1990 German federal election
Federal elections were held in Germany on 2 December 1990 to elect the members of the 12th Bundestag. This was the first all-German election since the Nazi show election in April 1938, the first multi-party all-German election since that of March 1933, which was held after the Nazi seizure of power and was subject to widespread suppression, and the first free and fair all-German election since November 1932. The result was a comprehensive victory for the governing coalition of the Christian Democratic Union/Christian Social Union and the Free Democratic Party, which was reelected to a third term.
All 662 seats in the Bundestag
332 seats were needed for a majority
|Turnout||46,995,915 (77.8%) 6.5 pp|
Party list election results by state: dark blue denotes states where CSU had the absolute majority of the votes; lighter blue denotes states where CDU had the plurality of votes; red denotes states where the SPD had the absolute majority of the votes; and pink denotes states where the SPD had the plurality of votes
Issues and campaignEdit
This was the first election conducted after German reunification which took place on 3 October. Almost 150 seats had been added to represent the newly re-established eastern states of Germany without reducing the number of Western members. The euphoria following the reunification gave the ruling CDU/CSU–FDP coalition a dramatic advantage in both Western and Eastern Germany throughout the campaign.
This was the one and only election for which the 5% threshold was not applied nationwide, but separately for East Germany (including East Berlin) and West Germany (including West Berlin). As a result, while the Western The Greens failed to gain representation, an ideologically similar party from the East, Alliance 90, did. They merged to form Alliance 90/The Greens in 1993.
All change figures are relative to the pre-existing West German Bundestag.
|Parties||Constituency||Party list||Total seats|
|Christian Democratic Union (CDU)||17,707,574||38.3||+0.8||192||+68||17,055,116||36.7||+2.3||76||+26||268||+83||40.5|
|Social Democratic Party (SPD)||16,279,980||35.2||−4.0||91||+12||15,545,366||33.5||−3.5||148||+41||239||+46||36.1|
|Free Democratic Party (FDP)||3,595,135||7.8||+3.1||1||+1||5,123,233||11.0||+1.9||78||+32||79||+31||11.9|
|Christian Social Union (CSU)||3,423,904||7.4||−2.8||43||−2||3,302,980||7.1||−2.7||8||+4||51||+2||7.7|
|Party of Democratic Socialism (PDS)||1,049,245||2.3||+2.3||1||+1||1,129,578||2.4||+2.4||16||+16||17||+17||2.6|
|Alliance '90/The Greens (B90/Gr.) (East)||552,027||1.2||+1.2||0||±0||559,207||1.2||+1.2||8||+8||8||+8||1.2|
|The Greens (West)||2,037,885||4.4||−2.6||0||±0||1,788,200||3.8||−4.5||0||−42||0||−44||0|
|The Republicans (REP)||767,652||1.7||+1.7||0||±0||987,269||2.1||+2.1||0||±0||0||±0||0|
|The Grays – Gray Panthers (GRAUE)||218,412||0.5||+0.5||0||±0||385,910||0.8||+0.8||0||±0||0||±0||0|
|Ecological Democratic Party (ÖDP)||243,469||0.5||+0.4||0||±0||205,206||0.4||+0.1||0||±0||0||±0||0|
|National Democratic Party (NPD)||190,105||0.4||−0.1||0||±0||145,776||0.3||−0.3||0||±0||0||±0||0|
|German Social Union (DSU)||131,747||0.3||+0.3||0||±0||89,008||0.2||+0.2||0||±0||0||±0||0|
|Christian League (Liga)||8,667||0.0||+0.0||0||±0||39,640||0.1||+0.1||0||±0||0||±0||0|
|Christian Centre (CM)||9,824||0.0||+0.0||0||±0||36,466||0.1||+0.1||0||±0||0||±0||0|
|Bavaria Party (BP)||10,836||0.0||±0||0||±0||31,315||0.1||±0||0||±0||0||±0||0|
|The Women (FRAUEN)||1,433||0.0||+0.0||0||±0||12,077||0.0||−0.2||0||±0||0||±0||0|
|Patriots for Germany (Patrioten)||746||0.0||−0.1||0||±0||4,687||0.0||−0.1||0||±0||0||±0||0|
|Union of Working Groups for Employee Politics and Democracy (VAA)||704||0.0||+0.0||0||±0||4,530||0.0||+0.0||0||±0||0||±0||0|
|Communist Party of Germany (KPD)||–||–||–||–||–||1,630||0.0||+0.0||0||±0||0||±0||0|
|Spartacist Workers' Party of Germany (SpAD)||124||0.0||+0.0||0||±0||1,610||0.0||+0.0||0||±0||0||±0||0|
|Federation of German Democrats (DDD)||474||0.0||+0.0||0||±0||1,009||0.0||+0.0||0||±0||0||±0||0|
|Federation of Socialist Workers (BSA)||214||0.0||+0.0||0||±0||826||0.0||+0.0||0||±0||0||±0||0|
|European Federalist Party (EFP)||266||0.0||+0.0||0||±0||–||–||–||–||–||0||±0||0|
|Electoral groups and independents||43,324||0.1||−0.6||0||±0||–||–||–||–||–||0||±0||0|
|Source: Federal Returning Officer|
The governing CDU/CSU-FDP coalition was returned to office with a landslide majority, and Helmut Kohl remained chancellor. The CDU did exceptionally well in the former East Germany, which had been the heartland of the SPD before the Nazi era.