List of political parties in Germany

This is a list of political parties in Germany.

The Federal Republic of Germany has a plural multi-party system. The largest by members and parliament seats are the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), with its sister party, the Christian Social Union (CSU) and Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD).

Germany also has a number of other parties, in recent history most importantly the Free Democratic Party (FDP), Alliance 90/The Greens, The Left, and more recently the Alternative for Germany (AfD), founded in 2013. The federal government of Germany often consisted of a coalition of a major and a minor party, specifically CDU/CSU and FDP or SPD and FDP, and from 1998 to 2005 SPD and Greens. From 1966 to 1969, from 2005 to 2009 and again since 2013, the federal government consisted of a coalition of the two major parties, called Grand Coalition.[1] Coalitions in the Bundestag and state legislators are often described by party colors. Party colors are red for the Social Democratic Party, green for Alliance 90/The Greens, yellow for the Free Democratic Party, purple (officially red, which is customarily used for the SPD) for the Left, light blue for the AfD, and black and blue for the CDU and CSU respectively.[2][3]

Current partiesEdit

Parties represented in the Bundestag and/or the European ParliamentEdit

Name Abbr. Leader Ideology MdBs MEPs Political position EP group
  Christian Democratic Union of Germany
Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands
CDU Armin Laschet Christian democracy[4]
Liberal conservatism[4]
200 / 709
23 / 96
Centre-right[5] EPP
  Christian Social Union in Bavaria
Christlich-Soziale Union in Bayern
CSU Markus Söder Christian democracy[4] Conservatism[4]
45 / 709
6 / 96
Centre-right[6][7][8] EPP
  Social Democratic Party of Germany
Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands
SPD Norbert Walter-Borjans
and Saskia Esken
Social democracy[4]
152 / 709
16 / 96
Centre-left S&D
  Alternative for Germany
Alternative für Deutschland
AfD Jörg Meuthen
and Tino Chrupalla
German nationalism[9][10]
Right-wing populism[11]
88 / 709
11 / 96
Far-right ID
  Free Democratic Party
Freie Demokratische Partei
FDP Christian Lindner Liberalism[4]
Classical liberalism[12][13]
80 / 709
5 / 96
Centre to centre-right RE
  The Left
Die Linke
LINKE Janine Wissler
and Susanne Hennig-Wellsow
Democratic socialism[4]
Left-wing populism
69 / 709
7 / 96
Left-wing to far-left GUE/NGL
  Alliance 90/The Greens
Bündnis 90/Die Grünen
GRÜNE Annalena Baerbock and Robert Habeck Green politics[4]
67 / 709
21 / 96
Centre-left Greens/EFA
Partei für Arbeit, Rechtsstaat, Tierschutz, Elitenförderung und basisdemokratische Initiative
Die PARTEI Martin Sonneborn Satire
1 / 709
2 / 96
Apolitical None and Greens/EFA
Free Voters
Freie Wähler
FREIE WÄHLER Hubert Aiwanger Conservatism[14]
0 / 709
2 / 96
Centre-right RE
  Ecological Democratic Party
Ökologisch-Demokratische Partei
ÖDP Christian Rechholz Green conservatism[15]
0 / 709
1 / 96
Centre-right Greens/EFA
  Pirate Party Germany
Piratenpartei Deutschland
PIRATEN Carsten Sawosch Pirate politics
Social liberalism[16]
0 / 709
1 / 96
Syncretic Greens/EFA
  Volt Germany
Volt Deutschland
Volt Damian Boeselager European federalism
0 / 709
1 / 96
Syncretic Greens/EFA
  Family Party of Germany
Familien-Partei Deutschlands
Familie Maria Hartmann Social conservatism
Christian democracy
0 / 709
1 / 96
Centre-right to right-wing ECR
A The CDU and CSU form the CDU/CSU group in the Bundestag; CSU runs only in Bavaria, CDU elsewhere.

Parties represented in state parliamentsEdit

Logo Name Abbr. Leader Ideology Elected in state (Seats) Position Notes
  South Schleswig Voters' Association
Südschleswigscher Wählerverband
SSW Flemming Meyer Regionalism,
Ethnic minority politics,
Social liberalism[17]
Schleswig-Holstein (3) Centre [A]
  Citizens in Rage
Bürger in Wut
BIW Jan Timke Right-wing populism Bremen (1) Right-wing
  Brandenburg United Civic Movements/Free Voters
Brandenburger Vereinigte Bürgerbewegungen / Freie Wähler
BVB / FW Péter Vida Localism, Direct democracy Brandenburg (3) Centre-left
A Represents the Danish and Frisian minorities. Not subject to the general requirement of passing a 5% vote threshold.

Minor partiesEdit

Logo Name Abbr. Leader Ideology Political position EP-group
Action Party for Animal Welfare - the Original
Aktion Partei für Tierschutz – das Original
Tierschutz hier!
  Alliance C – Christians for Germany
Bündnis C – Christen für Deutschland
Bündnis C Karin Heepen & Ole Steffes Conservatism,
Christian fundamentalism
Right-wing ECPM
Alliance for Human Rights, Animal and Nature Conservation
Allianz für Menschenrechte, Tier- und Naturschutz
Tierschutzallianz Josef Fassl
  Alliance of German Democrats
Allianz Deutscher Demokraten
AD-Demokraten Ramazan Akbaş Conservatism,
Political Islam
  Anarchist Pogo Party of Germany
Anarchistische Pogo-Partei Deutschlands
APPD Peter Vehreschild Satire Apoliticism none
Arminus - Association of the German people[18]
Arminus – Bund des deutschen Volkes
Arminus – Bund Johann Thießen Far-right[18]
  Basic Income Alliance
Bündnis Grundeinkommen
BGE Martin Sonnabend Unconditional basic income Single-issue none
  Bavaria Party
BP Florian Weber Autonomism,
Bavarian nationalism,
Centre-right EFA
  Bergpartei, die "ÜberPartei"
Bergpartei, die Überpartei
B* Rico Tscharntke Post-left anarchy,
Far-left none
Civil Rights Movement Solidarity
Bürgerrechtsbewegung Solidarität
BüSo Helga Zepp-LaRouche LaRouche movement,
Syncretic none
  German Centre Party
Deutsche Zentrumspartei
ZENTRUM Klaus Brall Political Catholicism,
Christian democracy,
Social conservatism
Centre-right none
  Communist Party of Germany
Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands
KPD Torsten Schöwitz Communism,
Far-left none
  Democracy in Motion
Demokratie in Bewegung
DiB Julia Beerhold, Alexander Plitsch Left-wing none
  Feminist Party of Germany
Feministische Partei Die Frauen
DIE FRAUEN Renate Schmidtsdorff-Aicher Feminism Left-wing none
  From Now on... Democracy Through a Referendum
Ab jetzt … Demokratie durch Volksabstimmung
Volksabstimmung Helmut Fleck Direct Democracy none
  German Communist Party
Deutsche Kommunistische Partei
DKP Patrik Köbele Communism,
Far-left none
  German Social Union
Deutsche Soziale Union
DSU Roberto Rink National conservatism,
Social conservatism
Right-wing none
  Lusatian Alliance
Lausitzer Allianz
Łužiska Alianca
Łužyska Alianca
Hannes Wilhelm-Kell Regionalism,
Ethnic minority interests
  Marxist–Leninist Party of Germany
Marxistisch-Leninistische Partei Deutschlands
MLPD Gabi Fechtner Marxism–Leninism,
Far-left none
Mindful Democrats
Achtsame Demokraten
Die Achtsamen
mut Claudia Stamm Social liberalism Centre-left none
  National Democratic Party of Germany
Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands
NPD Frank Franz Neo-Nazism,
Far-right[15] APF
  New Liberals
Neue Liberale – Die Sozialliberalen
Liberale Christian Bethke Social liberalism Centre to
Party for Franconia
Partei für Franken
DIE FRANKEN Robert Gattenlöhner Social democracy none
  Party of Humanists
Partei der Humanisten
Die Humanisten Alexander Mucha Humanism,
Civil libertarianism,
Social liberalism
Party of Reason
Partei der Vernunft
PDV Friedrich Dominicus Libertarianism EPIL
  Human Environment Animal Protection
Partei Mensch Umwelt Tierschutz
Tierschutzpartei Matthias Ebner
Sandra Lück
Horst Wester
Animal rights
Syncretic GUE/NGL
  Socialist Equality Party
Sozialistische Gleichheitspartei
SGP Ulrich Rippert Trotskyism Far-left none
  Social Liberal Democratic Party
Sozialliberale Demokratische Partei
SLDP Bérangère Bultheel Social liberalism, Anti fascism, Secularism, Social Democracy, European Federalism
  The Frisians
Die Friesen
FRIESEN Ralf Bieneck Ethnic minority interests EFA
  The III. Path
Der III. Weg
Klaus Armstroff Neo-Nazism,
German nationalism,
Ethnic nationalism,
Hard Euroscepticism
Far-right none
  The Republicans
Die Republikaner
REP Tilo Schöne German nationalism,
National conservatism,
Social conservatism
Right-wing none
  The Right
Die Rechte
Christian Worch Neo-Nazism,
Far-right none
  The Urbans. A HipHop Party
Die Urbane. Eine HipHop Partei
du Niki Drakos, Raphael Hillebrand none
  The Violets
Die Violetten
Die Violetten Irene Garcia Garcia Social liberalism,
  V-Partei³ – Party for Change, Vegetarians and Vegans
V-Partei³ – Partei für Veränderung, Vegetarier und Veganer
Roland Wegner Animal rights,

Historical partiesEdit

Parties existing up to World War IEdit

Logo Name Abbr. Ideology
Bavarian Peasants' League BB Agrarianism
Centre Party Zentrum Christian democracy
Christian Social Party CSP Traditionalist conservatism
Christian democracy
Democratic Union DV Liberalism
Free Conservative Party FKP National conservatism
Free-minded People's Party FVP Liberalism
Free-minded Union FV National liberalism
General German Workers' Association ADAV Social democracy
Democratic socialism
German Conservative Party DKP Conservatism
Economic liberalism
German Fatherland Party DVLP German nationalism
German-Hanoverian Party DHP Conservatism
German People's Party DtVP Social liberalism
German Progress Party DFP Liberalism
German Free-minded Party DFP Liberalism
Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany USPD Democratic socialism
Centrist Marxism
Liberal Union LV Liberalism
Classical liberalism
Economic liberalism
Conservative liberalism
National Liberal Party NLP National liberalism
National-Social Association NSV Christian socialism
Social liberalism
Progressive People's Party FVP Social liberalism
Social Democratic Workers' Party of Germany SDAP Social democracy
Marxist socialism

Parties in Weimar RepublicEdit

Defunct parties in (former) West GermanyEdit

Parties banned by the Constitutional CourtEdit

Parties in (former) East GermanyEdit

Bloc parties in the socialist state (1949–1989)Edit

During transition (1989–90)Edit

Parties founded from 1989Edit

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-11-08. Retrieved 2009-10-10.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ "Political parties form colorful spectrum in Germany". Deutsche Welle. 2009-08-18. Retrieved 2009-09-12.
  3. ^ The Green party: Getting used to opposition, Deutsche Welle, 2009-08-24, retrieved 2009-10-12, This made a so-called Jamaica coalition with the Christian Democratic Union and the Free Democratic Party impossible.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Parties and Elections in Europe: The database about parliamentary elections and political parties in Europe, by Wolfram Nordsieck
  5. ^ "Armin Laschet elected new leader of Germany's CDU party". Euronews. 16 January 2021. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  6. ^ Christina Boswell; Dan Hough (2009). Politicizing migration: Opportunity or liability for the centre-right in Germany. Immigration and Integration Policy in Europe: Why Politics – and the Centre-Right – matter. Routledge. pp. 18, 21.
  7. ^ Klaus Detterbeck (2012). Multi-Level Party Politics in Western Europe. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 105.
  8. ^ Margret Hornsteiner; Thomas Saalfeld (2014). Parties and the Party System. Developments in German Politics. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 80.
  9. ^ "After migrants, German nationalist party takes aim at Islam". Yahoo News. 23 May 2016.
  10. ^ "Germany's Nationalist Party Set for Gains as Three States Vote". Voice of America. 11 March 2016.
  11. ^ Frank Decker (2015). "Follow-up to the Grand Coalition: The Germany Party System before and after the 2013 Federal Election". In Eric Langenbacher (ed.). The Merkel Republic: An Appraisal. Berghahn Books. pp. 34–39. ISBN 978-1-78238-896-8.
  12. ^ George C. Lodge; Ezra F. Vogel (1987). Ideology and National Competitiveness: An Analysis of Nine Countries. Harvard Business Press. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-87584-147-2.
  13. ^ Russell A. Berman (2010). Freedom Or Terror: Europe Faces Jihad. Hoover Press. p. 110. ISBN 978-0-8179-1114-0.
  14. ^ Peter, Laurence (9 April 2021). "Markus Söder: Star Trek fan who could boldly go and lead Germany". BBC News. Retrieved 17 April 2021. He had to share power with the small conservative Free Voters party.
  15. ^ a b William T Daniel (2015). Career Behaviour and the European Parliament: All Roads Lead Through Brussels?. Oxford University Press. p. 135. ISBN 978-0-19-871640-2.
  16. ^ Simon Franzmann (2015). "The Failed Struggle for Office Instead of Votes". In Gabriele D'Ottavio; Thomas Saalfeld (eds.). Germany After the 2013 Elections: Breaking the Mould of Post-Unification Politics?. Ashgate. pp. 166–167. ISBN 978-1-4724-4439-4.
  17. ^ José Magone (2011). Contemporary European Politics: A Comparative Introduction. Routledge. p. 392.
  18. ^ a b Wagschal, Prof Dr Uwe. "Arminus - Bund des deutschen Volkes (Arminus - Bund) | bpb". (in German). Retrieved 2020-06-14.

External linksEdit