Social Democratic Party of Germany

(Redirected from SPD)

The Social Democratic Party of Germany (German: Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, [zoˈtsi̯aːldemoˌkʁaːtɪʃə paʁˌtaɪ ˈdɔʏtʃlants]; SPD, German pronunciation: [ɛspeːˈdeː] (listen)) is a centre-left social democratic[2][3][4] political party in Germany. It is one of the three major parties of contemporary Germany along with the Union parties (CDU/CSU) and the greens (Bündnis 90 die Grünen).

Social Democratic Party of Germany
Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands
AbbreviationSPD
Leader
General SecretaryKevin Kühnert
Chancellor of GermanyOlaf Scholz
Deputy Leaders
Founded27 May 1875; 147 years ago (1875-05-27)
Merger of
HeadquartersWilly-Brandt-Haus D-10911 Berlin
NewspaperVorwärts
Student wingJuso-Hochschulgruppen
Youth wingYoung Socialists in the SPD
Women's wingAssociation of Social Democratic Women
LGBT+ wingSPDqueer
Paramilitary wingReichsbanner Schwarz-Rot-Gold (1924–1933)
Membership (2021)Decrease 404,305[1]
IdeologySocial democracy
Pro-Europeanism
Political positionCentre-left
European affiliationParty of European Socialists
International affiliationProgressive Alliance
European Parliament groupProgressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats
ColoursRed
Bundestag
206 / 736
Bundesrat
19 / 69
State parliaments
481 / 1,884
European Parliament
16 / 96
State minister-presidents
8 / 16
Party flag
Flag of the Social Democratic Party of Germany.svg
Website
www.spd.de Edit this at Wikidata

Saskia Esken has been the party's leader since the 2019 leadership election together with Lars Klingbeil, who joined her in December 2021. After Olaf Scholz was elected Chancellor in 2021 the SPD became the leading party of the federal government, which the SPD formed with the Greens and FDP, after the 2021 federal election. The SPD is a member of 11 of the 16 German state governments and is a leading partner in seven of them.

The SPD was established in 1863. It was one of the earliest Marxist-influenced parties in the world. From the 1890s through the early 20th century, the SPD was Europe's largest Marxist party, and the most popular political party in Germany.[5] During the First World War, the party split between a pro-war mainstream and the anti-war Independent Social Democratic Party, of which some members went on to form the Communist Party of Germany (KPD). The SPD played a leading role in the German Revolution of 1918–1919 and was responsible for the foundation of the Weimar Republic. SPD politician Friedrich Ebert served as the first President of Germany.

After the rise of the Nazi Party to power, the SPD was the only party present in the Reichstag to vote against the Enabling Act of 1933; the SPD was subsequently banned, and operated in exile as the Sopade. After the Second World War, the SPD was re-established. In East Germany, it was forced to merge with the KPD to form the Socialist Unity Party of Germany. In West Germany, the SPD became one of two major parties alongside the CDU/CSU. In the Godesberg Program of 1959, the SPD dropped its commitment to Marxism, becoming a big tent party of the centre-left. The SPD led the federal government from 1969 to 1982, 1998 to 2005 and again since 2021. It served as a junior partner to a CDU/CSU led government from 1966 to 1969, 2005 to 2009 and from 2013 to 2021.

The SPD holds pro-EU stances and is a member of the Party of European Socialists and sits with the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats group in the European Parliament.[6][7] With 16 MEPs, it is the third largest party in the group. The SPD was a founding member of the Socialist International, but the party left in 2013 after criticising its acceptance of parties they consider to be violating human rights.[8] The SPD subsequently founded the Progressive Alliance[9][10][11] and was joined by numerous other parties around the world. Previously, the SPD was a founding member of both the Second International and the Labour and Socialist International.

HistoryEdit

 
SPD membership statistics (in thousands) since 1945. Despite heavy losses since 1990, the SPD is still the largest party in Germany, ahead of the CDU.

The Social Democratic Party has its origins in the General German Workers' Association, founded in 1863, and the Social Democratic Workers' Party, founded in 1869. The two groups merged in 1875 to create the Socialist Workers' Party of Germany (German: Sozialistische Arbeiterpartei Deutschlands). From 1878 to 1890, the Anti-Socialist Laws banned any group that aimed at spreading socialist principles, but the party still gained support in elections. In 1890, when the ban was lifted, the party adopted its current name. The SPD was the largest Marxist party in Europe and consistently the most popular party in German federal elections from 1890 onward, although it was surpassed by other parties in terms of seats won in the Reichstag due to the electoral system.[12]

In the years leading up to World War I, the SPD remained radical in principle, but moderate in reality. According to Roger Eatwell and Anthony Wright, the SPD became a party of reform, with social democracy representing "a party that strives after the socialist transformation of society by the means of democratic and economic reforms". They emphasise this development as central to understanding 20th-century social democracy, of which the SPD was a major influence.[13] In the 1912 federal election, the SPD won 34.8 per cent of votes and became the largest party in the Reichstag with 110 seats, although it was still excluded from government.[14] Despite the Second International's agreement to oppose militarism,[15] the SPD supported the German war effort and adopted a policy, known as Burgfriedenspolitik, of refraining from calling strikes or criticising the government.[16][17] Internal opposition to the policy grew throughout the war. Anti-war members were expelled in 1916 and 1917, leading to the formation of the Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany (USPD).[18]

The SPD played a key role in the German Revolution of 1918–1919. On 9 November 1918, leading SPD member Friedrich Ebert was designated Chancellor and fellow Social Democrat Philipp Scheidemann, on his own authority, proclaimed Germany a republic.[19] The government introduced a large number of reforms in the following months, introducing various civil liberties and labor rights.[20] The SPD government, committed to parliamentary liberal democracy, used military force against more radical communist groups, leading to a permanent split between the SPD and the USPD (later the Communist Party of Germany, KPD).[21] The SPD was the largest party during the first 13 years of the new Weimar Republic. It decisively won the 1919 federal election with 37.9 per cent of votes, and Ebert became the first President in February.[22] The position of Chancellor was held by Social Democrats until the 1920 federal election, when the SPD lost a substantial portion of its support, falling to 22 per cent of votes. After this, the SPD yielded the Chancellery to other parties, although it remained part of the government until 1924. Ebert died in 1925 and was succeeded by conservative Paul von Hindenburg. After making gains in the 1928 federal election, the SPD's Hermann Müller became Chancellor.[23]

As Germany was struck hard by the Great Depression, and unable to negotiate an effective response to the crisis, Müller resigned in 1930. The SPD was sidelined as the Nazi Party gained popularity and conservatives dominated the government, assisted by Hindenburg's frequent use of emergency powers. The Reichsbanner Schwarz-Rot-Gold, the SPD's paramilitary wing, was frequently involved in violent confrontations with the Nazi Sturmabteilung.[24] The Nazis overtook the SPD as the largest party in July 1932 and Adolf Hitler was appointed Chancellor in January 1933. Of the parties present in the Reichstag during the passage of the Enabling Act of 1933, the SPD was the only one to vote against; most of the Communist deputies had been arrested ahead of the vote.[25] The SPD was banned in June. Many members were subsequently imprisoned and killed by the Nazi government while others fled the country. The party-in-exile was called Sopade.[26]

After the end of World War II, the re-establishment of the SPD was permitted in the Western occupation zones in 1945. In the Soviet occupation zone, the SPD was forcibly merged with the KPD in 1946 to form the Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED). The SED was ruling party of East Germany until 1989.[27] In West Germany, the SPD became one of two major parties, alongside the Christian Democratic Union (CDU). In the inaugural 1949 federal election, it placed second with 29.2 per cent of votes and led the opposition to the CDU government.[28] In its 1959 Godesberg Program, the party dropped its commitment to Marxism and sought to appeal to middle-class voters, becoming a big tent party of the centre-left.[29]

Although strongly leftist, the SPD was willing to compromise. Only through its support did the governing CDU/CSU pass a de-Nazification law that its coalition partner the Free Democratic Party (FDP) and the far-right German Party voted against.[30] At the same time, the SPD opposed the pro-West integration of West Germany because they believed that made a re-unification of Germany impossible. Austria could have become a sovereign neutral state in 1956, but a 1952 Soviet suggestion for Germans to form a neutral state was ignored by the CDU/CSU–FDP government. After 17 years in opposition, the SPD became the junior partner in a grand coalition with the CDU/CSU which lasted from 1966 to 1969. After the 1969 federal election, the SPD's Willy Brandt became Chancellor in a coalition with the liberal Free Democratic Party (FDP). His government sought to normalise relations with East Germany and the Eastern Bloc, a policy known as Ostpolitik.[31] The party achieved its best ever result of 45.8 per cent in 1972, one of only three occasions in which it formed the largest Bundestag faction.[32] After Brandt's resignation in 1974, his successor Helmut Schmidt served as Chancellor until 1982, when the SPD returned to opposition.[33]

During the Peaceful Revolution in East Germany, the East German SPD was refounded. It merged with the West German party in 1990, shortly before German reunification.[34] The SPD returned to government under Gerhard Schröder after the 1998 federal election in a coalition with The Greens.[35] This government was re-elected in 2002 but defeated in 2005.[36] The SPD then became junior partner of a grand coalition with the CDU/CSU until 2009. After a term in opposition, they again served as junior partner to the CDU/CSU after the 2013 federal election.[37] This arrangement was renewed after the 2017 federal election.[38] SPD narrowly won against the CDU/CSU in the September 2021 federal election, becoming the biggest party in the federal parliament (Bundestag).[39] Social Democrat Olaf Scholz became the new chancellor in December 2021, and formed a coalition government with the Green Party and the Free Democrats (FDP).[40]

Party platformEdit

 
Sigmar Gabriel, Vice-Chancellor of Germany (2013–2018) and former chairman of the SPD

The SPD was established as a Marxist party in 1875. It underwent a major shift in policies, reflected in the differences between the Heidelberg Program of 1925 which called for "the transformation of the capitalist system of private ownership of the means of production to social ownership"[41] and the Godesberg Program of 1959 which aimed to broaden the party's voter base and to move its political position toward the political centre.[42] After World War II, the SPD was re-formed in West Germany after being banned by the Nazi regime; in East Germany, it merged with the Communist Party of Germany to form the ruling Socialist Unity Party of Germany. Under the chairmanship of Kurt Schumacher, the SPD was a socialist party representing the interests of the working class and of trade unions. With the 1959 Godesberg Program, the party evolved from a socialist working-class party to a modern social-democratic party working within democratic capitalism. The SPD's Hamburg Programme, adopted in 2007, describes democratic socialism as "an order of economy, state and society in which the civil, political, social and economic fundamental rights are guaranteed for all people, all people live a life without exploitation, oppression and violence, that is in social and human security" and as a "vision of a free, just and solidary society", the realization of which is emphasized as a "permanent task". Social democracy serves as the "principle of action".[43]

The party platform of the SPD espouses the goal of social democracy, which it envisions as a societal arrangement in which freedom and social justice are paramount. According to the party platform, political freedom, justice and social solidarity form the basis of social democracy.

  • The coordinated social market economy should be strengthened and its output should be distributed fairly. The party sees that economic system as necessary in order to ensure the affluence of the entire population.
  • The SPD also supports a welfare state.
  • Concurrently, it advocates a sustainable fiscal policy that does not place a burden on future generations while eradicating budget deficits.
  • In social policy, the Social Democrats stand for civil and political rights in an open society.
  • In foreign policy, the party aims at ensuring global peace by balancing global interests with democratic means; European integration is a main priority.
  • The SPD supports economic regulations to limit potential losses for banks and people. They support a common European economic and financial policy to prevent speculative bubbles as well as to foster environmentally sustainable growth.[44]

Internal factionsEdit

The SPD is mostly composed of members belonging to either of the two main wings, namely the Keynesian social democrats and Third Way moderate social democrats belonging to the Seeheimer Kreis. While the more moderate Seeheimer Kreis generally support the Agenda 2010 programs introduced by Chancellor Gerhard Schröder, the classical social democrats continue to defend classical left-wing policies and the welfare state. The Keynesian left-wing of the SPD claims that in recent years the welfare state has been curtailed through reform programs such as the Agenda 2010, Hartz IV, and the more economic liberal stance of the SPD which were endorsed by centrist social democrats.[45][46] In reaction to Agenda 2010, an inner-party dissident movement developed, leading to the foundation of the new party Labour and Social Justice – The Electoral Alternative (Arbeit & soziale Gerechtigkeit – Die Wahlalternative, WASG) in 2005, which later merged into The Left (Die Linke) in 2007.[47] The Parlamentarische Linke comprises left-wing SPD Members of the German Bundestag.

Base of supportEdit

Social structureEdit

Prior to World War II, as the main non-revolutionary left-wing party the Social Democrats fared best among non-Catholic workers as well as intellectuals favouring social progressive causes and increased economic equality. Led by Kurt Schumacher after World War II, the SPD initially opposed both the social market economy and Konrad Adenauer's drive towards Western integration fiercely, but after Schumacher's death it accepted the social market economy and Germany's position in the Western alliance in order to appeal to a broader range of voters. It still remains associated with the economic causes of unionised employees and working class voters. In the 1990s, the left and moderate wings of the party drifted apart, culminating in a secession of a significant number of party members which later joined the socialist party WASG, which later merged into The Left (Die Linke).

Geographic distributionEdit

Much of the SPD's current-day support comes from large cities, especially northern and western Germany and Berlin. As of 2019, 10 of the country's 15 biggest cities are led by SPD mayors. The metropolitan Ruhr Area, where coal mining and steel production were once the main industries, have provided a significant base for the SPD in the 20th century. In the city of Bremen, the SPD has continuously governed since 1949.

In southern Germany, the SPD typically garners less support except in the largest cities. At the 2009 federal election, the party lost its only constituency in the entire state of Bavaria (in Munich).

Small town and rural support comes especially from the traditionally Protestant areas of northern Germany and Brandenburg (with notable exceptions such as Western Pomerania where CDU leader Angela Merkel has her constituency) and a number of university towns. A striking example of the general pattern is the traditionally Catholic Emsland, where the Social Democrats generally gain a low percentage of votes, whereas the Reformed Protestant region of East Frisia directly to the north, with its strong traditional streak of anti-Catholicism, is one of their strongest constituencies.

Further south, the SPD also enjoys solid support in northern Hesse, parts of Palatinate and the Saarland. The social democrats are weakest in the south-eastern states of Bavaria, Saxony and Thuringia, where the party's percentage of votes dropped to single-digit figures in the 2018 and 2019 elections.

Post-war leadershipEdit

The federal leader is supported by six Deputy Leaders and the party executive. As of 2021, the leaders are Saskia Esken and Norbert Walter-Borjans. The previous leader was Andrea Nahles, who announced her pending resignation on 2 June 2019. As Germany is a federal republic, each of Germany's states have their own SPD party at the state level.

State-levelEdit

State Leader Seats Government
Baden-Württemberg Andreas Stoch
19 / 143
Opposition
Bavaria Natascha Kohnen
22 / 205
Opposition
Berlin Franziska Giffey &
Raed Saleh [de]
38 / 160
Coalition
Brandenburg Dietmar Woidke
25 / 88
Coalition
Bremen Sascha Karolin Aulepp
30 / 83
Coalition
Hamburg Melanie Leonhard
51 / 121
Coalition
Hesse Nancy Faeser
37 / 110
Opposition
Lower Saxony Stephan Weil
55 / 137
Coalition
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Manuela Schwesig
34 / 71
Coalition
North Rhine-Westphalia Thomas Kutschaty
56 / 195
Opposition
Rhineland-Palatinate Roger Lewentz
39 / 101
Coalition
Saarland Anke Rehlinger
29 / 51
State government
Saxony Martin Dulig
18 / 126
Coalition
Saxony-Anhalt Juliane Kleemann [de] &
Andreas Schmidt [de]
11 / 87
Coalition
Schleswig-Holstein Serpil Midyatli
21 / 73
Opposition
Thuringia Georg Maier [de]
13 / 91
Coalition

Election resultsEdit

 
Election results and governments since 1949

The SPD, at times called SAPD, took part in general elections determining the composition of parliament. For elections up until 1933, the parliament was called the Reichstag, except for the one of 1919 which was called the National Assembly and since 1949 the parliament is called Bundestag. Note that changes in borders (1871, 1919, 1920, 1949, 1957 and 1990) varied the number of eligible voters whereas electoral laws also changed the ballot system (only constituencies until 1912, only party lists until 1949 and a mixed system thereafter), the suffrage (women vote since 1919; minimum active voting age was 25 till 1918, 20 till 1946, 21 till 1972 and 18 since), the number of seats (fixed or flexible) and the length of the legislative period (three or four years). The list begins after the SPD was formed in 1875, when labour parties unified to form the SPD (then SAPD, current name since 1890).

Imperial Germany (Reichstag)Edit

Election Votes % Seats +/– Status
1877 493,447 9.1 (#4)
13 / 397
Opposition
1878 437,158 7.6 (#5)
9 / 397
  4 Opposition
1881 311,961 6.1 (#7)
13 / 397
  4 Opposition
1884 549,990 9.7 (#5)
24 / 397
  11 Opposition
1887 763,102 10.1 (#5)
11 / 397
  13 Opposition
1890 1,427,323 19.7 (#1)
35 / 397
  24 Opposition
1893 1,786,738 23.3 (#1)
44 / 397
  9 Opposition
1898 2,107,076 27.2 (#1)
56 / 397
  12 Opposition
1903 3,010,771 31.7 (#1)
81 / 397
  25 Opposition
1907 3,259,029 28.9 (#1)
43 / 397
  38 Opposition
1912 4,250,399 34.8 (#1)
110 / 397
  67 Opposition (1912–1918)
Coalition (1918)

Weimar Republic (Reichstag)Edit

Election Votes % Seats +/– Status
1919 11,516,852 37.9 (#1)
165 / 423
  55 Coalition
1920 6,179,991 21.9 (#1)
103 / 459
  62 External support (1920–1921)
Coalition (1921–1922)
External support (1922–1923)
Coalition (1923)
Opposition (1923–1924)
May 1924 6,008,905 20.5 (#1)
100 / 472
  3 Opposition
Dec 1924 7,881,041 26.0 (#1)
131 / 493
  31 Opposition (1924–1926)
External support (1926–1927)
Opposition (1927–1928)
1928 9,152,979 29.8 (#1)
153 / 491
  22 Coalition
1930 8,575,244 24.5 (#1)
143 / 577
  10 Opposition
Jul 1932 7,959,712 21.6 (#2)
133 / 608
  10 Opposition
Nov 1932 7,247,901 20.4 (#2)
121 / 584
  12 Opposition
Mar 1933 7,181,629 18.3 (#2)
120 / 667
  1 Opposition
Nov 1933
Banned. The Nazi Party was the sole legal party.
1936
Banned. The Nazi Party was the sole legal party.
1938
Banned. The Nazi Party was the sole legal party.

Federal parliament (Bundestag)Edit

Election Candidate Constituency Party list Seats +/– Status
Votes % Votes %
1949 Kurt Schumacher 6,934,975 29.2 (#2)
131 / 402
Opposition
1953 Erich Ollenhauer 8,131,257 29.5 (#2) 7,944,943 28.8 (#2)
162 / 509
  22 Opposition
1957 11,975,400 32.0 (#2) 9,495,571 31.8 (#2)
181 / 519
  19 Opposition
1961 Willy Brandt 11,672,057 36.5 (#1) 11,427,355 36.2 (#1)
203 / 521
  22 Opposition
1965 12,998,474 40.1 (#1) 12,813,186 39.3 (#1)
217 / 518
  14 Opposition (1965–1966)
CDU/CSU–SPD (1966–1969)
1969 14,402,374 44.0 (#1) 14,065,716 42.7 (#1)
237 / 518
  20 SPD–FDP
1972 18,228,239 48.9 (#1) 17,175,169 45.8 (#1)
242 / 518
  5 SPD–FDP
1976 Helmut Schmidt 16,471,321 43.7 (#1) 16,099,019 42.6 (#1)
224 / 518
  18 SPD–FDP
1980 16,808,861 44.5 (#1) 16,260,677 42.9 (#1)
228 / 519
  4 SPD–FDP (1980–1982)
Opposition (1982–1983)
1983 Hans-Jochen Vogel 15,686,033 40.4 (#2) 14,865,807 38.2 (#1)
202 / 520
  26 Opposition
1987 Johannes Rau 14,787,953 39.2 (#1) 14,025,763 37.0 (#1)
193 / 519
  9 Opposition
1990 Oskar Lafontaine 16,279,980 35.2 (#2) 15,545,366 33.5 (#2)
239 / 662
  46 Opposition
1994 Rudolf Scharping 17,966,813 38.3 (#1) 17,140,354 36.4 (#1)
252 / 672
  13 Opposition
1998 Gerhard Schröder 21,535,893 43.8 (#1) 20,181,269 40.9 (#1)
298 / 669
  43 SPD–Greens
2002 20,059,967 41.9 (#1) 18,484,560 38.5 (#1)
251 / 603
  47 SPD–Greens
2005 18,129,100 38.4 (#1) 16,194,665 34.2 (#1)
222 / 614
  29 CDU/CSU–SPD
2009 Frank-Walter Steinmeier 12,077,437 27.9 (#2) 9,988,843 23.0 (#2)
146 / 622
  76 Opposition
2013 Peer Steinbrück 12,835,933 29.4 (#2) 11,247,283 25.7 (#2)
193 / 630
  42 CDU/CSU–SPD
2017 Martin Schulz 11,426,613 24.6 (#2) 9,538,367 20.5 (#2)
153 / 709
  40 CDU/CSU–SPD
2021 Olaf Scholz 12,227,998 26.4 (#1) 11,949,374 25.7 (#1)
206 / 736
  53 SPD–GreensFDP

European ParliamentEdit

Election Votes % Seats +/–
1979 11,370,045 40.8 (#1)
33 / 81
1984 9,296,417 37.4 (#2)
32 / 81
  1
1989 10,525,728 37.3 (#1)
30 / 81
  2
1994 11,389,697 32.2 (#1)
40 / 99
  10
1999 8,307,085 30.7 (#2)
33 / 99
  7
2004 5,547,971 21.5 (#2)
23 / 99
  10
2009 5,472,566 20.8 (#2)
23 / 99
  0
2014 7,999,955 27.2 (#2)
27 / 96
  4
2019 5,914,953 15.8 (#3)
16 / 96
  11

State parliaments (Länder)Edit

State parliament Election Votes % Seats +/– Status
Baden-Württemberg 2021 535,462 11.0 (#3)
19 / 154
  0 Opposition
Bavaria 2018 1,317,942 9.7 (#5)
22 / 205
  20 Opposition
Berlin 2021 389,965 21.4 (#1)
36 / 147
  2 SPD–Greens–Left
Brandenburg 2019 331,238 26.2 (#1)
25 / 88
  5 SPD–CDU–Greens
Bremen 2019 365,315 24.9 (#2)
23 / 84
  7 SPD–Greens–Left
Hamburg 2020 1,554,760 39.0 (#1)
54 / 123
  4 SPD–Greens
Hesse 2018 570,166 19.8 (#3)
29 / 137
  8 Opposition
Lower Saxony 2017 1,413,990 36.9 (#1)
55 / 137
  6 SPD–CDU
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 2021 361,761 39.6 (#1)
34 / 79
  8 SPD–Left
North Rhine-Westphalia 2022 1,905,002 26.7 (#2)
56 / 195
  13 Opposition
Rhineland-Palatinate 2021 691,055 35.7 (#1)
39 / 101
  0 SPD–Greens–FDP
Saarland 2022 196,799 43.5 (#1)
29 / 51
  12 SPD majority
Saxony 2019 167,289 7.7 (#5)
10 / 119
  8 CDU–Greens–SPD
Saxony-Anhalt 2021 89,475 8.4 (#4)
9 / 97
  2 CDU–SPD–FDP
Schleswig-Holstein 2022 221,536 16.0 (#3)
12 / 69
  9 Opposition
Thuringia 2019 90,984 8.2 (#4)
8 / 90
  4 Left–SPD–Greens

Results timelineEdit

Year  
DE
 
EU
 
BW
 
BY
 
BE
 
BB
 
HB
 
HH
 
HE
 
NI
 
MV
 
NW
 
RP
 
SL
 
SN
 
ST
 
SH
 
TH
 
SB
 
WB
 
WH
1946 N/A N/A 31.9 28.6
  
48.7
    
[a] 47.6
  
43.1 42.7 [a] [a] [a] [a]
1947 22.4
  
    20.8   41.7        43.4 32.0 34.3 32.8 43.8
1948       64.5
   
                    
1949 29.2   42.8
1950   33.0
  
  28.0
  
  44.7 N/A     44.4 N/A   32.3 N/A N/A   27.5 N/A
1951       39.1     33.7   34.0
1952 28.0
   
          32.4
  
1953   28.8        45.2
1954   28.1   44.6   42.6   34.5   33.2
1955           47.8      35.2   31.7   20.1
1956   28.9            
1957   31.8        53.9    
1958   30.8   52.6      46.9   39.2   35.9
1959      54.9      39.5   34.9
  
1960   35.3          30.0
1961   36.2   57.4
1962   35.3      50.8   43.3   39.2
1963   61.9   54.7      44.9   40.7
1964   37.3         
  
1965   39.3   40.7
1966         35.8   59.0   51.0   49.5
1967   56.9   46.0       43.1      36.8   39.4
1968   29.0         
1969   42.7   
1970      33.3   55.3   45.9   46.3   46.1   40.8
1971   50.4   55.3              40.5   41.0
1972   45.8   37.6    
1973   
1974   30.2   45.0   43.2   43.1
  
1975   42.6   48.8         45.1   38.5   41.8   40.1
1976   42.6   33.3        
1977   
1978   31.4   51.5   44.3   42.2
1979 40.8   42.7
  
  48.8        42.3   41.7
1980   42.9   32.5     48.4   45.4
1981      38.3  
1982   31.9   42.7   42.8   36.5
  51.3
1983   38.2   51.3     46.2   39.6   43.7
1984   37.4   32.4    
  
1985   32.4   52.1   49.2
1986   27.5   41.7   42.1    
1987   37.0   50.5   45.0   40.2   38.8   45.2
1988   32.0        54.8
1989   37.3   37.3
  
 
1990   33.5   26.0   30.4 38.2   44.2 27.0   50.0   54.4 19.1 26.0 22.8
1991          38.8   48.0
 
  40.8        44.8  
1992   29.4             46.2
1993      40.4  
1994   36.4   32.2   30.0   54.1      44.3   29.5   49.4   16.6   34.0   29.6
1995   23.6     33.4   38.0        46.0        
1996   25.1               39.8   39.8
1997   36.2      
1998   40.9   28.7      47.9   34.3   35.9
1999      30.7   22.4
  
  39.3   42.6   39.4        44.4   10.7     18.5
2000         42.8   43.1
2001   33.3      36.5      44.8   
  29.7
2002   38.5      40.6      20.0
2003      19.6   42.3   29.1   33.4   
2004   21.5   31.9      30.5   30.8   9.8   14.5
2005   34.2      37.1      38.7
2006      25.2   30.8   30.2   45.6   21.4   
2007      36.7        
2008   18.6      34.1   36.7   30.3
2009   23.0   20.8   33.0   23.7   24.5   10.4   25.4   18.5
2010      34.5
  
  
2011   23.1   28.3   38.6   48.4   35.6   35.7   21.5
2012                 39.1      30.6      30.4
2013   25.7   20.6   30.7   32.6          
2014      27.3   31.9      12.4   12.4
2015      32.8   45.6       
2016   12.7   21.6         30.6   36.2   10.6
2017   20.5       36.9      31.2       29.6       27.3
2018      9.7   19.8      
2019   15.8   26.2   24.9   7.7   8.2
2020           39.2        
2021   25.7
   
  11.0   21.4      39.6
  
  35.7
   
  8.4
   
2022 TBD   26.7   43.5
 
  16.0
Year  
DE
 
EU
 
BW
 
BY
 
BE
 
BB
 
HB
 
HH
 
HE
 
NI
 
MV
 
NW
 
RP
 
SL
 
SN
 
ST
 
SH
 
TH
Bold indicates best result to date.
  Present in legislature (in opposition)
  Junior coalition partner
  Senior coalition partner

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e The eastern sections of the SPD were forcibly merged into the SED prior to the 1946 elections in the eastern zone.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Party members: Greens gain, AfD and SPD lose". RedaktionsNetzwerk Deutschland (in German). 14 February 2021.
  2. ^ Merkel, Wolfgang; Petring, Alexander; Henkes, Christian; Egle, Christoph (2008). Social Democracy in Power: the capacity to reform. London: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-43820-9.
  3. ^ Almeida, Dimitri (2012). The Impact of European Integration on Political Parties: Beyond the Permissive Consensus. CRC Press. p. 71. ISBN 978-1-136-34039-0. Retrieved 14 July 2013.
  4. ^ Ashley Lavelle (2013). The Death of Social Democracy: Political Consequences in the 21st Century. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-4094-9872-8. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  5. ^ Christopher R. Browning, The Origins of the Final Solution: The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939 – March 1942 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2004), p. 7.
  6. ^ "Where German parties stand on Europe". politico.eu. Politico. 28 August 2017.
  7. ^ Buck, Tobias (16 May 2019). "Germany's SPD targets voters' emotions with EU poll campaign". Financial Times.
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  9. ^ "Progressive Alliance: Sozialdemokraten gründen weltweites Netzwerk". Der Spiegel. Hamburg, Germany. 22 May 2013. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
  10. ^ Sattar, Majid (22 May 2013). "Sozialdemokratie: "Progressive Alliance" gegründet". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
  11. ^ "Sozialistische Internationale hat ausgedient: SPD gründet "Progressive Alliance"". 22 May 2013. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
  12. ^ Christopher R. Browning, The Origins of the Final Solution: The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Poicy, September 1939–March 1942 (Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press and Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 2004), p. 7.
  13. ^ Eatwell, Roger; Wright, Anthony (1999). Contemporary Political Ideologies (2nd ed.). London: Continuum. p. 87. ISBN 978-1-85567-605-3.
  14. ^ "GHDI". Nohlen & Stöver.
  15. ^ In, for example, the International Socialist Congress, Stuttgart 1907.
  16. ^ V. R. Berghahn, Germany and the Approach of War in 1914 (1974) pp. 178–85
  17. ^ Dieter Groh, "The 'Unpatriotic Socialists' and the State." Journal of Contemporary History 1.4 (1966): 151–77. online.
  18. ^ Winkler, Der lange Weg nach Westen, Beck Verlag Munich, 2000, p. 362
  19. ^ Haffner, Sebastian (2002). Die deutsche Revolution 1918/19 (German). Kindler. ISBN 978-3-463-40423-3.
  20. ^ The Social Democratic Party of Germany 1848–2005 by Heinrich Potthoff and Susanne Miller
  21. ^ Heiden, Konrad (1944). Der Fuehrer: Hitler's Rise to Power. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company. pp. 23–24.
  22. ^ Kolb, Eberhard (2005). The Weimar Republic. Psychology Press. p. 226. ISBN 978-0-415-34441-8. Retrieved 10 February 2012.
  23. ^ "Biografie Hermann Müller (-Franken) (German)". Bayerische Nationalbibliothek. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
  24. ^ "Die Eiserne Front". reichsbanner.de. Retrieved 10 October 2017.
  25. ^ Kitson, Alison. Germany, 1858–1990: Hope, Terror, and Revival, pp. 153–54 (Oxford U. Press 2001).
  26. ^ William Shirer, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich (Touchstone Edition) (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1990)
  27. ^ Entscheidung für die SED 1946 – ein Verrat an sozialdemokratischen Idealen?, in: Jahrbuch für Forschungen zur Geschichte der Arbeiterbewegung, No. I/2004.
  28. ^ . Federal Returning Officer http://www.bundeswahlleiter.de/en/bundestagswahlen/fruehere_bundestagswahlen/btw1949.html. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  29. ^ "Godesberg Program in English (PDF)" (PDF). German History Documents.
  30. ^ "Schwarz-weiß-rot mit braunen Flecken – Die FDP muß erkennen, daß es rechts von der CDU/CSU nicht viel zu holen gibt". Udo-leuschner.de. Retrieved 15 September 2021.
  31. ^ Hofmann, Arne. The emergence of détente in Europe: Brandt, Kennedy and the formation of Ostpolitik. (Routledge, 2007).
  32. ^ . Federal Returning Officer http://www.bundeswahlleiter.de/en/bundestagswahlen/fruehere_bundestagswahlen/btw1972.html. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  33. ^ Jan Eisel (28 September 2012). "Deutscher Bundestag – Das Misstrauensvotum gegen Helmut Schmidt".
  34. ^ Wolfgang Grof: "In der frischen Tradition des Herbstes 1989". Die SDP/SPD in der DDR: Von der Gründung über die Volkskammerarbeit zur deutschen Einheit
  35. ^ . Federal Returning Officer http://www.bundeswahlleiter.de/en/bundestagswahlen/fruehere_bundestagswahlen/btw1998.html. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  36. ^ "Analysis: German Coalition Deal". BBC News. 15 November 2005. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
  37. ^ "Bundeskanzlerin und Bundeskabinett vereidigt" [Federal Chancellor and cabinet sworn in] (in German). Deutscher Bundestag.
  38. ^ "Bundestag reelects Merkel as chancellor". Politico Europe. 14 March 2018.
  39. ^ "After SPD win in Germany, is Europe's centre left on the rise?". the Guardian. 28 September 2021.
  40. ^ Welle (www.dw.com), Deutsche. "Olaf Scholz: Germany's new chancellor is level-headed and pragmatic | DW | 08.12.2021". DW.COM.
  41. ^ Brustein, William (1996). Logic of Evil: The Social Origins of the Nazi Party 1925–1933. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. p. 131.
  42. ^ Cooper, Alice Holmes. Paradoxes of Peace: German Peace Movements since 1945. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press. p. 85.
  43. ^ Social Democratic Party of Germany (28 October 2007). "Hamburg Programme. Principal guidelines of the Social Democratic Party of Germany" (PDF). Hamburg: Social Democratic Party of Germany. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  44. ^ "Die Europa-Frage(n) | Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (SPD)". Archived from the original on 29 October 2012. Retrieved 28 October 2012.
  45. ^ Cliffe, Jeremy (1 December 2019). "The SPD's new left-wing leadership could prove just the jolt Germany needs". New Statesman America.
  46. ^ Knight, Ben (2 May 2019). "Collectivization remarks split German Social Democrats". Deutsche Welle.
  47. ^ Nils Schnelle (2007). Die WASG – Von der Gründung bis zur geplanten Fusion mit der Linkspartei. Munich.

Further readingEdit

  • Orlow, Dietrich. Common Destiny: A Comparative History of the Dutch, French, and German Social Democratic Parties, 1945–1969 (2000) online.
  • Carl E. Schorske, German Social Democracy, 1905–1917: The Development of the Great Schism (Harvard University Press, 1955).
  • Vernon L. Lidtke, The Outlawed Party: Social Democracy in Germany, 1878–1890 (Princeton University Press, 1966).
  • Berlau, Abraham. German Social Democratic Party, 1914–1921 (Columbia University Press, 1949).
  • Maxwell, John Allen. "Social Democracy in a Divided Germany: Kurt Schumacher and the German Question, 1945–1952." Ph.D. dissertation, West Virginia University, Department of History, Morgantown, West Virginia, 1969.
  • McAdams, A. James. "Germany Divided: From the Wall to Reunification." Princeton University Press, 1992 and 1993.
  • Erich Matthias, The Downfall of the Old Social Democratic Party in 1933 pp. 51–105 from Republic to Reich The Making of the Nazi Revolution Ten Essays edited by Hajo Holborn, (New York: Pantheon Books, 1972).
  • Eric D. Weitz, Creating German Communism, 1890–1990: From Popular Protests to Socialist State. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1997.
  • David Priestand, Red Flag: A History of Communism," New York: Grove Press, 2009.

External linksEdit