ^ Milan, Chiara (2022). "From the streets to the town halls: Municipalist platforms in the post-Yugoslav space". Urban Studies. SAGE Journals. doi:10.1177/00420980221090134. S2CID 248613067.
  262. ^ Bieber, Florian (2017). "Belated Transitions in South Eastern Europe". The Routledge Handbook of East European Politics. Routledge. pp. 27–38. doi:10.4324/9781315687681-3. ISBN 9781315687681.
  263. ^ Gavrilović, Zoran (January 2009). Stanje političke zajednice Roma u Srbiji (PDF) (in Serbian). Belgrade: OSCE. p. 66.
  264. ^ Bakić, Jovo (February 2013). Right-Wing Extremism in Serbia (PDF). Berlin: Friedrich Ebert Foundation. p. 2. ISBN 978-3-86498-463-1.
  265. ^ Bakić, Jovo (2013). "Populizam ili demagogija u političkom životu Srbije?". Promene osnovnih struktura društva Srbije u periodu ubrzane transformacije (PDF) (in Serbian). Belgrade: Čigoja štampa. p. 227.
  266. ^ Garding, Sarah (2018). "Weak by design? Diaspora engagement and institutional change in Croatia and Serbia". International Political Science Review. 39 (3): 353–368. doi:10.1177/0192512118755202. ISSN 0192-5121. S2CID 158578424.
  267. ^ Čamprag, Nebojša (2 January 2019). "Re-imagineering Belgrade and Skopje: urban megaprojects between politics and struggle". European Planning Studies. 27 (1): 181–200. doi:10.1080/09654313.2018.1545011. ISSN 0965-4313. S2CID 158202545.
  268. ^ Dérens, Jean-Arnault (1 December 2016). "Rewriting Balkan history". Le Monde. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  269. ^ Zulianello, Mattia (April 2020). "Varieties of Populist Parties and Party Systems in Europe: From State-of-the-Art to the Application of a Novel Classification Scheme to 66 Parties in 33 Countries". Government and Opposition. Cambridge University Press. 55 (2): 327–347. doi:10.1017/gov.2019.21.
  270. ^ Zurnić, Marija (2018). Corruption and Democratic Transition in Eastern Europe: The Role of Political Scandals in Post-Milošević Serbia. Springer. p. 48. ISBN 978-3-319-90101-5.
  271. ^ a b c d e Stojic, Marko (2018). Party responses to the EU in the western Balkans : transformation, opposition or defiance?. Cham, Switzerland. ISBN 978-3-319-59563-4. OCLC 1003200383.
  272. ^ a b Stojiljković, Zoran; Spasojević, Dušan (2016). Programske pozicije i unutarstranački odnosi stranaka u Srbiji (PDF) (in Serbian). Belgrade: Faculty of Political Sciences, University of Belgrade.
  273. ^ a b c d Stojiljković, Zoran; Spasojević, Dušan (2018). "Populistički Zeitgeist u "proevropskoj" Srbiji". Politička misao: časopis za politologiju (in Serbian). 55 (3): 104–128. doi:10.20901/pm.55.3.04. S2CID 166171942 – via Hrčak.
  274. ^ Zorić, Ognjen (25 January 2018). "Desno od Vučića i naprednjaka". Radio Free Europe (in Serbian). Retrieved 23 September 2022.
  275. ^ Bieber, Florian (16 August 2017). "Patterns of competitive authoritarianism in the Western Balkans". East European Politics. 34 (3): 343. doi:10.1080/21599165.2018.1490272. S2CID 158413291 – via Taylor & Francis.
  276. ^ "Deset godina SNS: Šta treba da znate u 100 i 500 reči". BBC News (in Serbian). 22 October 2018. Retrieved 24 September 2022.
  277. ^ Klačar, Bojan (4 August 2020). "Serbia's Right-Wing Shift Risks Fuelling Extremism". Balkan Insight. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  278. ^ Petrović, Ivica (29 October 2018). "Sopstveni put u populizam". Deutsche Welle (in Serbian). Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  279. ^ Miladinović, Aleksandar (20 May 2020). "Koliko su se naprednjaci promenili od dolaska na vlast". BBC News (in Serbian). Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  280. ^ Marinković, Aleksandar; Gajić, Novak (2022). "Serbia: three phases of local electoral politics after 1990". The Routledge handbook of local elections and voting in Europe. Adam Gendźwiłł, Ulrik Kjaer, Kristof Steyvers. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-003-00967-2. OCLC 1273727774.
  281. ^ Valtner, Lidija (22 October 2018). "Šta je novo osnivanje SNS donelo političkoj sceni Srbije?". Danas (in Serbian). Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  282. ^ Mitchell, Laurence (2013). Serbia: the Bradt travel guide (4 ed.). Chalfont St. Peter. p. 34. ISBN 978-1-84162-463-1. OCLC 839317078.
  283. ^ Palgrave Macmillan, ed. (2017). The Statesman's Yearbook 2017: The Politics, Cultures and Economies of the World. Springer. p. 1050. ISBN 9781349683987.
  284. ^ Vasilev, George (2016). "LGBT recognition in EU accession states: How identification with Europe enhances the transformative power of discourse". Review of International Studies. 42 (4): 748–772. doi:10.1017/S0260210515000522. ISSN 0260-2105. S2CID 146627940.
  285. ^ Jovanović, Srđan Mladenov (15 March 2021). "The portal 'Nationalist' as the nutshell of recent Serbian nationalism". National Identities. 23 (2): 149–162. doi:10.1080/14608944.2020.1733511. ISSN 1460-8944. S2CID 216247990.
  286. ^ Iazzolino, Gianluca; Stremlau, Nicole (2019), Voltmer, Katrin; Christensen, Christian; Neverla, Irene; Stremlau, Nicole (eds.), "Hybrid Governance, Strategic Communication and the Quest for Institutional Legitimacy", Media, Communication and the Struggle for Democratic Change, Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 185–204, doi:10.1007/978-3-030-16748-6_8, ISBN 978-3-030-16747-9, S2CID 203243609, retrieved 28 September 2022
  287. ^ Himmrich, Julia (2020), Armakolas, Ioannis; Ker-Lindsay, James (eds.), "Germany: From Cautious Recogniser to Kosovo's Key EU Ally", The Politics of Recognition and Engagement, Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 61–82, doi:10.1007/978-3-030-17945-8_4, ISBN 978-3-030-17944-1, S2CID 198827704, retrieved 28 September 2022
  288. ^ Piletić, Aleksandra (15 February 2021). "The role of the urban scale in anchoring authoritarian neoliberalism: a look at post-2012 neoliberalization in Belgrade, Serbia". Globalizations. 19 (2): 285–300. doi:10.1080/14747731.2021.1882817.
  289. ^ Cengiz Günay and Vedran Džihić, ed. (6 July 2016). "Decoding the authoritarian code: exercising 'legitimate' power politics through the ruling parties in Turkey, Macedonia and Serbia". Southeast European and Black Sea Studies. Taylor & Francis Online. 16 (4): 529–549. doi:10.1080/14683857.2016.1242872. S2CID 157397873.
  290. ^ Stratulat, Corina (2014). EU integration and party politics in the Balkans (PDF). European Policy Centre. p. 56. ISSN 1782-494X.
  291. ^ Milanović Hrašovec, Ivana (14 March 2018). "Razorna kombinacija neoliberalizma i klijentelizma". Vreme (in Serbian). Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  292. ^ a b c Biserko, Sonja (2015). Politička kultura protiv evropeizacije (PDF) (in Serbian). Belgrade: Helsinški odbor za ljudska prava u Srbiji.
  293. ^ Macdowall, Andrew (18 September 2015). "Wait, the Serbs are now the good guys?". Politico. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  294. ^ Džihić, Vedran (7 September 2020). "Serbia Must Choose Soon Between Despotism and Rational State". Balkan Insight. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  295. ^ Bieber, Florian (July 2018). "Patterns of competitive authoritarianism in the Western Balkans". East European Politics. 38 (3): 337–54. doi:10.1080/21599165.2018.1490272.
  296. ^ Castaldo, Antonino (25 November 2020). "Back to Competitive Authoritarianism? Democratic Backsliding in Vučić's Serbia". Europe-Asia Studies. 72 (10): 1617–1638. doi:10.1080/09668136.2020.1817860. hdl:10451/44515. ISSN 0966-8136. S2CID 225172203.
  297. ^ Maerz, Seraphine F; et al. (April 2020). "State of the world 2019: autocratization surges – resistance grows". Democratization. 27 (6): 909–927. doi:10.1080/13510347.2020.1758670.
  298. ^ Castaldo, Antonino; Pinna, Alessandra (2017). "De-Europeanization in the Balkans. Media freedom in post-Milošević Serbia". European Politics and Society. 19 (3): 264–281. doi:10.1080/23745118.2017.1419599. hdl:10451/30737. S2CID 159002076.
  299. ^ "War of Words: EU vs. Serbia". European Western Balkans. 26 January 2015. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  300. ^ Rujević, Nemanja (5 January 2017). "Serbian government trolls in the battle for the internet". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  301. ^ "Tviter izbrisao više od 8.500 "bot" naloga koji su promovisali Vučića i SNS". Danas (in Serbian). 2 April 2020. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  302. ^ Borger, Julian (2 April 2020). "Twitter deletes 20,000 fake accounts linked to Saudi, Serbian and Egyptian governments". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  303. ^ Lindberg, Staffan (2021). Autocratization Turns Viral: Democracy Report 2021. Gothenburg: V-Dem Institute.
  304. ^ "Serbia". Freedom House. 2022. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  305. ^ Diković, Jelena (23 September 2021). "Aleksandar Vučić i SNS već deset godina ugrožavaju demokratiju i ljudska prava u Srbiji". Danas (in Serbian). Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  306. ^ Nešić, Nenad (21 April 2022). "Umesto kao upozorenje, Vučić izveštaj Fridom hausa doživljava - neozbiljnim". N1 (in Serbian). Retrieved 15 October 2022.
  307. ^ "Brnabić: Sraman izveštaj Fridom hausa". N1 (in Serbian). 20 April 2022. Retrieved 15 October 2022.
  308. ^ Nešić, Milan (12 October 2022). "Orlić: Srbija prema indeksu sloboda bolje rangirana od nekih država EU". Voice of America (in Serbian). Retrieved 15 October 2022.
  309. ^ Byrne, Andrew (24 April 2016). "Ruling Progressive party claims Serbia election victory". Financial Times. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  310. ^ Andrić, Gordana (14 November 2014). "Seselj Homecoming Promises to Shake Up Serbia". Balkan Insight. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  311. ^ Goati, Vladimir (2013). Izbori u Srbiji i Crnoj Gori od 1990. do 2013. i u SRJ od 1992. do 2003 (in Serbian). Belgrade: CeSID. p. 93. ISBN 978-86-83491-53-7.
  312. ^ Diković, Jovana (2012). U tradiciji ideja: evroskepticizam u Srbiji - diskurs antizapadnjaštva? (in Serbian). Belgrade: Etnografski institut. p. 29. doi:10.2298/GEI1202025D.
  313. ^ Đukanović, Dragan (2015). "Spoljnopolitičko pozicioniranje Srbije (SRJ/SCG) od 1992. do 1995. godine". Međunarodna politika (PDF) (in Serbian). Belgrade: Institut za međunarodnu politiku i privredu. p. 121. ISSN 0543-3657.
  314. ^ Biserko, Sonja (2013). Ljudska prava u Srbiji: iskonski otpor liberalnim vrednostima (PDF) (in Serbian). Belgrade: Helsinški odbor za ljudska prava u Srbiji. p. 31.
  315. ^ Ilić, Pavle (16 April 2017). "The Serbian Left's Next Move". Jacobin. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  316. ^ Hartwell, Christopher; Sidlo, Katarzyna (2017). Serbia's cooperation with China, the European Union, Russia and the United States of America (PDF). Brussels: European Parliament. p. 11. ISBN 978-92-846-2211-5.
  317. ^ Kisić, Izabela (2013). The Core Elements at the First Level - Truth, Reconciliation and Compensation (PDF). Austrian Armed Forces Press. p. 84.
  318. ^ Šunter, Daniel (7 July 2021). "Saradnja koja se prećutkuje". Vreme (in Serbian). Retrieved 28 November 2022.
  319. ^ "Predsedništvo". Serbian Progressive Party (in Serbian). 1 February 2013. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  320. ^ "Glavni odbor". Serbian Progressive Party (in Serbian). 1 February 2013. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  321. ^ "Izvršni odbor". Serbian Progressive Party (in Serbian). 1 February 2013. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  322. ^ "Izvod iz registra političkih stranaka" (PDF). Ministry of Public Administration and Local Self-Government (in Serbian). 31 August 2022. p. 7. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  323. ^ "SNS Informator". Serbian Progressive Party (in Serbian). Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  324. ^ "Unija mladih Srpske napredne stranke". Serbian Progressive Party (in Serbian). 15 February 2013. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  325. ^ Mitrović, Igor (1 March 2016). "Unija žena SNS uručila pomoć deci sa smetnjama u razvoju". Bor030 (in Serbian). Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  326. ^ "SNS osnovala fondaciju "Za srpski narod i državu"". Istinomer (in Serbian). 4 November 2019. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  327. ^ "SNS bi, bez Vučića, imao 80 odsto manje glasova". Vijesti (in Serbian). 20 December 2014. Retrieved 19 September 2022.
  328. ^ "Istraživanje: SNS najveća partija u Evropi; član svaki deseti stanovnik Srbije". B92 (in Serbian). 14 December 2019. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  329. ^ "SNS becomes member of European People's Party". B92. 24 April 2013. Archived from the original on 6 October 2013. Retrieved 28 April 2013.
  330. ^ "CDU podržava SNS u Evropskoj narodnoj partiji". N1 (in Serbian). 21 July 2015. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  331. ^ Jovanov, Ivan; Stankovski, Ilija (2020). Youth Policies in the Western Balkans and the EU. Konrad Adenauer Foundation. p. 50.
  332. ^ Stojanović, Boban (2017). Alternativni izveštaj o položaju i potrebama mladih u Republici Srbiji (PDF) (in Serbian). Belgrade: Krovna organizacija mladish Srbije. p. 65. ISBN 978-86-80578-02-6.
  333. ^ "Delegacija SNS na 31. kongresu CDU u Hamburgu". Novosti (in Serbian). 8 December 2018. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  334. ^ "SNS postala punopravna članica Međunarodne demokratske unije". Radio Television of Vojvodina (in Serbian). 21 February 2018. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  335. ^ "Sastanak zvaničnika SNS i Komunističke partije Kine". N1 (in Serbian). 14 October 2019. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  336. ^ Stojanović, Milica (14 October 2019). "Chinese and Serbian Ruling Parties Pledge 'All-Time' Friendship". Balkan Insight. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  337. ^ "Šapić: Učešće na samitu KP Kine velika čast za SNS". NOVA portal (in Serbian). 6 July 2021. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  338. ^ "Jedinstvena Rusija i SNS potpisale sporazum o saradnji". Radio Television of Vojvodina (in Serbian). 27 October 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  339. ^ "Nikolić na kongresu Jedinstvene Rusije". Radio Television of Serbia (in Serbian). 28 November 2011. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  340. ^ Blank, Stephen J. (2012). Perspectives on Russian Foreign Policy. U.S. Army War College Press. p. 80. ISBN 978-1-58487-536-9.
  341. ^ Mihajlović, Branka (28 June 2016). "Šta je SNS potpisao sa Putinovom strankom?". Radio Free Europe (in Serbian). Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  342. ^ Božić Krainčanić, Svetlana (3 December 2018). "Srpski saveznici Putinove politike". Radio Free Europe (in Serbian). Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  343. ^ "Moskva: Vučević i Klimov o saradnju SNS i Jedinstvene Rusije". Tanjug (in Serbian). 1 June 2021. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  344. ^ "S kim je SNS bliska u Evropi?". B92 (in Serbian). 24 June 2011. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  345. ^ Aleksandar Ivković (23 March 2020). "A year after suspending Fidesz, EPP still turning a blind eye to Serbian Progressive Party". European Western Balkans. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  346. ^ Clark, David; Foxall, Andrew (2014). Russia's Role in the Balkans – Cause for Concern? (PDF). London: The Henry Jackson Society. p. 11.
  347. ^ "Selaković: Samo sa DPS možemo ljudima da vratimo osmeh". Direktno (in Serbian). 1 September 2020. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  348. ^ Vasović, Milenko (16 October 2019). "Serbia's President Was Real Loser in Kosovo Election". Balkan Insight. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  349. ^ "Scenario: Territorial exchange between Serbia and Kosovo and it's potential impact on Serbian Communities South of the Ibar" (PDF). Aktiv. p. 8. Retrieved 28 September 2022.

External links