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Christian Democratic Union of Germany

The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (German: Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands or CDU; German pronunciation: [ˈkʁɪstlɪç ˌdemoˈkʁaːtɪʃə ʔuˈni̯oːn ˈdɔʏtʃlants]) is a Christian-democratic,[2][3][4] liberal-conservative[2] political party in Germany. It is the major catch-all party of the centre-right in German politics.[11][12] The CDU forms the CDU/CSU grouping, also known as the Union, in the Bundestag with its Bavarian counterpart the Christian Social Union in Bavaria (CSU). The party is widely considered an effective successor of the Centre Party, although it has a broader base.[13]

Christian Democratic Union of Germany

Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands
AbbreviationCDU
ChairpersonAnnegret Kramp-Karrenbauer
Vice ChairpersonsVolker Bouffier
Ursula von der Leyen
Julia Klöckner
Armin Laschet
Thomas Strobl
Secretary GeneralPaul Ziemiak
Founded26 June 1945; 73 years ago (1945-06-26)
Split fromCentre Party
HeadquartersKlingelhöferstraße 8 10785 Berlin, Germany
NewspaperUnion
Youth wingYoung Union
Membership (January 2018)Decrease 425,910[1]
IdeologyChristian democracy[2][3][4]
Liberal conservatism[2]
Pro-Europeanism[5]
Political positionCentre-right[6][7][8][9][10]
National affiliationCDU/CSU
European affiliationEuropean People's Party
International affiliationCentrist Democrat International
International Democrat Union
European Parliament groupEuropean People's Party
Colours     Orange
     Black (customary)
Bundestag
200 / 709
Bundesrat
22 / 69
State Parliaments
520 / 1,821
European Parliament
29 / 96
Ministers-president of states
6 / 16
Party flag
Flag of the Christian Democratic Union of Germany
Website
cdu.de

The leader of the CDU is Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer. She is the successor of the former party leader Angela Merkel, who is the current Chancellor of Germany. The CDU is a member of the Centrist Democrat International, International Democrat Union and European People's Party (EPP).

Contents

HistoryEdit

Immediately following the collapse of the Nazi dictatorship at the end of World War II, the need for a new political order in Germany was paramount. Simultaneous yet unrelated meetings began occurring throughout Germany, each with the intention of planning a Christian-democratic party. The CDU was established in Berlin on 26 June 1945 and in Rheinland and Westfalen in September of the same year.

The founding members of the CDU consisted primarily of former members of the Centre Party, the German Democratic Party, the German National People's Party and the German People's Party. Many of these individuals, including CDU-Berlin founder Andreas Hermes, were imprisoned for the involvement in the German Resistance during the Nazi dictatorship. In the Cold War years after World War II up to the 1960s (see Vergangenheitsbewältigung), the CDU also attracted conservative, anti-communist former Nazis and Nazi collaborators into its higher ranks (like Hans Globke and Theodor Oberländer). A prominent anti-Nazi member was theologian Eugen Gerstenmaier, who became Acting Chairman of the Foreign Board (1949-1969).

 
The election poster of 1957 reading "No experiments" and featuring then Chancellor Konrad Adenauer what would be the only election in which the CDU obtained an absolute majority

One of the lessons learned from the failure of the Weimar Republic was that disunity among the democratic parties ultimately allowed for the rise of the Nazi Party. It was therefore crucial to create a unified party of Christian democratsa Christian Democratic Union. The result of these meetings was the establishment of an interconfessional (Catholic and Protestant alike) party influenced heavily by the political tradition of liberal conservatism. The CDU experienced considerable success gaining support from the time of its creation in Berlin on 26 June 1945 until its first convention on 21 October 1950, at which Chancellor Konrad Adenauer was named the first Chairman of the party.

In the beginning, it was not clear which party would be favored by the victors of World War II, but by the end of the 1940s the governments of the United States and of Britain began to lean toward the CDU and away from the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD). The latter was more nationalist and sought German reunification even at the expense of concessions to the Soviet Union, depicting Adenauer as an instrument of both the Americans and the Vatican. The Western powers appreciated the CDU's moderation, its economic flexibility and its value as an oppositional force to the communists which appealed to European voters at the time. Adenauer was also trusted by the British.[14]

The party was split over issues of rearmament within the Western alliance and German unification as a neutral state. Adenauer staunchly defended his pro-Western position and outmanoeuvred some of his opponents. He also refused to consider the SPD as a party of the coalition until he felt sure that they shared his anti-communist position. The principled rejection of a reunification that would alienate Germany from the Western alliance made it harder to attract Protestant voters to the party as most refugees from the former German territories east of the Oder were of that faith as were the majority of the inhabitants of East Germany.[14]

The CDU was the dominant party for the first two decades following the establishment of West Germany in 1949. Adenauer remained the party's leader until 1963, at which point the former minister of economics Ludwig Erhard replaced him.[15] As the Free Democratic Party (FDP) withdrew from the governing coalition in 1966 due to disagreements over fiscal and economic policy, Erhard was forced to resign. Consequently, a grand coalition with the SPD took over government under CDU Chancellor Kurt Georg Kiesinger.

The SPD quickly gained popularity and succeeded in forming a social-liberal coalition with the FDP following the 1969 federal election, forcing the CDU out of power for the first time in their history. The CDU continued its role as opposition until 1982, when the FDP's withdrawal from the coalition with the SPD allowed the CDU to regain power.

Kohl Era (1983–1998)Edit

CDU Chairman Helmut Kohl became the new Chancellor of West Germany and his CDU–FDP coalition was confirmed in the 1983 federal election. Public support for the coalition's work in the process of German reunification was reiterated in the 1990 federal election in which the CDU–FDP governing coalition experienced a clear victory.

 
East German CDU leader Lothar de Maizière (left) with West German CDU leader Helmut Kohl, September 1990

After the collapse of the East German government in 1989, Kohl—supported by the governments of the United States and reluctantly by those of France and the United Kingdom—called for German reunification. On 3 October 1990, the government of East Germany was abolished and its territory acceded to the scope of the Basic Law already in place in West Germany. The East German CDU merged with its West German counterpart and elections were held for the reunified country. Although Kohl was re-elected, the party began losing much of its popularity because of an economic recession in the former GDR and increased taxes in the west. The CDU was nonetheless able to win the 1994 federal election by a narrow margin due to an economic recovery.

Kohl served as chairman until the party's electoral defeat in 1998, when he was succeeded by Wolfgang Schäuble. Schäuble resigned in early 2000 as a result of a party financing scandal and was replaced by Angela Merkel, who remained the leader of the CDU until 2018. In the 1998 federal election, the CDU polled 28.4% and the CSU 6.7% of the national vote, which was the lowest result for CDU/CSU since 1949 and a red–green coalition under the leadership of Gerhard Schröder took power until 2005. In 2002, the CDU and CSU polled slightly higher (29.5% and 9.0%, respectively), but still lacked the majority needed for a CDU–FDP coalition government.

Merkel Era (2000–2018)Edit

In 2005, early elections were called after the CDU dealt the governing SPD a major blow, winning more than ten state elections, most of which were landslide victories. The resulting grand coalition between the CDU/CSU and the SPD faced a serious challenge stemming from both parties' demand for the chancellorship. After three weeks of negotiations, the two parties reached a deal whereby CDU received the chancellorship while the SPD retained 8 of the 16 seats in the cabinet and a majority of the most prestigious cabinet posts.[16] The coalition deal was approved by both parties at party conferences on 14 November.[17] Merkel was confirmed as the first female Chancellor of Germany by the majority of delegates (397 to 217) in the newly assembled Bundestag on 22 November.[18]

Although the CDU/CSU lost support in the 2009 federal elections, the FDP experienced the best election cycle in their history, thereby enabling a CDU/CSU–FDP coalition. This marked the first change of coalition partner by a Chancellor in German history and the first centre-right coalition government since 1998. CDU/CSU–FDP coalition lasted until the 2013 federal election, when FDP lost all their seats in the Bundestag. The CDU/CSU thus formed a new grand coalition with the SPD. In the 2017 election, the CDU/CSU lost a large portion of their voteshare. After failing to negotiate a coalition with the FDP and Greens, they continued their grand coalition with the SPD. In October 2018, Merkel announced that she would step down as leader of the CDU in December 2018, but wanted to remain as Chancellor until 2021.[19]

Kramp-Karrenbauer (2018–present)Edit

On 7 December 2018, Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer was elected as new party leader of the CDU in the Christian Democratic Union of Germany leadership election.

Voter baseEdit

 
Konrad-Adenauer-Haus, headquarters of the CDU in Berlin

While Adenauer and Erhard co-operated with non-Nazi parties to their right, the CDU has later worked to marginalize its right-wing opposition. The loss of anti-communism as a political theme, secularization and the cultural revolutions in West Germany occurring since the 1960s have challenged the viability of the CDU.

In her 2005 campaign, Angela Merkel was unwilling to express explicitly Christian views while maintaining that her party had never lost its concept of values. Merkel and Bundestag President Norbert Lammert have been keen to clarify that CDU references to the "dominant culture" imply "tolerance and living together".[14] According to party analyst Stephan Eisel, her avoiding the values-issue may have had the opposite effect as she failed to mobilize the party's core constituency.[20]

The CDU applies the principles of Christian democracy and emphasizes the "Christian understanding of humans and their responsibility toward God". However, CDU membership consists of people adhering to a variety of religions as well as non-religious individuals. The CDU's policies derive from political Catholicism, Catholic social teaching and political Protestantism as well as fiscal conservatism and national conservatism. The party has adopted more liberal economic policies since Helmut Kohl's term in office as the Chancellor of Germany (1982–1998).

As a conservative party, the CDU supports stronger punishments of crimes and involvement on the part of the Bundeswehr in cases of domestic anti-terrorism offensives. In terms of immigrants, the CDU supports initiatives to integrate immigrants through language courses and aims to further control immigration. Dual citizenship should only be allowed in exceptional cases.

In terms of foreign policy, the CDU commits itself to European integration and a strong relation with the United States. In the European Union, the party opposes the entry of Turkey, preferring instead a privileged partnership. In addition to citing various human rights violations, the CDU also believes that Turkey's unwillingness to recognise Cyprus as an independent sovereign state contradicts the European Union policy that its members must recognise the existence of one another.

The CDU has governed in four federal-level and numerous state-level Grand Coalitions with the Social Democratic Party (SPD) as well as in state and local-level coalitions with the Alliance '90/The Greens. The CDU rejects coalitions with either far-left or far-right parties.

Internal structureEdit

MembersEdit

According to news media, the CDU had 420,240 members by June 2018. In 2017, it had added a net 1,000, the first increase since 2003.[21] In May 2012, the CDU had 484,397 members. The number has dropped by 3.1% in 2011 and 3.0% in 2010.

In 2012, the members' average age was 59 years. 6% of the Christian Democrats were under 30 years old.[22] A 2007 study by the Konrad Adenauer Foundation showed that 25.4% of members were female and 74.6% male. Female participation was higher in the former East German states with 29.2% compared to 24.8% in the former West German states.[23]

Before 1966, membership totals in CDU organisation were only estimated. The numbers after 1966 are based on the total from 31 December of the previous year.

State group Chairman Members
  Baden-Württemberg   Thomas Strobl 074,669
  Berlin   Monika Grütters 012,568
  Brandenburg Ingo Senftleben 006,797
  Bremen   Jörg Kastendiek 003,246
  Hamburg Roland Heintze 009,697
  Hesse   Volker Bouffier 047,789
  Mecklenburg-Vorpommern   Vincent Kokert 006,038
  Lower Saxony   Bernd Althusmann 072,813
  North Rhine-Westphalia   Armin Laschet 165,273
  Rhineland-Palatinate   Julia Klöckner 049,856
  Saarland   Tobias Hans 020,651
  Saxony   Michael Kretschmer 013,148
  Saxony-Anhalt   Holger Stahlknecht 008,410
  Schleswig-Holstein   Daniel Günther 026,674
  Thuringia   Mike Mohring 012,035
 
Membership development

Relationship to the CSUEdit

 
Germany Day of Junge Union in Cologne, 1986

Both the CDU and the Christian Social Union in Bavaria (CSU) originated after World War II, sharing a concern for the Christian worldview. In the Bundestag, the CDU is represented in a common faction with the CSU. This faction is called CDU/CSU, or informally the Union. Its basis is a binding agreement known as a Fraktionsvertrag between the two parties.

The CDU and CSU share a common youth organisation, the Junge Union, a common pupil organisation, the Schüler Union Deutschlands [de], a common student organisation, the Ring Christlich-Demokratischer Studenten and a common Mittelstand organisation, the Mittelstands- und Wirtschaftsvereinigung [de].

On issues of federal policies, the CDU and CSU do not differ,[citation needed] but they remain legally and organisationally separate parties. The social differences between the CDU and the somewhat more socially conservative CSU have sometimes been a source of conflict in the past. The most notable and serious such incident was in 1976, when the CSU under Franz Josef Strauß ended the alliance with the CDU at a party conference in Wildbad Kreuth. This decision was reversed shortly thereafter when the CDU threatened to run candidates against the CSU in Bavaria.

The relationship of CDU to the CSU has historic parallels to previous Christian-democratic parties in Germany, with the Catholic Centre Party having served as a national Catholic party throughout the German Empire and the Weimar Republic while the Bavarian People's Party functioning as the Bavarian variant.

Since its formation, the CSU has been more conservative than the CDU. The CSU and the state of Bavaria decided not to sign the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany as they insisted on more autonomy for the individual states.[24] The CSU and the free state of Bavaria have a separate police and justice system (distinctive and non-federal) and have actively participated in all political affairs of the Bundestag, the German government, the Bundesrat, the parliamentary elections of the German President, the European Parliament and meetings with Mikhail Gorbachev in Russia.

Konrad Adenauer FoundationEdit

 
Conference in Rhöndorf with eminent historian Golo Mann (center), 1978

The Konrad Adenauer Foundation is the think-tank of the CDU. It is named after the first Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany and first president of the CDU. The foundation offers political education, conducts scientific fact-finding research for political projects, grants scholarships to gifted individuals, researches the history of Christian democracy and supports and encourages European unification, international understanding and development-policy cooperation. Its annual budget amounts to around 120 million euro and is mostly funded by taxpayer money.[25]

Special organizationsEdit

Notable suborganisations of the CDU are the following:

Chairperson of the CDU, 1950–presentEdit

Chairperson Period
Konrad Adenauer 1950–1966
Ludwig Erhard 1966–1967
Kurt Georg Kiesinger 1967–1971
Rainer Barzel 1971–1973
Helmut Kohl 1973–1998
Wolfgang Schäuble 1998–2000
Angela Merkel 2000–2018
Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer 2018–present

Parliamentary chairmen/chairwomen of the CDU/CSU group in the national parliamentEdit

Chairperson of the CDU/CSU group Period
Heinrich von Brentano di Tremezzo 1949–1955
Heinrich Krone 1955–1961
Heinrich von Brentano di Tremezzo 1961–1964
Rainer Barzel 1964–1973
Karl Carstens 1973–1976
Helmut Kohl 1976–1982
Alfred Dregger 1982–1991
Wolfgang Schäuble 1991–2000
Friedrich Merz 2000–2002
Angela Merkel 2002–2005
Volker Kauder 2005–2018
Ralph Brinkhaus 2018–Present

German Chancellors from the CDUEdit

Chancellor of Germany Time in office
Konrad Adenauer 1949–1963
Ludwig Erhard 1963–1966
Kurt Georg Kiesinger 1966–1969
Helmut Kohl 1982–1998
Angela Merkel 2005–Present

Election resultsEdit

 
Election posters of the CDU in 1949

Federal Parliament (Bundestag)Edit

Election year Leader No. of
constituency votes
No. of
party list votes
% of
party list votes
No. of
overall seats won
+/– Government
1949 Konrad Adenauer 5,978,636 25.2
115 / 402
CDU/CSU–FDPDP
1953 Konrad Adenauer 9,577,659 10,016,594 36.4
197 / 509
  82 CDU/CSU–FDPDP
1957 Konrad Adenauer 11,975,400 11,875,339 39.7
222 / 519
  25 CDU/CSU–DP
1961 Konrad Adenauer 11,622,995 11,283,901 35.8
201 / 521
  21 CDU/CSU–FDP
1965 Konrad Adenauer 12,631,319 12,387,562 38.0
202 / 518
  1 CDU/CSU–SPD
1969 Kurt Georg Kiesinger 12,137,148 12,079,535 36.6
201 / 518
  1 Opposition
1972 Rainer Barzel 13,304,813 13,190,837 35.2
186 / 518
  15 Opposition
1976 Helmut Kohl 14,423,157 14,367,302 38.0
201 / 518
  15 Opposition
1980 Helmut Kohl 13,467,207 12,989,200 34.2
185 / 519
  16 Opposition
1983 Helmut Kohl 15,943,460 14,857,680 38.1
202 / 520
  17 CDU/CSU–FDP
1987 Helmut Kohl 14,168,527 13,045,745 34.4
185 / 519
  17 CDU/CSU–FDP
1990 Helmut Kohl 17,707,574 17,055,116 36.7
268 / 662
  83 CDU/CSU–FDP
1994 Helmut Kohl 17,473,325 16,089,960 34.2
244 / 672
  24 CDU/CSU–FDP
1998 Helmut Kohl 15,854,215 14,004,908 28.4
198 / 669
  46 Opposition
2002 Angela Merkel 15,336,512 14,167,561 29.5
190 / 603
  8 Opposition
2005 Angela Merkel 15,390,950 13,136,740 27.8
180 / 614
  10 CDU/CSU–SPD
2009 Angela Merkel 13,856,674 11,828,277 27.3
194 / 622
  14 CDU/CSU–FDP
2013 Angela Merkel 16,233,642 14,921,877 34.1
254 / 630
  61 CDU/CSU–SPD
2017 Angela Merkel 14,027,804 12,445,832 26.8
200 / 709
  54 CDU/CSU–SPD

European ParliamentEdit

Election year No. of
overall votes
% of
overall vote
No. of
overall seats won
+/–
1979 10,883,085 39.0 (2nd)
33 / 81
1984 9,308,411 37.5 (1st)
32 / 81
  1
1989 8,332,846 29.5 (2nd)
24 / 81
  8
1994 11,346,073 32.0 (2nd)
39 / 99
  15
1999 10,628,224 39.2 (1st)
43 / 99
  4
2004 9,412,009 36.5 (1st)
40 / 99
  3
2009 8,071,391 30.6 (1st)
34 / 99
  6
2014 8,807,500 30.0 (1st)
29 / 96
  5

State Parliaments (Länder)Edit

Note that the CDU does not contest elections in Bavaria due to the alliance with Bavarian sister party, the CSU.

State Parliament Election year No. of
overall votes
% of
overall vote
Seats Government
No. ± Position
Baden-Württemberg 2016 1,447,249 27 (2nd)  
42 / 138
  18   2nd Greens–CDU
Berlin 2016 288,002 17.6 (2nd)  
31 / 160
  8   2nd Opposition
Brandenburg 2014 226,844 23 (2nd)  
21 / 88
  2   2nd Opposition
Bremen 2015 261,929 22.4 (2nd)  
20 / 83
  0   2nd Opposition
Hamburg 2015 561,377 15.9 (2nd)  
20 / 121
  8   2nd Opposition
Hesse 2018 27.0 (1st)  
40 / 137
  7   1st CDU–Greens
Lower Saxony 2017 2,707,274 35.4 (2nd)  
50 / 137
  4   2nd SPD–CDU
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 2016 153,101 19 (3rd)  
16 / 71
  2   3rd SPD–CDU
North Rhine-Westphalia 2017 2,796,683 33 (1st)  
72 / 199
  5   1st CDU–FDP
Rhineland-Palatinate 2016 677,507 31.8 (2nd)  
35 / 101
  6   2nd Opposition
Saarland 2017 217,265 40.7 (1st)  
24 / 51
  5   1st CDU–SPD
Saxony 2014 645,344 39.4 (1st)  
59 / 126
  1   1st CDU–SPD
Saxony-Anhalt 2016 334,123 29.8 (1st)  
30 / 87
  12   1st CDU–SPD–Greens
Schleswig-Holstein 2017 470,312 32 (1st)  
25 / 73
  3   1st CDU–Greens–FDP
Thuringia 2014 315,096 33.5 (1st)  
34 / 91
  4   1st Opposition

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "SPD ist wieder mitgliederstärkste Partei". Der Spiegel. 28 January 2018. Retrieved 8 August 2018.
  2. ^ a b c d Nordsieck, Wolfram (2017). "Germany". Parties and Elections in Europe.
  3. ^ a b T. Banchoff (1999). Legitimacy and the European Union. Taylor & Francis. p. 126. ISBN 978-0-415-18188-4. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
  4. ^ a b Ari-Veikko Anttiroiko; Matti Mälkiä (2007). Encyclopedia of Digital Government. Idea Group Inc (IGI). p. 389. ISBN 978-1-59140-790-4. Retrieved 19 July 2013.
  5. ^ https://www.politico.eu/article/germany-parties-plan-for-eu-in-election-campaign/
  6. ^ Boswell, Christina; Dough, Dan (2009). Bale, Tim, ed. Politicizing migration: opportunity or liability for the centre-right in Germany?. Immigration and Integration Policy in Europe: Why Politics – and the Centre-Right – Matter. Routledge. p. 21.
  7. ^ Hornsteiner, Margret; Saalfeld, Thomas (2014). Parties and the Party System. Developments in German Politics 4. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 80.
  8. ^ Detterbeck, Klaus (2014). Multi-Level Party Politics in Western Europe. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 105.
  9. ^ Conradt, David P. (2015), "Christian Democratic Union (CDU)", Encyclopædia Britannica Online, Encyclopædia Britannica, retrieved 16 December 2015
  10. ^ Miklin, Eric (November 2014). "From 'Sleeping Giant' to Left–Right Politicization? National Party Competition on the EU and the Euro Crisis". JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies. 52 (6): 1199–1206.
  11. ^ Mark Kesselman; Joel Krieger; Christopher S. Allen; Stephen Hellman (2008). European Politics in Transition. Cengage Learning. p. 229. ISBN 978-0-618-87078-3. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
  12. ^ Sarah Elise Wiliarty (2010). The CDU and the Politics of Gender in Germany: Bringing Women to the Party. Cambridge University Press. p. 221. ISBN 978-0-521-76582-4. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
  13. ^ Martin Seeleib-Kaiser, Silke Van Dyk, Martin Roggenkamp, Party Politics and Social Welfare: Comparing Christian and Social Democracy in Austria, Germany and the Netherlands, p. 10, Edward Elgar, 2008
  14. ^ a b c Paul Gottfried (fall 2007). "The Rise and Fall of Christian Democracy in Europe". Orbis.
  15. ^ "Konrad Adenauer (1876-1967)". BBC News. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
  16. ^ "Merkel named as German chancellor". BBC News. 10 October 2005. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
  17. ^ "German parties back new coalition". BBC News. 14 November 2005. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
  18. ^ "Merkel becomes German chancellor". BBC News. 22 November 2005. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
  19. ^ https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-46020745
  20. ^ Stefan Eisel: Reale Regierungsopposition gegen gefühlte Oppositionsregierung Die Politische Meinung, Dezember 2005.
  21. ^ Andrea Shalal (26 July 2018). "Senior German conservative chides party for bickering". Reuters. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
  22. ^ "Ausnahme Piraten und Grüne: Parteien laufen Mitglieder weg" (in German). N-tv. 28 May 2012. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
  23. ^ "Die Mitglieder der CDU" (in German).
  24. ^ Dieter Wunderlich (2006). "Gründung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland". Retrieved 23 September 2013.
  25. ^ "2010 Annual Report" (in German). p. 93.
  26. ^ "'Merkel diamond' takes centre stage in German election campaign". The Guardian. 3 September 2013. Retrieved 8 September 2013.

Further readingEdit

  • Bösch, Frank (2004). Steven Van Hecke; Emmanuel Gerard, eds. Two Crises, Two Consolidations? Christian Democracy in Germany. Christian Democratic Parties in Europe Since the End of the Cold War. Leuven University Press. pp. 55–78. ISBN 90-5867-377-4.
  • Cary, Noel D. (1996). The Path to Christian Democracy: German Catholics and the Party System from Windthorst to Adenauer. Harvard University Press.
  • Kleinmann, Hans-Otto (1993). Geschichte der CDU: 1945–1982. Stuttgart. ISBN 3-421-06541-1.
  • Lappenküper, Ulrich (2004). Michael Gehler; Wolfram Kaiser, eds. Between Concentration Movement and People's Party: The Christian Democratic Union of Germany. Christian Democracy in Europe since 1945. Routledge. pp. 21–32. ISBN 0-7146-5662-3.
  • Mitchell, Maria (2012). The Origins of Christian Democracy: Politics and Confession in Modern Germany. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472-11841-0.
  • Wiliarty, Sarah Elise (2010). The CDU and the Politics of Gender in Germany: Bringing Women to the Party. Cambridge University Press.

External linksEdit