Federal elections were held in Germany on 2 December 1990 to elect the members of the 12th Bundestag. This was the first all-German election since the Nazi show election in April 1938, the first multi-party all-German election since that of March 1933, which was held after the Nazi seizure of power and was subject to widespread suppression, and the first free and fair all-German election since November 1932. The result was a comprehensive victory for the governing coalition of the Christian Democratic Union/Christian Social Union and the Free Democratic Party, which was reelected to a third term. The second vote result of the CDU/CSU, 20,358,096 votes, remains the highest ever total vote count in a democratic German election.
All 662 seats in the Bundestag
332 seats needed for a majority
|Turnout||46,995,915 (77.8%) 6.5pp|
The left side shows constituency winners of the election by their party colours. The right side shows party list winners of the election for the additional members by their party colours.
This was the first election conducted after German reunification which took place on 3 October. Previously, the Volkskammer had selected 144 of its members which were then co-opted as Members of the German Bundestag and served until the end of the 11. Bundestag.
Almost 150 seats had been added to represent the re-established eastern states of Germany without reducing the number of western members. The euphoria following the reunification gave the ruling CDU/CSU–FDP coalition a dramatic advantage in both Western and Eastern Germany throughout the campaign.
It was the one election for which the 5% threshold was applied not nationwide but separately for the former East Germany (including East Berlin) and former West Germany (including West Berlin). As a result, while the Western Greens did not gain representation, their ideologically-similar Eastern Alliance 90 did, with both merging to form Alliance 90/The Greens in 1993. The combined vote of the two lists totals over 5%, but as the two lists would not merge until 1993, it thus did not entitle the East German party to any elected members from the former West Germany, unlike the PDS, who managed to elect Ulla Jelpke.
The German Social Union under leader Hansjoachim Walther, a right-wing party modelled after the Bavarian CSU running only in former East Germany, failed to achieve the separate 5% threshold, only receiving around 1% of the vote in the eastern states, mostly in the southeast. As part of the co-option, the DSU had previously had eight Members of the Bundestag, who sat as guests in the CDU/CSU caucus. The CSU, which had had tried to convince the CDU to stand down in several single-member constituency to enable the DSU to enter the Bundestag separate from the 5% threshold, severed its ties in 1993 and the party fell into irrelevancy.
All change figures are relative to the pre-existing West German Bundestag.
|Christian Democratic Union||17,055,116||36.71||76||17,707,574||38.27||192||268||+83|
|Social Democratic Party||15,545,366||33.46||148||16,279,980||35.18||91||239||+46|
|Free Democratic Party||5,123,233||11.03||78||3,595,135||7.77||1||79||+31|
|Christian Social Union||3,302,980||7.11||8||3,423,904||7.40||43||51||+2|
|The Greens (West)||1,788,200||3.85||0||2,037,885||4.40||0||0||−44|
|Party of Democratic Socialism||1,129,578||2.43||16||1,049,245||2.27||1||17||New|
|Alliance 90/Greens – Citizens' Movement (East)||559,207||1.20||8||552,027||1.19||0||8||New|
|The Grays – Gray Panthers||385,910||0.83||0||218,412||0.47||0||0||New|
|Ecological Democratic Party||205,206||0.44||0||243,469||0.53||0||0||0|
|National Democratic Party||145,776||0.31||0||190,105||0.41||0||0||0|
|German Social Union||89,008||0.19||0||131,747||0.28||0||0||New|
|Patriots for Germany||4,687||0.01||0||746||0.00||0||0||0|
|Union of Working Groups for Employee Politics and Democracy||4,530||0.01||0||704||0.00||0||0||New|
|Communist Party of Germany||1,630||0.00||0||0||New|
|Spartacist Workers' Party of Germany||1,610||0.00||0||124||0.00||0||0||New|
|Federation of German Democrats||1,009||0.00||0||474||0.00||0||0||New|
|Federation of Socialist Workers||826||0.00||0||214||0.00||0||0||New|
|European Federalist Party||266||0.00||0||0||New|
|Independents and voter groups||43,324||0.09||0||0||0|
Results by stateEdit
Second vote (Zweitstimme, or votes for party list)
|Old states (West)||44.3||35.7||10.6||4.8||0.3||2.3||2.0|
|New states (East)||41.8||24.3||12.9||6.2||11.1||1.5||2.3|
The governing CDU/CSU-FDP coalition was returned to office with a landslide majority, and Helmut Kohl remained chancellor. The CDU did exceptionally well in the former East Germany, which had been the heartland of the SPD before the Nazi era.
- A linked list of the Alliance 90 and the East German Green Party, running only in the new Eastern states.
- The West German Greens, running only in the Western states.
- In the 1990 election, the 5% electoral threshold was applied separately in the Western states and the new Eastern states. The PDS won 11.1% of votes in the new states.
- In the 1990 election, the 5% electoral threshold was applied separately in the Western states and the new Eastern states. The Alliance 90–Eastern Greens grouping won 6.2% of votes in the new states.
- 3.9% West German Green Party, 3.3% East German Green Party/Alliance 90.