1994 German federal election

Federal elections were held in Germany on 16 October 1994 to elect the members of the 13th Bundestag. The CDU/CSU alliance led by Helmut Kohl remained the largest faction in parliament, with Kohl remaining Chancellor. This elected Bundestag was largest in history until 2017, numbering 672 members.

1994 German federal election

← 1990 16 October 1994 (1994-10-16) 1998 →

All 672 seats in the Bundestag
337 seats needed for a majority
Registered60,452,009 Increase 0.0%
Turnout47,737,999 (79.0%) Increase 1.2pp
  First party Second party Third party
  Helmut Kohl (1996) cropped.jpg Bundeswehr-Foto BVM012 Rudolf Scharping.jpg Marianne Birthler 03 (cropped).jpg
Candidate Helmut Kohl Rudolf Scharping Ludger Volmer &
Marianne Birthler
Party CDU/CSU SPD Green
Last election 43.8%, 319 seats 33.5%, 239 seats 5.0%, 8 seats
Seats won 294 252 49
Seat change Decrease 25 Increase 13 Increase 41
Popular vote 19,517,156 17,140,354 3,424,315
Percentage 41.4% 36.4% 7.3%
Swing Decrease 2.4pp Increase 2.9pp Increase 2.3pp

  Fourth party Fifth party
  Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F063645-0024, Pullach, Besuch Carstens beim BND.jpg Bundesarchiv Bild 183-1990-0705-333, Dr. Lothar Bisky.jpg
Candidate Klaus Kinkel Lothar Bisky
Party FDP PDS
Last election 11.0%, 79 seats 2.4%, 17 seats
Seats won 47 30
Seat change Decrease 32 Increase 13
Popular vote 3,258,407 2,066,176
Percentage 6.9% 4.4%
Swing Decrease 4.1pp Increase 2.0pp

1994 German federal election - Results by constituency.svg
The left side shows constituency winners of the election by their party colours. The right side shows party list winners of the election for the additional members by their party colours.

Government before election

Fourth Kohl cabinet
CDU/CSUFDP

Government after election

Fifth Kohl cabinet
CDU/CSUFDP

Issues and campaignEdit

The SPD let its members elect a candidate for Chancellor against Helmut Kohl. Rudolf Scharping, Minister-President of Rhineland-Palatinate, beat Gerhard Schröder and Heidemarie Wieczorek-Zeul in the SPD's internal election. Tension between Scharping and other SPD leaders such as Oskar Lafontaine and Gerhard Schröder hampered his campaign. For the first time in their existence, Alliance 90/The Greens seemed to be willing to actually join a government in case a centre-left SPD–Greens coalition had a workable majority in the Bundestag.

The election also saw a "red socks" campaign used by the centre-right, including the CDU/CSU and the Free Democratic Party (FDP), to scare off a possible red–red–green coalition (SPD–PDS–Greens). Analysts have stated that such a strategy likely paid off, as it was seen as one of the decisive elements for the narrow victory of Kohl for the CDU/CSU–FDP. The campaign was criticized as an obvious attempt to discredit the whole left; the PDS reinterpreted it for itself by printing red socks.[1]

ResultsEdit

Summary of 16 October 1994 German Bundestag election results
Parties Constituency Party list Total seats
Votes % +/− Seats +/− Votes % +/− Seats +/− Seats +/− %
Social Democratic Party (SPD) 17,966,813 38.3 +3.1 103 +12 17,140,354 36.4 +2.9 149 +1 252 +13 37.5
Christian Democratic Union (CDU)a 17,473,325 37.2 −1.1 177 −15 16,089,960 34.2 −2.5 67 −9 244 −24 36.3
Christian Social Union (CSU)a 3,657,627 7.8 +0.4 44 +1 3,427,196 7.3 +0.2 6 −2 50 −1 7.4
Alliance 90/The Greens (GRÜNE)b 3,037,902 6.5 +0.9 0 0 3,424,315 7.3 +2.3 49 +41 49 +41 7.3
Free Democratic Party (FDP) 1,558,185 3.3 −4.5 0 −1 3,258,407 6.9 −4.1 47 −31 47 −32 7.0
Party of Democratic Socialism (PDS) 1,920,420 4.1 +1.8 4 +3 2,066,176 4.4 +2.0 26 +10 30 +13 4.5
The Republicans (REP) 787,757 1.7 0.0 0 0 875,239 1.9 −0.2 0 0 0 0 0.0
The Grays – Gray Panthers (GRAUE) 178,450 0.4 −0.1 0 0 238,642 0.5 −0.3 0 0 0 0 0.0
Ecological Democratic Party (ÖDP) 200,138 0.4 −0.1 0 0 183,715 0.4 0.0 0 0 0 0 0.0
Natural Law Party (Naturgesetz) 59,087 0.1 New 0 New 73,193 0.2 New 0 New 0 New 0.0
Human Environment Animal Protection 71,643 0.2 New 0 New 0 New 0.0
Party of Bible-abiding Christians (PBC) 26,864 0.1 New 0 New 65,651 0.1 New 0 New 0 New 0.0
Statt Party (STATT) 7,927 0.0 New 0 New 63,354 0.1 New 0 New 0 New 0.0
Bavaria Party (BP) 3,324 0.0 0.0 0 0 42,491 0.1 0.0 0 0 0 0 0.0
Car-drivers' and Citizens' Interests Party (APD) 1,654 0.0 New 0 New 21,533 0.0 New 0 New 0 New 0.0
Christian Centre (CM) 3,559 0.0 0.0 0 0 19,887 0.0 −0.1 0 0 0 0 0.0
Party of the Willing to Work and Socially Vulnerable (PASS) 489 0.0 New 0 New 15,040 0.0 New 0 New 0 New 0.0
Marxist-Leninist Party (MLPD) 4,932 0.0 0.0 0 0 10,038 0.0 0.0 0 0 0 0 0.0
Civil Rights Movement Solidarity (BüSo) 8,032 0.0 0.0 0 0 8,103 0.0 0.0 0 0 0 0 0.0
Christian League (Liga) 3,788 0.0 0.0 0 0 5,195 0.0 −0.1 0 0 0 0 0.0
Centre Party (ZENTRUM) 1,489 0.0 0.0 0 0 3,757 0.0 0.0 0 0 0 0 0.0
Federation of Socialist Workers (BSA) 1,285 0.0 0.0 0 0 0 0 0.0
Free Citizens' Union (FBU) 8,193 0.0 New 0 New 0 New 0.0
German Social Union (DSU) 2,395 0.0 −0.3 0 0 0 0 0.0
German Communist Party (DKP) 693 0.0 0.0 0 0 0 0 0.0
German People's Party (DVP) 606 0.0 New 0 New 0 New 0.0
Free Social Union (FSU) 467 0.0 0.0 0 0 0 0 0.0
Communist Party of Germany (KPD) 426 0.0 0.0 0 0 0 0 0.0
Independent Workers' Party (UAP) 302 0.0 0.0 0 0 0 0 0.0
Liberal Democrats (LD) 221 0.0 New 0 New 0 New 0.0
Federation for a Complete Germany (BGD) 107 0.0 New 0 New 0 New 0.0
Democrats (DEMOKRATEN) 104 0.0 New 0 New 0 New 0.0
Electoral groups and independents 34,080 0.1 0.0 0 0 0 0 0.0
Valid votes 46,949,356 98.3 –0.2 47,105,174 98.7 –0.2
Invalid/blank votes 788,643 1.7 +0.2 632,825 1.3 +1.2
Total votes 47,737,999 100.0 328 0 47,737,999 100.0 344 +10 672 +10 100.0
Registered voters/turnout 60,452,009 79.0 +1.2 60,452,009 79.0 +1.2
Source: Bundeswahlleiter
^a — The Christian Democratic Union and the Christian Social Union of Bavaria call themselves sister parties. They do not compete against each other in the same geographical regions and they form one group within the Bundestag.
^b — totals for the Greens reflect the merger of the Western and Eastern Green parties.
294 47 252 49 30
CDU/CSU FDP SPD Grüne PDS
Popular vote
CDU/CSU
41.43%
SPD
36.39%
GRÜNE
7.27%
FDP
6.92%
PDS
4.39%
REP
1.86%
Other
1.75%
Bundestag seats
CDU/CSU
43.75%
SPD
37.50%
GRÜNE
7.29%
FDP
6.99%
PDS
4.46%


 
Seat results – SPD in red, combined Greens in green, PDS in purple, FDP in yellow, CDU/CSU in black

Results by stateEdit

Second vote (Zweitstimme, or votes for party list)

State results in % CDU/CSU SPD GRÜNE FDP PDS REP all others
  Baden-Württemberg 43.3 30.7 9.6 9.9 0.8 3.1 2.6
  Bavaria 51.2 29.6 6.3 6.4 0.5 2.8 3.2
  Berlin 31.4 34.0 10.2 5.2 14.8 1.9 2.5
  Brandenburg 28.1 45.1 2.9 2.6 19.3 1.1 0.9
  Bremen 30.2 45.5 11.1 7.2 2.7 1.7 1.6
  Hamburg 34.9 39.7 12.6 7.2 2.2 1.7 1.7
  Hesse 40.7 37.2 9.3 8.1 1.1 2.4 1.2
  Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 38.5 28.8 3.6 3.4 23.6 1.2 0.9
  Lower Saxony 41.3 40.6 7.1 7.7 1.0 1.2 1.1
  North Rhine-Westphalia 38.0 43.1 7.4 7.6 1.0 1.3 1.6
  Rhineland-Palatinate 43.8 39.4 6.2 6.9 0.6 1.9 1.2
  Saarland 37.2 48.8 5.8 4.3 0.7 1.6 1.6
  Saxony 48.0 24.3 4.8 3.8 16.7 1.4 1.0
  Saxony-Anhalt 38.8 33.4 3.6 4.1 18.0 1.0 1.1
  Schleswig-Holstein 41.5 39.6 8.3 7.4 1.1 1.0 1.1
  Thuringia 41.0 30.2 4.9 4.1 17.2 1.4 1.2

Post-electionEdit

The coalition between the CDU/CSU and the FDP was able to continue in power with Helmut Kohl as chancellor.

The PDS won four constituency seats in its power base of the former East Berlin, qualifying it for proportional representation even though the party won 4.4 percent of the vote, just short of the 5% electoral threshold required for full parliamentary status. Under a longstanding electoral law intended to benefit regional parties, any party that wins at least three constituency seats is entitled to its share of proportionally-elected seats, regardless of vote share.[2]

This was the first time in the history of the Federal Republic that the FDP was not the third largest party in the chamber.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "German election: Could there soon be a left-wing government?". Deutsche Welle. 24 September 2021. Retrieved 1 October 2021.
  2. ^ Dan Hough; Michael Koß; Jonathan Olsen (2007). The Left Party in Contemporary German Politics. Springer. ISBN 978-0230592148.

SourcesEdit