COVID-19 pandemic in Germany

The COVID-19 pandemic in Germany is part of the ongoing worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). On 27 January 2020, the first case in Germany was confirmed and contained near Munich, Bavaria.[5] The majority of cases in January and early February originated from the same automobile-parts manufacturer as the first case. On 25 and 26 February, multiple cases related to the Italian outbreak were detected in Baden-Württemberg. A large cluster linked to a carnival event was formed in Heinsberg, North Rhine-Westphalia, with the first death reported on 9 March 2020.[6][7] New clusters were introduced in other regions via Heinsberg as well as via people arriving from China, Iran and Italy,[8] from where non-Germans could arrive by plane until 17–18 March.

COVID-19 pandemic in Germany
COVID-19 outbreak Germany per capita cases map.svg
Confirmed cases per 10,000 inhabitants by district
COVID-19 Outbreak Cases in Germany (Density).svg
Map of states with confirmed coronavirus cases (as of 30 March):
  Confirmed 100–499
  Confirmed 500–999
  Confirmed 1,000–9,999
  Confirmed ≥10,000
DiseaseCOVID-19
Virus strainSARS-CoV-2
LocationGermany
First outbreakWuhan, Hubei, China[1][2]
Index caseBavaria
Arrival date27 January 2020
(4 months and 5 days)
Confirmed cases181,815[3][4]
Recovered165,900 (estimate)[3][4][a]
Deaths
8,511[3][4]

German disease and epidemic control is advised by the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) according to a national pandemic plan. The outbreaks were first managed in a containment stage,[9] which attempted to minimise the expansion of clusters. The German government and several health officials stated the country was well-prepared and did not initially implement special measures to stockpile medical supplies or limit public freedom. Since 13 March, the pandemic has been managed in the protection stage as per the RKI plan, with German states mandating school and kindergarten closures, postponing academic semesters and prohibiting visits to nursing homes to protect the elderly. Two days later, borders to five neighbouring countries (Austria, Denmark, France, Luxembourg and Switzerland) were closed.[10] By 22 March, curfews were imposed in six German states while other states prohibited physical contact with more than one person who resides outside of a household.

Domestic travelling is only allowed in groups not exceeding two people unless they are from the same household. Some states imposed further restrictions allowing people to leave their homes only for specified activities including commuting to work, exercising or purchasing food.[11]

As of 1 June 2020, the RKI has officially reported 181,815 cases, 8,511 deaths and approximately 165,900 recoveries.[4] The country's low fatality rate, compared to fatality rates in Italy and Spain, has generated a discussion and explanations that cite the country's higher number of tests performed, higher number of available intensive care beds with respiratory support and higher proportion of positive cases among younger people. The head of the RKI, Lothar Wieler, warned that the German death rate would increase over time.

Background

On 12 January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) confirmed that a novel coronavirus was the cause of a respiratory illness in a cluster of people in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China, which was reported to the WHO on 31 December 2019.[12][13]

The case fatality ratio for COVID-19 is lower than SARS of 2003,[14][15] but the transmission has been significantly greater, with a significant total death toll.[16][14]

Timeline by state

COVID-19 cases in Germany  ()
     Deaths        Recoveries        Active cases
Date
# of cases
# of deaths
2020-02-24
16(n.a.)
2020-02-25
18(+12%)
2020-02-26
21(+17%)
2020-02-27
26(+24%)
2020-02-28
53(+104%)
2020-02-29
66(+25%)
2020-03-01
117(+77%)
2020-03-02
150(+28%)
2020-03-03
188(+25%)
2020-03-04
240(+28%)
2020-03-05
349(+45%)
2020-03-06
534(+53%)
2020-03-07
684(+28%)
2020-03-08
847(+24%)
2020-03-09
1,112(+31%) 2(n.a.)
2020-03-10
1,460(+31%) 2(=)
2020-03-11
1,884(+29%) 3(+50%)
2020-03-12
2,369(+26%) 5(+67%)
2020-03-13
3,062(+29%) 8(+60%)
2020-03-14
3,795(+24%) 8(=)
2020-03-15
4,838(+27%) 12(+50%)
2020-03-16
6,012(+24%) 12(=)
2020-03-17
7,156(+19%) 12(=)
2020-03-18
8,198(+15%) 12(=)
2020-03-19
10,999(+34%) 20(+67%)
2020-03-20
13,957(+27%) 31(+55%)
2020-03-21
16,662(+19%) 47(+52%)
2020-03-22
18,610(+12%) 55(+17%)
2020-03-23
22,672(+22%) 86(+56%)
2020-03-24
27,436(+21%) 114(+33%)
2020-03-25
31,554(+15%) 149(+31%)
2020-03-26
36,508(+16%) 198(+33%)
2020-03-27
42,288(+16%) 253(+28%)
2020-03-28
48,582(+15%[i]) 325(+28%)
2020-03-29
52,547(+8.2%[ii]) 389(+20%)
2020-03-30
57,298(+9.0%[iii]) 455(+17%)
2020-03-31
61,913(+8.1%) 583(+28%)
2020-04-01
67,366(+8.8%) 732(+26%)
2020-04-02
73,522(+9.1%) 872(+19%)
2020-04-03
79,696(+8.4%) 1,017(+17%)
2020-04-04
85,778(+7.6%) 1,158(+14%)
2020-04-05
91,714(+6.9%) 1,342(+16%)
2020-04-06
95,391(+4%) 1,434(+6.9%)
2020-04-07
99,225(+4%) 1,607(+12%)
2020-04-08
103,228(+4.03%[iv]) 1,861(+16%)
2020-04-09
108,202(+4.8%) 2,107(+13%)
2020-04-10
113,525(+4.9%) 2,373(+13%)
2020-04-11
117,658(+3.6%) 2,544(+7.2%)
2020-04-12
120,479(+2.4%) 2,673(+5.1%)
2020-04-13
123,016(+2.1%) 2,799(+4.7%)
2020-04-14
125,098(+1.7%) 2,969(+6.1%)
2020-04-15
127,584(+2%) 3,254(+9.6%)
2020-04-16
130,450(+2.2%) 3,569(+9.7%)
2020-04-17
133,830(+2.6%) 3,868(+8.4%)
2020-04-18
137,439(+2.7%) 4,110(+6.3%)
2020-04-19
139,897(+1.8%) 4,294(+4.5%)
2020-04-20
141,672(+1.3%) 4,404(+2.6%)
2020-04-21
143,457(+1.3%) 4,598(+4.4%)
2020-04-22
145,694(+1.6%) 4,879(+6.1%)
2020-04-23
148,046(+1.6%) 5,094(+4.4%)
2020-04-24
150,383(+1.6%) 5,321(+4.5%)
2020-04-25
152,438(+1.4%) 5,500(+3.4%)
2020-04-26
154,175(+1.1%) 5,640(+2.5%)
2020-04-27
155,193(+0.66%) 5,750(+2%)
2020-04-28
156,337(+0.74%) 5,913(+2.8%)
2020-04-29
157,641(+0.83%) 6,115(+3.4%)
2020-04-30
159,119(+0.94%) 6,288(+2.8%)
2020-05-01
160,758(+1%) 6,481(+3.1%)
2020-05-02
161,703(+0.59%) 6,575(+1.5%)
2020-05-03
162,496(+0.49%) 6,649(+1.1%)
2020-05-04
163,175(+0.42%) 6,692(+0.65%)
2020-05-05
163,860(+0.42%) 6,831(+2.1%)
2020-05-06
164,807(+0.58%) 6,996(+2.4%)
2020-05-07
166,091(+0.78%) 7,119(+1.8%)
2020-05-08
167,300(+0.73%) 7,266(+2.1%)
2020-05-09
168,551(+0.75%) 7,369(+1.4%)
2020-05-10
169,218(+0.4%) 7,395(+0.35%)
2020-05-11
169,575(+0.21%) 7,417(+0.3%)
2020-05-12
170,508(+0.55%) 7,533(+1.6%)
2020-05-13
171,306(+0.47%) 7,634(+1.3%)
2020-05-14
172,239(+0.54%) 7,723(+1.2%)
2020-05-15
173,152(+0.53%) 7,824(+1.3%)
2020-05-16
173,772(+0.36%) 7,881(+0.73%)
2020-05-17
174,355(+0.34%) 7,914(+0.42%)
2020-05-18
174,697(+0.2%) 7,935(+0.27%)
2020-05-19
175,210(+0.29%) 8,007(+0.91%)
2020-05-20
176,007(+0.45%) 8,090(+1%)
2020-05-21
176,752(+0.42%) 8,147(+0.7%)
2020-05-22
177,212(+0.26%) 8,174(+0.33%)
2020-05-23
177,850(+0.36%) 8,216(+0.51%)
2020-05-24
178,281(+0.24%) 8,247(+0.38%)
2020-05-25
178,570(+0.16%) 8,257(+0.12%)
2020-05-26
179,002(+0.24%) 8,302(+0.54%)
2020-05-27
179,364(+0.2%) 8,349(+0.57%)
2020-05-28
179,717(+0.2%) 8,411(+0.74%)
2020-05-29
180,458(+0.41%) 8,450(+0.46%)
2020-05-30
181,196(+0.41%) 8,489(+0.46%)
2020-05-31
181,482(+0.16%) 8,500(+0.13%)
2020-06-01
181,815(+0.18%) 8,511(+0.13%)
Sources:

Notes:

  1. ^ The data on 2020-03-28 does not include new cases from Sachsen-Anhalt.
  2. ^ The data on 2020-03-29 does not include new cases from Baden-Württemberg, Hessen, and Saarland.
  3. ^ The data on 2020-03-30 does not include new cases from Sachsen-Anhalt.
  4. ^ As from 2020-04-08 RKI uses another method to estimate the numbers of recoveries, now also incorporating cases where the date of the first symptoms is unknown.


Baden-Württemberg

 
A test centre in Sindelfingen, Baden-Württemberg. Viral throat swabs are taken in a tent outside to avoid contaminating the laboratory.

On 25 February, a 25-year-old man from Göppingen, Baden-Württemberg, who had recently returned from Milan, Italy, tested positive and was treated in Klinik am Eichert.[17] On 26 February, Baden-Württemberg confirmed three new cases. The 24-year-old girlfriend of the 25-year-old man from Göppingen and her 60-year-old father, who worked as a chief physician at University Hospital Tübingen, tested positive and were admitted to the same hospital in Tübingen.[18][19] A 32-year-old man from Rottweil, Baden-Württemberg, who had visited Codogno, Italy with his family on 23 February, tested positive and was admitted to a hospital for isolation.[20]

On 27 February, Baden-Württemberg confirmed four new cases, for a total of eight cases in the region. Two women and a man from Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald and Freiburg, respectively, tested positive. They had had contact with an Italian participant at a business meeting in Munich; he was subsequently tested positive in Italy. A man from the district of Böblingen, who had had contact with the travel companion of the patient from Göppingen, also tested positive.[21]

On 28 February, Baden-Württemberg confirmed five new cases, bringing the total number of cases in the state to thirteen. A man from Ludwigsburg with flu symptoms who had tested negative for influenza virus was automatically tested for SARS-CoV-2 and confirmed positive. A man from Rhine-Neckar returning from a short ski holiday with mild cold symptoms checked himself in to the emergency department of the University Hospital Heidelberg and tested positive.[22] A 32-year-old man in Heilbronn tested positive and was admitted to a hospital. He had been in Milan on 21 February and fallen ill with flu symptoms on 23 February.[23] A man from Breisgau who had travelled to Bergamo, Italy also tested positive and underwent isolation.[24]

On 28 February, a man from Nuremberg who was in Karlsruhe on business was admitted to the Karlsruhe City Hospital. His family in Nuremberg was also ill with respiratory symptoms.[24]

After the ease of lockdown, a group of germans who had been working in China was allowed to return. On arrival in Tianjin on 29 May 2020, chinese authorities tested a 34-year old engineer from Blaustein positive for the coronavirus. A test on depature in Frankfurt had shown no infection.[25]

Bavaria

On 27 January 2020, the Bavarian Ministry of Health announced that a 52-year-old employee of Webasto, a German car parts supplier at Starnberg, Bavaria had tested positive for SARS-CoV-2.[5] He contracted the infection from a Chinese colleague who had received a visit in Shanghai from her parents from Wuhan.[26] His was the first known case of a person contracting the virus outside of China from a non-relative – the first known transmission of the virus outside China being father to son in Vietnam.[27]

On 28 January, three more cases were confirmed, a 27-year-old and a 40-year-old man as well as a 33-year-old woman. All three were also employees of Webasto. They were monitored and quarantined at the München Hospital in Schwabing.[28]

On 30 January, a man from Siegsdorf who worked for the same company tested positive;[29] on 31 January and 3 February respectively, both his children tested positive.[30] His wife also tested positive on 6 February.[31] A 52-year-old Webasto employee from Fürstenfeldbruck tested positive.[32]

On 1 February, a 33-year-old Webasto employee living in Munich tested positive.[33] On 3 February, another employee was confirmed positive.[34] On 7 February, the wife of a previously diagnosed man tested positive.[35] On 11 February, a 49-year-old Webasto employee tested positive, as did a family member of a previously diagnosed employee.[36]

On 27 February, Bavaria confirmed that a man from Middle Franconia tested positive after he had contact with an Italian man who later tested positive as well.[37]

On 8 March, a 83-year-old resident of the St. Nikolaus home of the elderly in Würzburg was brought into hospital and died four days later diagnosed with COVID-19, becoming the first reported death of the virus in Bavaria.[38]

By 27 March, ten more residents of the St. Nikolaus home of the elderly had also died of the virus and 44 residents and 32 employees tested positive. The residency complained about a lack of personnel and protective equipment.[39]

Berlin

 
A closed off playground in Lankwitz, Berlin

The first case detected in the nation's capital of Berlin was reported on 2 March 2020.[40] On 17 March, the government of Berlin announced plans to open a 1,000-bed hospital for COVID-19 patients on the grounds of Messe Berlin in the Westend locality of Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf.[41] The hospital opened on 11 May 2020.[42]

Brandenburg

Brandenburg's first case was detected on 3 March 2020.[40]

Bremen

Bremen's first case was detected on 1 March 2020.[40] One person had already recovered as of 15 March 2020.[40]

Hamburg

 
Near-empty red-light district in Hamburg on 17 March

Hamburg's first case, a male paediatric staff at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, was confirmed on 27 February.[43] As of 15 March 2020, there are 196 active cases.[40]

Hesse

On 28 February, Hesse officials confirmed three new cases in Lahn-Dill, Hochtaunuskreis and Giessen. The cases in Lahn-Dill and Giessen were linked to the cluster in NRW, and the case in Hochtaunuskreis to the one in Lahn-Dill.[44]

After the ease of lockdown for religious groups on 1 May,[45] the public health department of Frankfurt informed the press on 22 May, that more than 40 new cases were related to a service, held in a church on 10 May. During the service, the Evangeliums-Christen-Baptisten reportedly kept distance rules,[46] but did not wear facemasks.[47] A day later, updated numbers showed the cluster around the service included 107 infected individuals.[48]

Lower Saxony

On 1 March 2020, Lower Saxony reported its first case.[40] After the ease of lockdown in early May 2020 about 40 people met on 15 May for a private party in a restaurant in Moormerland. By 24 May at least 10 of the participants had tested positive and quarantine was ordered for 70 people.[49]

On 31 May 2020 a new cluster with 36 confirmed infections was reported in Göttingen. In the same context, some 90 individuals were asked to report for testing, but only 15 had shown up by 1 June 2020. The local authorities checked Hookah lounges to find the source of the infections and found one to be open in violation of state rules.[50]

Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

On 4 March 2020, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern reported three cases.[40]

North Rhine-Westphalia

On 25 February, a 47-year-old man tested positive in Erkelenz, Heinsberg at North Rhine-Westphalia.[51] He had been previously treated at University Hospital of Cologne on 13 and 19 February for a pre-existing medical condition. 41 medical staff members and patients were identified to have had contact with him at the hospital; one person from medical staff showed symptoms and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2.[52][53]

On 26 February, his wife, a kindergarten teacher, tested positive; both were isolated at University Hospital of Düsseldorf.[54] His colleague and her partner also tested positive.[55]

On 27 February, Heinsberg confirmed fourteen new cases: nine from Gangelt, two from Selfkant, one from the city of Heinsberg, one from Düsseldorf and one from Herzogenrath. Multiple cases were linked to the Gangelter Carnival. All of them were placed in home isolation. This brought the current total to twenty in the district.[56][57][6] A medical doctor in Mönchengladbach tested positive and was quarantined at home. He had attended the same carnival event in Gangelt.[58]

On 28 February, Aachen confirmed the first COVID-19 case in the region, a woman from Herzogenrath (Aachen district), who had attended the carnival event in Gangelt on 15 February and underwent home isolation.[59] Heinsberg confirmed 17 new cases, bringing the current total to 37 cases in the district.[60]

On 29 February, the number of confirmed cases in Heinsberg rose to sixty. Additionally, one case was confirmed in Bonn, three more in the Aachen district (one in Aachen and two in Würselen), and one in Lüdenscheid.[61] Cologne, Mönchengladbach and Duisburg also each reported two cases.[62] The first cases in Münster were confirmed.[63]

On 1 March, cases in Heinsberg rose to 68.[64] A case was confirmed in Rheinisch-Bergischer Kreis, affecting a woman from Overath.[65]

On 2 March, the number of positive cases in Heinsberg increased to 79.[66] The Unna district reported its first case, a 61-year-old woman.[67]

On 3 March, cases in Heinsberg rose to 84.[68] Two more cases were confirmed in Münster.[63] The first case was confirmed in Neuss.[69]

 
Entrance control at the Cologne Cathedral on 21 March to allow admission only to people who want to pray.

On 4 March, the first case in Bochum was confirmed when a 68-year-old man returning from holiday in Italy tested positive.[70]

On 5 March 195 cases were confirmed by laboratory test in Heinsberg. The local authorities announced that all schools, kindergartens, daycare facilities and interdisciplinary early intervention centres would remain closed until at least 15 March 2020.[68] Six people tested positive in Münster. Four were pupils at Marienschule, one was a child under care in "Outlaw-Kita" day care centre in Hiltrup, and the sixth was a resident of Coesfeld, working at Landschaftsverband Westfalen-Lippe in Münster. The school and the day care centre were closed as a precaution.[63]

On 6 March, confirmed cases in Heinsberg rose to 220. A mobile medical care unit was deployed in Gangelt-Birgden.[71] Bochum's second case was confirmed, after the wife of the city's first confirmed case also tested positive.[72]

On 7 March, three cases were confirmed in Remscheid and one in Wermelskirchen.[73] Bochum reported its third case, a 58-year-old man from Weitmar who had returned from a holiday in Italy.[74]

On 8 March, the count of cases in the state rose to 484. Of these, 277 were in Heinsberg. Bochum recorded its fourth case after a woman tested positive after returning from a holiday in South Tyrol, Italy. She went into quarantine at home.[75] A 44-year-old Münster resident tested positive and underwent quarantine with his family.[63] Düsseldorf confirmed its fourth case, a man who had contact with individuals in Heinsberg. All cases in Düsseldorf were reported to be asymptomatic, or with mild symptoms.[76] There were six new infections in Erkrath, Mettmann district.[77] An additional three people were infected with the virus in Bergkamen, Unna district. They are believed to have come into contact with an infected person during a visit to Hamburg.[78]

On 9 March, the first COVID-19 deaths in Germany, a 89-year-old woman in Essen and a 78-year-old man in Heinsberg, were reported.[7]

By the evening of 10 March, the count of cases in the state rose to 648.[79] All mass events in North Rhine-Westphalia with more than 1000 participants were banned with immediate effect.[80]

On 11 March, the number of positive cases in North Rhine-Westphalia increased to 801, including three deaths.[81]

On 13 March, all schools and kindergartens were closed by the government of NRW.[82]

Rhineland-Palatinate

On 26 February, a 41-year-old soldier who worked in Cologne-Wahn military airport and had attended a Carnival event in Gangelt with the 47-year-old patient from North Rhine-Westphalia was admitted to Bundeswehr Central Hospital, Koblenz, the first case in Rhineland-Palatinate.[83]

On 27 February, a 32-year-old man from Kaiserslautern, who had been in Iran, tested positive and was admitted to Westpfalz-Klinikum.[84]

On 4 March, a woman and a child from Wachenheim tested positive and were quarantined.[85]

Saarland

On 4 March 2020, Saarland reported its first case.[40]

Saxony

On 3 March 2020, Saxony reported its first case.[40]

Saxony-Anhalt

On 10 March 2020, Saxony-Anhalt reported eight confirmed cases of COVID-19, making it the last federal state to be affected by the disease.[79] As of 26 March, the subdivisions of Jessen and Schweinitz in the municipality of Jessen (Elster) are under quarantine, with no one apart from emergency workers allowed in or out. The cause is reported to be an increased number of COVID-19 infections in a retirement home there.[86]

Schleswig-Holstein

On 28 February 2020, Schleswig-Holstein reported its first case.[40]

Thuringia

On 3 March 2020, Thuringia reported its first case.[40]

Other

In late March, a group of patients from Lombardy in Italy and the border region of Alsace in France were treated in Germany.[87]

Repatriated German citizens

On 1 February, around 90 German citizens left Wuhan on a flight arranged by the German government. Upon arrival, they were quarantined in Rhineland-Palatinate for 14 days.[88]

On 2 February, two of the arrivals from China tested positive and were moved from the quarantine location in Germersheim to an isolation unit at the University Hospital Frankfurt.[89]

National Pandemic Plan

 
State measures to impose social distancing in the federal system of Germany as of 25 May 2020. Below the state level, local restrictions may apply.
  All German states have enacted some form of prohibition of assembly; (ranging from no more than two households to maximum ten people),[90] restrictions on various types of businesses, and other measures.[91][92]
  Additionally, six states had enacted a curfew, with exceptions for the workforce, essential shopping, and various other activities. All statewide curfews had been lifted by 9 May, but local restrictions can still apply.[91][92]
  In addition to the prohibition of assembly, two states had enacted an entry ban for non-residents (including German citizens from other states), with exceptions for the workforce[93][94] and, since May 2020, owners of second homes.[95] The last of these "entry-bans" on a state level was lifted effective May 25.[96]

Germany has a common National Pandemic Plan,[9] which describes the responsibilities and measures of the health care system actors in case of a huge epidemic. Epidemic control is executed both by the federal authorities such as Robert Koch Institute and by the German states. The German states have their own epidemic plans. In early March, the national plan was extended for the handling of the ongoing coronavirus pandemic.[97] Four major targets are included in this plan:[9]

  • Reduce morbidity and mortality
  • Ensure treatment of infected persons
  • Upkeep of essential public services
  • Reliable and accurate information for decision-makers, medical professionals, media and public

The plan has three stages, which might eventually overlap due to regional differences in the evolution of the pandemic:[9]

  • Containment (circumstances of dedicated cases and clusters)
  • Protection (circumstances of further spreading infections and unknown sources of infections)
  • Mitigation (circumstances of widespread infections)

In the containment stage health authorities are focusing on identifying contact persons who are put in personal quarantine and are monitored and tested. Personal quarantine is overseen by the local health agencies. By doing so, authorities are trying to keep infection chains short, leading to curtailed clusters. In the protection stage the strategy will change to using direct measures to protect vulnerable persons from becoming infected. The mitigation stage will eventually try to avoid spikes of intensive treatment in order to maintain medical services.[9]

Criticism

As early as January 2020, the German Bundestag was fully informed about the dangers of the global spread of a coronavirus pandemic. A risk analysis predicted how dangerous a global coronavirus outbreak could be. It stated that "children [...] have [...] minor disease progressions" and that the risk of death of "over-65-year-olds [is] at 50%". It further stated that a "vaccine" is "unavailable", so all the more important is the "use of protective equipment such as protective masks, goggles and gloves". The Federal Office of Civil Protection and Disaster Assistance [de] (BBK) never set up appropriate stores or had talks with manufacturers and suppliers to prepare for such a situation.[98]

Government reactions

January

On 22 January 2020, the German government considered the spread of COVID-19 as a "very low health risk" for Germans and the virus in general as "far less dangerous" than SARS. New travel advisories would not be necessary.[99]

On 27 January, after the first infections in Germany, the government continued to regard the probability of a spread as "very low". Even if individual cases emerged, authorities would be able to treat them.[100]

At a press conference on 28 January, the Federal Minister of Health, Jens Spahn, said he was worrying only about conspiracy theories that were circulating on the Internet, and that the Federal Government would counter this problem through full transparency. Hotlines were established to calm down worried callers. After a case was suspected in a Lufthansa plane, the company suspended all flights to China.[101][102]

On 29 January, reports surged that masks were sold out. The government ordered pilots of flights from China to describe the health status of their passengers and ordered passengers to fill in a contact document. The government and health authorities expected more isolated cases but were confident to prevent further spread.[101][102]

On 30 January, on national television a virologist referred to the government calling the flu wave of 2018 more dangerous than coronavirus as negligent and downplaying.[citation needed]

February

On 1 February 2020, German Health Minister Spahn warned that people infected with the Coronavirus and their contacts might be stigmatised and be socially excluded. He emphasised that the Germans evacuated from China would all be healthy.[103]

On 13 February, at a meeting of EU Health Ministers, German Health Minister Spahn dismissed travel restrictions from or to China by single member states. He decidedly rejected measuring the temperature of inbound travellers.[104]

On 18 February, Foreign Minister Heiko Maas had 8.4 tons of protective gear and clothing as well as disinfectants sent to China. This was the second shipment after Germany had sent 5.4 tons of it to China during the evacuation of the Germans.[105]

On 24 February, the Light + Building Trade Fair in Frankfurt was postponed until September.[106]

On 25 February, NATO's Supreme Allied Commander Europe, Tod D. Wolters, was asked by senators if there were plans for restricting U.S. troop travel to other countries apart from Italy. He pointed to Germany as a potential candidate.[107] AfD politician Alice Weidel demanded closing borders in Europe.[108]

On 26 February, following the confirmation of multiple COVID-19 cases in North Rhine-Westphalia, Heinsberg initiated closure of schools, swimming pools, libraries and the town hall until 2 March. Games and training for FC Wegberg-Beeck were suspended.[109][110] The international German Open Badminton in Mülheim was cancelled.[111] The Cologne-Wahn military airport was temporarily closed.[112][113] The German government opted not to implement travel restrictions on Italy over the coronavirus pandemic there.[114] It also considered itself "far from" issuing a travel warning for the country,[115] which would have enabled free cancellation of trips.[116]

On 28 February, Germany first entered the top ten of countries that had the highest number of coronavirus infections as number nine, in Europe second only to Italy.[114] ITB Berlin was cancelled by its organisers.[117] Heinsberg extended closure of daycare facilities and schools to 6 March. The officials imposed a 14-day home isolation for people who had had direct contacts with individuals in the current cases as well as people who showed flu symptoms.[118] Lufthansa cut the number of short- and medium-haul flights by up to 25%, and removed multiple long-haul routes resulting in 23 long-haul aircraft being taken out of operation.[119] On the same day, Germany enacted new health security measures to include regulations for air and sea travel, requiring passengers from China, South Korea, Japan, Italy and Iran to report their health status before entry. Train railway companies must report passengers with symptoms to authorities and the federal police would step up checks within 30 kilometres of the border.[120] The government also declared it would prepare a central acquisition of protection masks and suits to create a reserve, that not all events should be cancelled and that its crisis team would from then on meet twice a week.[121]

On 29 February, it was reported that supermarket chains, such as Aldi and Lidl, had seen an increase in demand, particularly for tinned food, noodles, toilet paper (whose sales rose by 700% from February to March)[122] and disinfectants. The Ministry of Health of North Rhine-Westphalia advised against panic buying, especially of masks, medications and disinfectants, to leave them for those really in need, assuring there would be no shortage of supply even in the event of a quarantine.[123] A day earlier, after recent drastic price hikes and shortages especially of masks, medications and disinfectants which were the result of a steep increase in demand, calls had been made to consumers to leave these products for hospitals and medical practices.[124]

March

1–7 March

On 1 March, the number of confirmed infections almost doubled within one day. German Interior Minister, Horst Seehofer, expressed his optimism that a vaccine would be available by the end of the year. The Finance Minister, Olaf Scholz, said the government was prepared for a stimulus package to mitigate the economical impact. The Health Minister, Jens Spahn, recommended that people with symptoms of a cold should avoid mass events.[125]

On 2 March, the German Robert Koch Institute raised its threat level for Germany to "moderate" and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control raised its threat level for Europe from "moderate" to "high". The German Health Minister dismissed the closure of borders or companies or ending large events or direct flights between China and Germany as unnecessary or inappropriate.[126] Germany sent lab equipment, protection suits, and gloves for the coronavirus in Iran.[127]

On 3 March, the German National Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians, the Bavarian State Chamber of Medicine, the Bavarian Association of Paediatricians, and the Association of General Practitioners of Berlin and Brandenburg reported a lack of protection gear to handle COVID-19 cases.[128][129][130] The Leipzig Book Fair cancelled the exhibition planned for mid-March.[131] Markus Söder, Minister President of Bavaria and leader of the CSU, and the German Minister for Economics, Peter Altmaier, pushed for financial help for companies affected by the virus.[132][133]

On 4 March, the crisis team considered the acquisition of more protection gear as an "extraordinary urgency". Germany prohibited the export of protection masks, gloves, and suits. North Rhine-Westphalia declared to order one million masks.[134] A parliamentary discussion took place. The Health Minister, Spahn, warned that the consequences of fear could be far worse than the virus itself. Spokespersons of Greens and FDP praised the government for its management of the crisis. AfD-leader Weidel disagreed and also proposed measuring fever at airports. SPD health policymaker Bärbel Bas said measuring fever made no sense because not all infected had it.[135] Israel ordered a 14-day quarantine for all travellers from Germany and four other European countries.[136]

To address the severe shortage of hand disinfectants, the Federal Agency for Chemicals within the Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health issued a general decree on 4 March which allowed pharmacies and pharmaceutical companies to produce and sell products based on isopropyl alcohol for this purpose.[137]

On 5 March, the German Federal Office for Citizen Protection and Disaster Support (BBK) said the spread in Germany was "no catastrophe" and that citizens should prepare for real catastrophes instead. The leader of the World Health Organization, Tedros Adhanom, expressed concern that some countries showed an unwillingness to act or gave up. He admonished all countries to raise their commitment to the level of the threat.[138]

On 6 March, the German Health Minister Spahn ruled out "any measure leading to restrictions on travel" within the European Union and spoke out against closing all schools and universities in Germany. Spahn recommended not to make unnecessary travels and suggested people coming from risk areas should stay at home. Spahn participated in a meeting with the other European Health Ministers to discuss the crisis. The EU and Robert Koch Institute emphasised that masks and disinfectants should not be used by healthy private persons.[139][140]

8–14 March

On 8 March, the German Health Minister recommended to cancel events of more than 1000 attendees for the time being. The Deutsche Fußball Liga announced to continue the season of its soccer leagues until its regular end in mid-May.[141] Poland announced random temperature checks for bus passengers from Germany near a border crossing starting the next day.[142]

On 9 March, Germany reported the first deaths. The number of COVID-19 infections had nearly doubled to more than 1200 within the last few days, which put pressure on the government to act. Angela Merkel's administration announced measures to cushion the economic blow.[143] Merkel, who had publicly kept a low profile regarding the outbreak, emphasised it was important to slow down the spread and buy time. The government's spokesman, Steffen Seibert, said citizens could be "confident that the whole Federal Government, with the Chancellor at the helm, is doing everything possible to contain the spread of this virus".[144] The Health Minister emphasised the responsibility of each individual to slow down spread and ruled out preemptive closing of daycare centres or schools.[145]

On 10 March, Chancellor Merkel announced that between 60 and 70 per cent of Germans would get the virus, an estimate already made nine days earlier by the head virologist of the Charité, Christian Drosten.[146][147] In reaction to a general ban on events with more than 1,000 participants put into immediate effect, Germany's Ice Hockey league DEL announced immediate cancellation of the 2019–2020 season, and that the championship title would remain vacant.[148] Several matches of the soccer leagues, including Bundesliga derbies would be played behind closed doors, a first in the 57-year history of the Bundesliga.[149] Berlin mayor Michael Müller (SPD) disagreed and said mass events should not be cancelled preemptively and expected the sold-out soccer match between Union Berlin and FC Bayern Munich on 14 March not to be behind closed doors.[150]

On 11 March, having faced accusations of inaction the previous days, Merkel took the unusual step of dedicating an entire press conference on the topic of the COVID-19 crisis. She emphasised "We will do the necessary, as a country and in the European Union".[151] She announced liquidity support for companies, especially via the German development bank KfW, to be realised before the week was over. She insisted again on not closing borders. Merkel recommended everyone avoid shaking hands, for example by looking a second longer and smiling instead. The German health minister added that mouth protection and disinfectants were needless for individuals and that it was enough to wash hands with soap rigorously.[152] The first member of the Bundestag to be tested positive was FDP politician Hagen Reinhold.[153] Several members of the Bundestag for the SPD were placed under quarantine, including epidemiologist Karl Lauterbach, after attending a meeting on 2 March with a staff member of the German Ministry of Justice later testing positive for coronavirus.[154]

On 12 March, U.S. President Trump announced (actually on 11 March 21:00 EDT local time) a 30-day travel ban for foreigners who travelled from Schengen area states, including Germany, effective 13 March 23:59 EDT.[155][156] German foreign politicians were caught by surprise by the travel ban and criticised that it was not coordinated with them. They complained that the United Kingdom was not included.[157] Although neighbouring countries had already closed schools, the German minister of education, Anja Karliczek rejected a nationwide closure of schools, while saying the decision would need to be re-assessed daily as the pandemic evolved.[158] The Kultusministerkonferenz debated whether the virus could threaten the upcoming Abitur school-leaving examination. Its director, Stefanie Hubig, decided the oral examinations in Rhineland-Palatinate between 16 and 25 March would take place according to plan. She also recommended cancelling class trips to risk areas.[159]

On 13 March, 14 of the 16 German federal states decided to close their schools and nurseries for the next few weeks. Germany's neighbours Czech Republic, Poland and Denmark closed their borders.[160] Germany rushed to order 10,000 ventilators from Drägerwerk for intensive respiratory care, twice the order size of Italy and equivalent to the production of a whole year.[161] Germany entered talks for softening its export stop of protective gear for other European Union states.[162] The government decided to give financial support to artists, private cultural institutions and event companies that struggle in the crisis.[163] Scholz and Altmeier assured unlimited credits to all companies of any size.[164] Bundesliga announced that all soccer matches would be postponed until at least 2 April.[165]

On 14 March, the number of confirmed infections had increased to 4,585, including nine fatalities.[166] Several federal states widened their measures to limit public activities. For example, Berlin, Schleswig-Holstein and Saarland closed bars among other leisure venues. Cologne forbid all events in the city centre. Shops noted a great increase in demand for provisions and sanitary products.[167] An FDP member of Bundestag, Thomas Sattelberger, went public on Twitter that he was also infected as he criticised a video created by Germany's largest public broadcaster, ARD.[168] The video presented COVID-19 as a justified reflex of nature by preferentially killing the old in the developed world, who ruined the planet with global warming and turbocapitalism, to the effect of less pollution and overpopulation. The authors of the much-criticized[169] video later apologised for hurting feelings and defended their work stressing it was a satire using exaggeration.[170][168]

15–21 March

 
Control at the border to France at the Europe Bridge in Kehl on 16 March 2020

On 15 March, local elections in Bavaria took place amid the crisis. Many election workers dropped out so that the elections were "acutely threatened" and teachers had to be conscripted on one day's notice.[171] German Interior Minister Horst Seehofer announced to shut down the borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Denmark and Luxembourg. The measure would begin on Monday and the transportation of goods and commuters would be exempt.[172] Deutsche Bahn decided to reduce its regional traffic and, to protect its staff, suspended further ticket inspections.[173]

On 16 March, the state of Bavaria declared a state of emergency for 14 days and introduced measures to limit public movement and provide additional funds for medicine supplies. Bavarian minister president Markus Söder ordered closures of all sports and leisure facilities starting on 17 March. Restaurants were ordered to limit their dine-in opening hours to before 3:00 pm; to ensure a minimum distance of 1.5 metres between guests; and to accommodate a maximum of 30 guests. Supermarkets, chemist's shops, banks, pet shops, and all businesses that sell essential basic needs are allowed extended opening times including on Sundays, while non-essential shops are to be closed at all times.[174] After public outrage over flights from Iran still landing in Germany without tests or quarantine, the German Ministry of Transport stopped all flights from Iran and China.[175][176] Italian scientists, including virologist Roberto Burioni, warned Germany against underestimating the danger and the director of Eurac Research said Germany needed a lockdown or the numbers would go out of control.[177] In the evening, Merkel announced measures similar to Bavaria for the entire country, agreed on by all federal states and the ruling coalition. This also includes a prohibition on travelling in coaches, attending religious meetings, visiting playgrounds or engaging in tourism.[178] The government stressed it was no "shutdown".[179]

On 17 March, the Robert Koch Institute raised the health threat risk for COVID-19 in Germany to "high". Limits on the testing capacity and a delay of three to four days meant reported numbers were significantly lower than the actual ones.[180] Employment agencies and job centres reported a tenfold increase in calls and had to relax sanctions.[181] Berlin announced the plan to construct a hospital with the Bundeswehr for housing 1000 beds for COVID-19 patients. The Federal and State Governments agreed on a new emergency plan for German hospitals which includes doubling the current capacity of 28,000 intensive care beds, of which 25,000 are equipped with ventilation.[182] After a man tested positive in a refugee centre in Suhl, a quarantine led to days of protest, physical resistance and escape attempts over fences or the sewage system. In an SEK operation with protection suits and tanks, 200 police forces calmed the situation and relocated 17 offenders.[183][184] The Interior Minister of Lower Saxony warned that untrue news could trigger panic buying and conflicts, and demanded laws to punish publishing wrong information regarding the supply situation, including the medical one, or aspects of the virus.[185] In the evening, Merkel announced that she and other EU leaders had decided on an immediate travel ban into the European Union for 30 days for non-EU citizens. She also said the European Commission began to start a collective tender for medical gear.[186]

On 18 March, Germany widened its travel restrictions to EU citizens from Italy, Switzerland, Denmark, Luxembourg and Spain, who had up to that time been able to arrive by flight or ship.[187] Germany still received flights from Iran and China due to bilateral agreements, although the German ministry of transportation had said two days earlier it would forbid passenger flights from there. The passengers were not tested for the virus and their temperatures were not taken due to the absence of administrative orders.[188] The head of the Robert Koch Institute warned that the number of infected could rise to up to ten million in two months unless social contacts were reduced significantly, and called for a minimum distance of 1.5 metres to be maintained in all direct contact. The government began to bring back thousands of German travellers stranded in non-EU countries with charter flights. The public health insurance companies assured to cover all expenses related to the crisis with no limitation.[187]

 
Closed playground in Hannover. On 16 March, going to playgrounds was forbidden.

On 19 March, discussions of the Minister presidents of the German states and Merkel regarding a curfew were set for 22 March.[189] A German manufacturer of breathing masks for hospitals and doctors complained that his warnings in early February that masks were selling out and his offer to reserve masks for hospitals had remained unanswered by the health ministry. The ministry explained to the press that they had received the messages but deemed itself not responsible and that the numerous offers could not be replied to due to prioritisation. Some hospitals reported they were already facing shortages of protective gears.[190] A survey revealed that more than 80% of the doctors in private practice reported a lack of protective equipment.[191]

On 20 March, Bavaria was the first state to declare a curfew, inspired by and identical to Austria,[192] where it had been implemented four days before.[193] The Bavarian curfew would begin at midnight and fine violators up to 25,000. It would remain permitted to go to work as well as to supermarkets, medics and pharmacies, under the condition that the trip is solitary or with housemates. Under the same condition, it is also permitted to do sports outside; to visit the life partner or aged, sick or disabled people who do not live in a facility; and to help others in general or provide for animals. Restaurants except drive-ins and for take-away, DIY shops and hairdressers would be shut down.[194][195] The Federal government scheduled a discussion for 22 March to decide on a nationwide curfew and still faced opposition from the German Association of Towns and Municipalities and reservations, among others from the Governing Mayor of Berlin, Michael Müller, or Minister President of Thuringia, Bodo Ramelow.[196] Annalena Baerbock, chairwoman of the Greens, criticised Bavaria's introduction of the curfew as counter-productive, saying there should not be a competition of which federal state is the fastest and strictest and that there would already be a round of voting on this question with all the federal states and the Chancellor in two days.[197] Starting also at midnight, the state of Saarland, a region close France's badly affected Grand Est region, also put a similar curfew into place.[198] Lufthansa donated 920,000 breathing masks to the health authorities.[199]

On 21 March, after more and more residents of refugee centres tested positive for the virus, asylum seekers were unsettled. In Suhl, some threw stones at the police, threatened to set the residence on fire, and used children as human shields. Refugee organisations demanded smaller residencies, including accommodation in hotels and hostels.[200] The government drafted a change to the German Protection against Infection Act to allow the federal government more power over the federal states. Among others it would allow the health ministry to prohibit border crossings, track the contacts of infected persons and enlist doctors, medicine students and other health care workers in the efforts against an infectious disease.[201]

According to data collected on 17–18 March 2020 spending behaviour in a sample of 2500 people in Germany, with an age range from 16 to 65 years confirmed panic buying, showing a 35% increase in the purchase of noodles, 34% increase in canned food, and sanitiser (+33%), a 30% increase in frozen food, mineral water and soap, as well as a slightly lower degree in prepackaged meals (+8%), toilet paper 26%, facial tissue +24% and medication +19%.[202]

22–29 March

 
Warning sign at a footpath in Kaufbeuren

On 22 March, the government and the federal states agreed for at least two weeks to forbid gatherings of more than two people and require a minimum distance of 1.5 metres (4 ft 11 in) between people in public except for families, partners or people living in the same household. Restaurants and services like hairdressers were to be closed.[203] Individual states and districts were allowed to impose stricter measures than these. Saxony joined Bavaria and the Saarland in prohibiting residents from leaving their dwellings except for good reasons, which are similar to the ones in the other two states; outdoor exercise is permitted under the new rules only alone or in groups of maximal five members of the same household.[204]

Chancellor Merkel was quarantined because the physician who had vaccinated her two days earlier tested positive.[205] Volkswagen bought medical equipment in China in a double-digit million euro range to donate it in Germany and intends to produce masks.[206]

On 23 March, the government decided on a financial aid package totalling around 750 billion euros taking on new debt for the first time since 2013, to mitigate the damage of the coronavirus pandemic on the economy.[207] Stephan Pusch, the District Administrator of Heinsberg, asked the Chinese president for help with protective equipment, because the reserve of masks and protective gowns would last only a few more days.[208] Hospitals and doctors urged the government again to address the lack of masks and other protection gear. Berlin received 8000 masks from the nation's central provisioning, which would mean only one mask for every doctor's practice.[209] Of the ten million masks promised by Federal Health Minister Spahn, only 150,000 had arrived so far.[210] A transport plane arrived with masks and coronavirus test kits donated by Alibaba. Other Chinese tech companies like Oppo and Xiaomi also donated masks.[211] Beiersdorf delivered 6000 litres of disinfectants as part of a larger donation of 500 tons.[212]

On 24 March, a delivery of 6 million protective masks of type FFP-2 ordered by the German central provisioning to protect health workers was reported missing at an airport in Kenya.[213] They had been produced by a German company and it was unclear why they had been in Kenya.[214] 10 million protective masks had been ordered by the central provisioning altogether. The lack of protective equipment, especially of face masks and disinfectants, led hospitals to re-use disposable masks. Undertakers requested protective equipment and raising their status to being relevant for the system to get priority access to protective gear. Most dentists practices did not have FFP-2 masks and some considered closing their practices.[215] Several alcohol manufacturers started to deliver disinfectants or alcohol to pharmacies and hospitals. Klosterfrau Healthcare announced to donate 100,000 litres of disinfectants and Jägermeister provided 50,000 litres of alcohol for producing disinfectants.[216] As of late March, Deutsche Krankenhaus-Gesellschaft (DKG) reported an estimated number of 28,000 intensive care beds, of which 20,000 had respiratory support. 70 to 80 percent were occupied by non-COVID-19 patients. A project to find out the exact percentage of free intensive care beds in Germany had been started by Deutsche Interdisziplinäre Vereinigung für Intensiv- und Notfallmedizin (DIVI) and half of all hospitals joined it.[217]

On 25 March, the German Bundestag approved, with a large majority, the stimulus package which the government had decided on two days earlier. It also suspended the constitutionally enshrined debt brake to approve the supplementary government budget of 156 billion euros.[218] The Kultusministerkonferenz decided against cancelling the Abitur school-leaving examinations, which were currently under way in Hessen and Rhineland-Palatinate. The Robert Koch Institute (RKI) warned that the epidemic had only just begun in Germany.[219]

On 26 March, Robert Bosch GmbH announced it had developed a new COVID-19 test system, which could diagnose whether a patient was infected in less than 2.5 hours instead of days and could be run automatically at the point of care.[220][221] According to Bosch, the test would be available in Germany in April and could check for 10 respiratory pathogens simultaneously with an accuracy of more than 95%.[222] At night, it was reported the Interior Minister, Horst Seehofer, had decided to widen the scope of the entry restrictions, which had previously covered other EU- and non-EU citizens, to also prohibit asylum seekers from entering.[223]

On 27 March, the stimulus package passed the German Bundesrat with large majority. It came into effect the same day with the signature of President Frank-Walter Steinmeier.[224]

Drägerwerk announced that the first respiratory devices of a total order of 10,000 by the health ministry were finished, but it was unclear where to deliver them.[225] The fulfilment of the order would extend over a whole year as the company had received many orders from other countries and the German government had not asked them to be supplied first.[226] Drägerwerk had doubled its production of breathing masks and urged Germany to maintain a reserve of masks in the future.[225]

On 29 March, in Berlin and Hamburg two demonstrations for the adoption of more refugees were considered a violation of the contact ban and were dispersed by police forces.[227] Adidas, Deichmann, H&M and many other retail companies which had their shops closed as part of the government restrictions announced that they planned to suspend rent payment according to the new law granting temporary relief during the corona crisis.[228] Christine Lambrecht, called it "indecent and unacceptable"[229] and Bundestag member Florian Post (SPD) published a video of himself burning an Adidas shirt and calling for a boycott of the company.[230] On the morning of 28 March the body of Hesse's finance minister Thomas Schäfer was found next to the Cologne–Frankfurt high-speed rail line near Hochheim am Main; Volker Bouffier suspected his suicide resulted from worries about the future in the wake of the corona crisis crushing him.[231]

30 March – 5 April

On 31 March, Jena was the first major German city to announce an obligation to wear masks, or makeshift masks including scarves, in supermarkets, public transport, and buildings with public traffic.[232][233] Minister president of Bavaria, Markus Söder, said the problem of acquisition of masks needed to be solved before discussing an obligation to wear masks, and demanded a national emergency production of protective masks.[234] Intensive care physicians criticised the lack of protective clothing in nursing services, clinics and doctors' practices as a state failure.[233]

On 1 April, the project of a European Coronavirus app was publicised that, unlike apps of other countries, could satisfy the requirements of the EU's stringent data protection, releasable in Germany around 16 April. The project, titled Pan-European Privacy-Preserving Proximity Tracing (PEPP-PT), involved eight European countries and, on the German side, participation came from the Fraunhofer Institute for Telecommunications, Robert Koch Institute, Technical University of Berlin, TU Dresden, University of Erfurt, Vodafone Germany and (for testing) Bundeswehr. The app would use Bluetooth to register close contact to other people with the app anonymously and warn the user when a person who had previously been in close contact officially registered an infection. Most German politicians demanded that public usage should be voluntary.[235]

On 1 April, Health minister Jens Spahn forbade flights from Iran, effective immediately, on the basis of the new Infection Protection Act.[236][237] Chancellor Merkel extended the social distancing measures to 19 April and asked people not to travel during the Easter holidays.[238]

On 2 April, the Robert Koch Institute changed its previous recommendation that only people with symptoms should wear masks to also include people without symptoms. A general obligation to wear masks in public, not supported by the federal government and most regional governments, was discussed. It faced the counter-argument of general shortages of protection gear that could not even guarantee supply for the health care and maintenance system.[239] At least 2,300 of German medical personnel in hospitals were confirmed to have contracted Sars-CoV-2. The number of cases from other medical sectors was not systematically collected and thus not known; most federal state governments and the Federal Health Ministry replied to a team of investigating journalists that no information could be given. In Bavaria, where 244 medical practices had been closed due to quarantine (141), lack of protection gear (82) and a lack of childcare (21), the Bavarian State Ministry for Health and Care instructed its health departments not to answer the request for information.[240]

April

6–12 April

On 7 April, the Robert Koch Institute, in partnership with healthtech startup Thryve, launched the app Corona-Datenspende (Corona Data Donation) for voluntary consensual use by the German public to help monitor the spread of COVID-19 and analyse the effectiveness of measures taken against the pandemic. The app was designed to be used with a range of smartwatches and fitness trackers to share anonymised health data for scientific purposes. Project leader Dirk Brockmann said he hoped 100,000 people would sign up.[241] Later that day, the RKI announced that more than 50,000 users had downloaded the app.[242]

A preliminary result, published on 9 April, from a study by the University of Bonn, based on a sample from 1,000 residents of Gangelt in Heinsberg district, North Rhein-Westphalia (NRW) showed that two percent of its population were infected, while 15 percent of the residents have developed antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 virus, regardless of whether they showed any symptoms. This constitutes a mortality rate of 0.37 percent, significantly below the 0.9 percent which Imperial College of the UK had estimated, or the 0.66 percent found in a revised study last week.[243] Several experts criticised that the Heinsberg study had been made public initially through a press conference – at which NRW Minister President Armin Laschet was also present – and expressed doubts about the method of statistical sampling used in the study, as well as other aspects.[244]

13–19 April

 
People on the Schwedter Steg bridge in the Berlin locality of Prenzlauer Berg on 19 April. While the 1,5 metre minimum distance is always possible to maintain on this bridge, on other, narrower bridges found throughout Germany it is not.

On 13 April, the German National Academy of Sciences, Leopoldina, published its third ad hoc statement on the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany. The statement, which supplements its two predecessors, described strategies for a stepwise lifting or modification of measures against the pandemic, taking into account psychological, social, legal, pedagogic and economic aspects. Re-opening of classroom primary and lower-level secondary education as soon as feasible, with observation of hygiene and physical distancing measures, was recommended. The statement did not contain a timeframe for implementing its recommendations.[245] Already before the release of the statement, Chancellor Angela Merkel said the recommendations of the report would be "very important" in political decision-making regarding the pandemic.[246]

On 15 April, after a video conference with the Minister Presidents of the 16 Federal states, Chancellor Merkel said Germany had achieved "fragile intermediate success" in slowing the spread of the virus, but restrictions of public life remained key to preventing the spread of the virus from accelerating again. Shops with a retail space of up to 800 square metres, as well as bookshops, bike stores and car dealerships, would be allowed to reopen to the public on 20 April, providing they followed specified conditions of distancing and hygiene. Schools would start opening on 4 May, as well as hair salons, the latter under particularly strict conditions. It was agreed that large cultural events would not be allowed before 31 August. Other restrictions on social life, which had been imposed on 22 March – including the ban on gatherings of more than two people – were extended until at least 3 May. Merkel urgently recommended people to wear protective masks on public transport and while shopping, but stopped short of making them mandatory.[247]

On 16 April, Bavarian State Premier Markus Söder said Oktoberfest would most likely be cancelled. While the government and state governors started to reach agreement to relax some aspects of the social distancing protocols, large events would be banned until at least 31 August.[248]

20–26 April

On 20 April, as shops started to reopen – with differences from state to state in the level of restrictions – Chancellor Merkel thanked Germans for adhering, on the whole, to advice on staying at home and to physical distancing rules. At the same time, she warned that the country continued to be "at the start of this pandemic". If infections were to resurge, which would be visible after two weeks, another shutdown would follow, an outcome which had to be prevented for the sake of the economy.[249]

On 21 April, Bavarian State Premier Söder announced that Oktoberfest would be cancelled.[250]

27 April – 3 May

In the public debate on the question of whether and when the social distancing measures enacted in the previous weeks could be relaxed, the effective reproduction number R   continued to play a major role. In its daily bulletins of 26–28 April, the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) estimated the value of R as 0.9, 1.0, and 0.9 respectively; it had been as low as 0.7 in mid-April. On 28 April, RKI president Wieler clarified that the 27 April value had been rounded up from a value of 0.96. The respective upper end-points of the confidence intervals (at the 95 per cent level) for the estimates of R were 1.1, 1.1, and 1.0.

At the 28 April press conference, Wieler also warned of pinning too many expectations on a single indicator such as R, as this was "only one index among many". He appealed to the public to apply physical distancing even as the federal and state governments began to relax restrictions on social movement, to "preserve" the success that had been achieved to date in the fighting the pandemic.[251][252]

For the first time in its 70-year history, the German Trade Union Confederation had cancelled its traditional demonstrations throughout Germany on 1 May, holding instead a three-hour online streaming event.[253] Nevertheless, on that day a number of authorised and unauthorised gatherings took place in Berlin, Hamburg, Leipzig, Frankfurt and other German cities. In Berlin, 27 authorised protests were held, each capped at a maximum of 20 participants.[254] On May Day in Kreuzberg, several thousand protesters or spectators took part in demonstrations which, while unauthorised, were largely left alone by the police. Most of those gathered appeared to keep a safe distance from each other;[255] however, from the early evening onwards, many hundreds were observed not to do so, leading Berlin's Senator for the Interior Andreas Geisel to sharply condemn the protesters for their "geballte Unvernunft" ("bunched-up lack of common sense").[254] After nightfall, several members of the police force were injured, who arrested 209 people.[256][257] In Hamburg, police dissolved an unauthorised assembly of 350 people at Reeperbahn and later another one at Sternschanze, where some rioters threw objects at them. An assembly in Leipzig which, according to preliminary estimates by police, drew more than 200 participants, received a spontaneous permit by authorities.[256]

After a summit between Angela Merkel and state leaders on 30 April, the federal government allowed opening of museums, monuments, botanical gardens and zoos, and religious services under strict social distancing conditions.[258]

May

4–10 May

On 4 May, the district of Coesfeld in North Rhine-Westphalia recorded 581 infections, an increase by 53 cases from two days earlier. It was reported that a large part of this increase had come from a proactive case tracing and testing of employees at a meat factory in Coesfeld city by the district health office. The plant was allowed to continue to operate under tight supervision by the office.[259]

On a conference call between Chancellor Angela Merkel and 16 state premiers on 6 May, Merkel said that the goal of slowing down the virus had been achieved and that the first phase of the pandemic was over, while asking everyone to remain cautious so as not to cause a second wave. At the same time, the federal government announced the lifting of more restrictions, while contact limitations would remain until 5 June. Under the newly agreed conditions, a maximum of two different households can meet in public. All shops are allowed to open, schools and kindergartens may open in phases, people in care homes are allowed visits from one permanent contact person, outdoor sports without physical contact can resume, and Bundesliga matches may resume starting from 15 May, behind closed doors. The decision on specific opening dates, including those for the restaurant sector, has been left to individual states.[260] Local governments were authorised to reimpose restrictions immediately in case of a new wave of cases reaching 50 per 100,000 people within 7 days in a locality.[261]

On 7 May, a test of 200 employees at the Coesfeld meat processing plant, where cases had first been reported on 4 May, revealed 151 were positive for COVID-19. North Rhine-Westphalia State Health Minister Karl-Josef Laumann said that the shared accommodation of workers in tight quarters was a possible reason for the outbreak. He also stated that the number of new infections in Coesfeld district had been 61 per 100,000 people over the previous week. The plant was closed until further notice, while schools and day care facilities in the district were allowed to open as planned on 11 May.[262] On 9 May, the RKI gave the number of infections in the Coesfeld district in the past week as 76 cases per 100,000, while all other districts in North Rhine-Westphalia were reported to have remained considerably below the government-set threshold of 50 cases per 100,000.[263]

By the afternoon of 10 May, five locations in Germany reported an exceedance of the threshold: besides Coesfeld, these were the city of Rosenheim in Bavaria (the latter having had a first exceedance on 7 May); the districts Greiz and Sonneberg in Thuringia; and the district Steinburg in Schleswig-Holstein.[264]

11–17 May

On 12 May, the Senate of Berlin agreed to a traffic light-type warning system for a re-tightening of coronavirus restrictions. Besides the number of new infections per 100,000 residents in the preceding seven days, which had been agreed upon earlier by the federal government with the German states, it also considers the development of the reproduction number R and the capacity of intensive-care hospital beds.[265]

On 13 May, Interior Minister Horst Seehofer announced that border controls with several neighbouring countries would be eased from 15 May. On that day, controls at the border with Luxembourg would be scrapped, and the goal would be to have free travel to Austria, France, and Switzerland from 15 June.[266]

On 14 May, the German government tabled a law aimed in particular at improving the protection of risk groups and enabling a better understanding of the progress of the pandemic. It came into effect the following day. Regular contacts of persons at risk, such as in nursing homes, are to be subject to more thorough coronavirus testing, to recognise outbreaks early and to break transmission chains. Laboratories are now required to report negative test results, and to provide the probable place of infection if available; data will be reported to RKI in anonymised form. Carers in facilities for the aged, including volunteers and trainees, will be entitled to a one-off tax-free payment of up to 1,500 euros. The costs of intensive care treatment of COVID-19 patients from other European countries will be borne by Germany if the patients are unable to be treated in their home countries due to lack of capacity.[267]

On 15 May, it was reported that Labour Minister Hubertus Heil was to present a government proposal on 18 May to Germany's "corona cabinet", aimed at improving hygiene standards in meat processing plants through measures including prohibition of subcontractors. During the days prior, several German states had reported outbreaks in meat plants.[268]

18–24 May

On 20 May, in response to the recent outbreaks of COVID-19 at several meat processing plants, the German government agreed on a new framework of regulations for the industry, including an effective ban on subcontracting at meat packing plants, as well as tighter supervision of any living quarters provided by the employers. The draft was to be put into a law which still required parliamentary approval.[269]

New outbreaks at initial reception facilities (called Ankerzentren in several German states) and other housing for refugees continued to be reported in several parts of Germany. On 21 May, 137 out of 580 residents at an Ankerzentrum in Geldersheim, Bavaria, were reported to have been infected. Several dozen residents had angrily demanded on 18 May that the quarantine, which by then had been in place for over seven weeks, be lifted. A spokesperson of the local government of Lower Franconia expressed his understanding for the protests.[270]

On 23 May, local authorities in Frankfurt told a news agency that more than 40 people had tested positive for the coronavirus after attending a church service on 10 May. It was reported that the church had adhered to official social distancing and hygiene rules.[271]

On the weekend of 23/24 May, it became known that Thuringia State Premier Bodo Ramelow intended to lift all general coronavirus related restrictions after 5 June, when the current set of restrictions expires.[272] The announcement met with a heated debate and severe criticism from health experts including epidemiologist and MP Karl Lauterbach,[272] as well as the media.[273]

25–31 May

The plans of Thuringia State Premier Ramelow continued to be the subject of intense debate. A survey by public broadcaster ZDF found that of those polled throughout Germany, 72 per cent were against Ramelow's plans. 56 per cent of respondents deemed the restrictions currently in place as neither too tight nor too relaxed.[274]

Impact

Economy

Germany officially entered a recession given that its economy contracted 2.2% during the first quarter of 2020.[275]

As of 1 April, almost half a million companies in Germany had sent their workers on a government-subsidized short-time working scheme known as Kurzarbeit.[276][277] The German short-time work compensation scheme is similar to schemes in France and Britain.[278]

On 8 April, Germany reverted a travel ban for seasonal agricultural workers, allowing 80,000 Eastern Europeans to enter between April and May to harvest seasonal foods.[279]

In a press release from 29 April, the Federal Government predicted that gross domestic product to decline by 6.3 per cent in 2020, with the sharpest drop in economic output, and the peak in Kurzarbeit short-time working, occurring in the second quarter.[280]

On 22 May, in an article published in the Süddeutsche Zeitung, the German Council of Economic Experts stated its views on the design of the planned coronavirus recovery package. In particular, it weighed in on the debate about whether the recovery package should include a higher cash incentive for buying electric cars, a plan which the Merkel government had favoured.[281] The Council recommended against any sector specific aid measures, and advocated focusing on investments in education and infrastructure, lowering the cost of energy, and allowing companies to balance losses with gains from previous and expected gains for future years.[282]

Mask shortage

In March, car manufacturers announced donations of several hundred thousand masks to hospitals, and health authorities. Daimler donated 110,000 masks of their pandemic protection reserve and BMW donated 100,000 breathing masks. Volkswagen announced a donation of 200,000 masks of FFP-2 and FFP-3 types and were looking into manufacturing medical equipment parts.[283] On 8 April, the CEO of BMW, Oliver Zipse, announced the production of FFP2 masks both for the general public and for its workers with a target of hundred of thousands of masks each day, together with the donation to Bavaria of two million simpler masks within the following two weeks.[284] On 28 March, more than three million protective masks bought by Volkswagen arrived at Frankfurt airport from Shanghai. They were the first shipment of a larger donation of medical equipment worth 40 million euros which were brought to hospitals and federal agencies in Hesse and Lower Saxony.[285]

On 30 March, Deutsche Bank donated 375,000 surgical masks that they had acquired during the SARS epidemic.[286]

As stocks of protective gear have gone down, nations have been competing to obtain supplies with increasing urgency. Mask-related disputes were reported between Germany, Austria and Switzerland.[287][288] Germany also was in dispute with Italian authorities over 830,000 masks destined for Italy.[289][290] A German agent was also accused of paying extra for two million masks that had been contracted by Slovenia.[291]

On 3 April, Berlin's Senator of the Interior Andreas Geisel accused the United States agents of appropriating a shipment of 200,000 3M-made face masks meant for Berlin police from the airport in Bangkok.[292][293] Andreas Geisel considered it an "act of modern piracy", SPD acting chairman Rolf Mützenich asked for an investigation and a response from the government,[294] and Berlin mayor Michael Müller blamed Trump for it and called it "inhuman and unacceptable".[295] However, these claims were rejected by 3M officials, who said they have "no records of an order for respiratory masks from China for the Berlin police" and Berlin police later admitted the shipment was not seized by U.S. authorities, but was said to have been bought at a better price, possibly by a German merchant or China.[296][297] As a result, Berlin opposition member Burkard Dregger accused the Berlin senate of deception for the purpose of covering up their failure to provide the masks.[296][298] Politico Europe reported that "the Berliners are taking a page straight out of the Trump playbook and not letting facts get in the way of a good story."[299]

German officials reported that U.S. buyers were paying far above the market price and were outbidding European buyers for masks.[300]

Statistics

Progression charts

Total confirmed cases, active cases, deaths, and recoveries

On 8 April 2020, the Robert Koch Institute began using another method to estimate the numbers of recoveries, now also incorporating cases where the date of the first symptoms is unknown. This caused the singular sharp drop in active cases on that date.

  Total confirmed cases      Active cases      Total deaths   Total recoveries (estimated)

New cases per day

  New cases per day

Daily infection rate

  New cases per active case

New deaths per day

  New deaths per day

Daily mortality rate

  New deaths per active case

Reproduction rate

The effective reproduction number or reproduction rate, symbolized with Re, is a rate of how many more people are infected from a positive COVID-19 case. In order to suppress an outbreak, the reproduction rate must be constantly below 1, which means each positive case infects less than one person.[301]

The Robert Koch Institut measures the reproduction rate as a moving 4-day average of the number of new symptomatic cases using a nowcasting according to the number of cases 4 days before and comparing it with the corresponding mean 4 days before, reflecting the spread of the disease roughly one to two weeks before any specific day. The 4-day average however is prone to larger fluctuations as the number of new cases gets lower overtime. [302] Specific values have been published since its daily report on April 7 while the R-rate has been calculated from 6 March.[303]

  Reproduction rate (4-day average)

Number of tests per week

Since the beginning of testing in Germany up to and including week 20/2020, 3,595,059 laboratory tests in at least 220 laboratories have been recorded to date, 204,757 of which have tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. The number of tests is not the same as the number of persons tested, as the data may include multiple tests of patients.[304]

Total confirmed cases by region

  Others      North Rhine-Westphalia      Bavaria      Baden-Württemberg      Berlin

New cases by region

  Others      North Rhine-Westphalia      Bavaria      Baden-Württemberg      Berlin

Timeline of cases

The Robert Koch Institute (RKI) lists current numbers of registered cases in Germany and other countries online. For Germany, the cases are also broken down by state. The data was published daily at 10:00 prior to 1 March 2020. Between 1 March 2020 and 9 March 2020, RKI reported cases at 10:00 and at 15:00. Starting 10 March 2020, due to continuously rising case numbers, RKI stopped manually updating the numbers and switched to adopting the numbers that were electronically transmitted. New numbers were published once a day in the afternoon. Starting 17 March 2020, new numbers are published at midnight (0:00) for the previous day.[305]


Confirmed cumulative infections (deaths in brackets) according to data from the Robert Koch Institute[306][b]()
since 24 February 2020

Date States Cases
Total infections
New cases
Total deaths
New deaths
                               
24 Feb 14 2 16
25 Feb 1 14 1 2 18 2
26 Feb 3 14 2 2 21 3
27 Feb 6 14 4 2 26 5
28 Feb 10 15 25 1 2 53 27
29 Feb 14 15 3 30 1 1 2 66 13
1 Mar 15 19 1 1 8 1 66 2 2 2 117 51
2 Mar 19 25 1 1 1 10 1 86 2 2 2 150 33
3 Mar 26 35 3 1 1 2 10 1 101 2 1 2 1 2 188 38
4 Mar 44 48 6 1 2 2 12 4 3 111 2 1 1 2 1 2 240 52
5 Mar 65 52 9 1 3 8 14 10 4 175 7 1 1 3 1 [d] 349 109
6 Mar 91 79 15 1 3 8 15 18 5 281 8 1 1 7 1 534 185
7 Mar 116 117 24 2 4 12 16 19 5 346 10 2 2 8 1 684 150
8 Mar 182 148 28 2 4 13 17 21 7 392 15 4 4 8 2 847 163
9 Mar 199 256 40 6 4 17 20 33 8 484
(2)
19 5 10 9 2 1112 265 2 2
10 Mar 237 314 48 9 4 29 35 49 13 648 [e]
(2)
25 7 22 7 9 4 1460 348 [e] 2
11 Mar 277 366 90 24 21 48 48 75 17 801 [e]
(3)
25 14 26 15 27 10 1884 [e] 424 [e] 3 1
12 Mar 454
(1)
500
(1)
137 30 38 88 99 129 23 688 [e]
(3)
52 14 45 27 31 14 2369 485 5 2
13 Mar 454
(1)
558
(1)
174 44 42 99 148 230 33 936
(3)
102 40 83 42 48 29 3062 693 5
14 Mar 569
(2)
681
(1)
216 61 50 158 203 253 45 1154
(5)
121 40 93 45 60 46 3795 733 8 3
15 Mar 827
(3)
886
(4)
283 84 53 162 286 287 50 1407
(5)
168 32 130 47 103 51 4838 1043 12 4
16 Mar 1105
(3)
1067
(5)
300 94 56 260 342 391 51 1541
(5)
325 85 140 77 123 55 6012 [f] 1174 [f] 13 1
17 Mar 1479
(2)
1109
(4)
345 73 57 310 373 325 45 2105
(6)
442 75 182 58 127 51 7156 1144 12
18 Mar 1609
(2)
1243
(4)
391 92 69 358 432 478 56 2372
(6)
474 88 198 105 159 74 8198 1042 12
19 Mar 2155
(6)
1692
(8)
573 134 80 432 682 669 98 3033
(6)
637 99 275 140 202 98 10999 2801 20 8
20 Mar 2746
(10)
2401
(12)
731 192 121 586 813
(1)
803 131 3497
(6)
801
(1)
146 394 180 266
(1)
149 13957 2958 31 11
21 Mar 3668
(16)
2960
(19)
866
(1)
254 142 587 1080
(2)
1023 165 3542
(6)
938
(1)
187 567 188 308
(1)
187 16662 2705 47 16
22 Mar 3807
(21)
3650
(21)
1024
(1)
274 165 872 1175
(2)
1306
(1)
172 3545
(6)
1053
(2)
187 606 211 347
(1)
216 18610 1948 55 8
23 Mar 3811
(21)
4892
(26)
1077
(1)
288 170 943 1347
(3)
1483
(4)
172 5615
(28)
1177
(2)
200 653 212 383
(1)
249 22672 4062 86 31
24 Mar 5348
(30)
5754
(30)
1220
(1)
343 183 1043 1620
(4)
1764
(6)
199 6318
(33)
1370
(5)
337
(1)
811
(1)
321 478
(2)
327
(1)
27436 4764 114 28
25 Mar 6069
(37)
6558
(37)
1428
(2)
429
(1)
200 1262 1754
(4)
2140
(7)
218 7197
(43)
1591
(5)
403
(2)
959
(6)
375 577
(3)
394
(1)
31554 4118 149 35
26 Mar 7283
(56)
7993
(47)
1656
(4)
477
(1)
211
(1)
1265 2157
(6)
2347
(8)
244 7924
(53)
1816
(6)
433
(2)
1141
(7)
418
(1)
675
(3)
468
(1)
36508 4954 198 49
27 Mar 8161
(70)
9481
(55)
1955
(8)
537
(1)
241
(1)
1693
(2)
2323
(7)
2810
(10)
259 9235
(72)
1971
(8)
505
(2)
1305
(7)
458
(2)
812
(4)
542
(4)
42288 5780 253 55
28 Mar 9781
(101)
11150
(77)
2161
(8)
645
(1)
260
(2)
1765
(2)
2604
(9)
3150
(12)
308 10607
(80)
2212
(11)
550
(2)
1432
(9)
458 [g]
(2)
915
(4)
584
(5)
48582 [g] 6294 [g] 325 [g] 72 [g]
29 Mar 9794 [h]
(101)
12881
(107)
2360
(9)
721
(1)
275
(2)
1846
(4)
2605 [h]
(9)
3450
(21)
348
(1)
11400
(98)
2396
(12)
560 [h]
(2)
1617
(9)
592 [g]
(2)
1005
(6)
697
(5)
52547 [h] 3965 [h] 389 [h] 64 [h]
30 Mar 10943 [h]
(119)
13989
(127)
2464
(11)
761
(2)
286
(2)
2053
(5)
3091 [h]
(13)
3732
(26)
356
(1)
12178
(101)
2584
(18)
706 [h]
(7)
1795
(9)
592 [i]
(2)
1049
(7)
719
(5)
57298 [i] 4751 [i] 455 [i] 66 [i]
31 Mar 12334
(165)
14810
(162)
2575
(13)
798
(2)
294
(4)
2191
(9)
3283
(17)
4063
(34)
366
(1)
13225
(117)
2726
(19)
782
(7)
1882
(12)
680 [i]
(6)
1120
(9)
784
(6)
61913 4615 583 128
Date States Cases
Total infections
New cases
Total deaths
New deaths
                               
1 Apr 13410
(197)
16497
(225)
2754
(16)
881
(4)
311
(5)
2311
(14)
3445
(21)
4382
(42)
406
(3)
14351
(134)
2899
(23)
829
(8)
2034
(17)
750
(7)
1246
(10)
860
(6)
67366 5453 732 149
2 Apr 14662
(241)
18496
(268)
2970
(19)
995
(7)
327
(6)
2406
(14)
3707
(27)
4695
(45)
438
(3)
15427
(161)
3132
(26)
1020
(11)
2183
(18)
804
(8)
1335
(11)
925
(7)
73522 6156 872 140
3 Apr 16059
(285)
20237
(307)
3202
(20)
1075
(9)
341
(6)
2596
(16)
3993
(33)
5081
(65)
468
(4)
16606
(178)
3362
(26)
1079
(12)
2336
(21)
836
(11)
1443
(15)
982
(9)
79696 6174 1017 145
4 Apr 17014
(316)
21908
(349)
3471
(22)
1211
(12)
354
(6)
2697
(16)
4279
(42)
5571
(85)
501
(5)
17885
(200)
3504
(29)
1265
(14)
2591
(24)
896
(11)
1559
(17)
1072
(10)
85778 6082 1158 141
5 Apr 18614
(367)
23846
(396)
3613
(24)
1305
(17)
394
(6)
2945
(19)
4575
(56)
5712
(89)
523
(5)
18735
(245)
3663
(32)
1358
(14)
2741
(32)
919
(12)
1631
(18)
1140
(10)
91714 5936 1342 184
6 Apr 19395
(387)
24974
(437)
3670
(26)
1345
(19)
397
(8)
2993
(19)
4674
(61)
5960
(92)
528
(6)
19384
(255)
3882
(32)
1483
(14)
2903
(34)
956
(12)
1671
(20)
1176
(12)
95391 3677 1434 92
7 Apr 20141
(433)
26163
(481)
3845
(28)
1384
(20)
399
(9)
3059
(20)
4837
(73)
6200
(111)
531
(8)
20220
(282)
3992
(34)
1532
(16)
2997
(38)
987
(12)
1730
(24)
1208
(18)
99225 3834 1607 173
8 Apr 20680
(464)
27564
(564)
4028
(32)
1472
(22)
424
(10)
3165
(23)
4965
(84)
6385
(121)
555
(11)
20929
(348)
4148
(45)
1637
(23)
3144
(50)
1020
(16)
1827
(28)
1285
(20)
103228 4003 1861 254
9 Apr 21603
(519)
28827
(635)
4202
(37)
1578
(30)
445
(11)
3320
(44)
5242
(100)
6804
(141)
572
(11)
21961
(384)
4336
(50)
1693
(23)
3261
(52)
1075
(16)
1932
(34)
1351
(20)
108202 4974 2107 246
10 Apr 22433
(570)
30363
(703)
4349
(42)
1691
(37)
454
(13)
3551
(53)
5694
(111)
7114
(161)
586
(11)
23028
(446)
4440
(51)
1854
(36)
3402
(59)
1121
(18)
2029
(38)
1416
(24)
113525 5323 2373 266
11 Apr 23617
(622)
31453
(747)
4458
(46)
1764
(37)
469
(15)
3663
(56)
5808
(120)
7343
(171)
601
(11)
23644
(472)
4622
(59)
2016
(41)
3565
(65)
1135
(18)
2065
(39)
1435
(25)
117658 4133 2544 171
12 Apr 24078
(649)
32282
(786)
4567
(50)
1857
(38)
480
(15)
3742
(56)
5859
(123)
7602
(189)
605
(11)
24267
(495)
4734
(64)
2058
(43)
3600
(67)
1166
(21)
2118
(41)
1464
(25)
120479 2821 2673 129
13 Apr 24570
(677)
33015
(820)
4601
(51)
1880
(38)
486
(17)
3770
(56)
6114
(135)
7723
(201)
618
(11)
24883
(518)
4810
(68)
2079
(44)
3655
(68)
1193
(24)
2134
(44)
1485
(27)
123016 2537 2799 126
14 Apr 25040
(711)
33569
(872)
4668
(56)
1916
(40)
492
(20)
3808
(59)
6183
(147)
7885
(211)
619
(11)
25300
(545)
4880
(70)
2112
(52)
3751
(70)
1207
(25)
2164
(49)
1504
(31)
125098 2082 2969 170
15 Apr 25438
(767)
34294
(954)
4722
(62)
1950
(42)
500
(21)
3869
(67)
6347
(173)
8019
(224)
624
(11)
25835
(607)
5004
(77)
2145
(58)
3819
(73)
1223
(26)
2245
(54)
1550
(38)
127584 2486 3254 285
16 Apr 25881
(802)
35142
(1049)
4848
(74)
2058
(54)
507
(21)
3953
(80)
6470
(187)
8188
(248)
634
(13)
26383
(663)
5087
(87)
2201
(71)
3955
(94)
1248
(26)
2294
(55)
1601
(45)
130450 2866 3569 315
17 Apr 26543
(872)
36027
(1137)
4945
(84)
2120
(60)
556
(22)
4005
(84)
6705
(197)
8442
(274)
634
(13)
27030
(726)
5211
(92)
2254
(76)
4048
(95)
1279
(28)
2349
(59)
1682
(49)
133830 3380 3868 299
18 Apr 27258
(919)
36881
(1198)
5066
(91)
2161
(62)
567
(24)
4118
(90)
6916
(212)
8649
(281)
645
(14)
28006
(791)
5324
(99)
2289
(86)
4140
(103)
1315
(29)
2387
(61)
1717
(50)
137439 3609 4110 242
19 Apr 27883
(968)
37407
(1256)
5159
(92)
2221
(66)
585
(25)
4167
(91)
7108
(230)
8797
(288)
651
(15)
28471
(814)
5432
(106)
2303
(91)
4190
(107)
1350
(30)
2417
(62)
1756
(53)
139897 2458 4294 184
20 Apr 28253
(982)
37849
(1286)
5196
(94)
2238
(66)
604
(25)
4185
(91)
7177
(240)
8900
(291)
653
(15)
28971
(857)
5523
(107)
2314
(91)
4229
(109)
1369
(30)
2426
(67)
1785
(53)
141672 1775 4404 110
21 Apr 28712
(1031)
38310
(1336)
5237
(97)
2275
(67)
609
(25)
4204
(91)
7231
(251)
9098
(306)
655
(15)
29389
(896)
5561
(116)
2328
(93)
4253
(117)
1383
(32)
2414
(70)
1798
(55)
143457 1785 4598 194
22 Apr 28898
(1063)
38814
(1424)
5312
(105)
2389
(74)
624
(26)
4204
(91) [j]
7380
(265)
9236
(328)
656
(15)
30185
(964)
5593
(122)
2367
(97)
4273
(122)
1395
(33)
2496
(79)
1872
(71)
145694 [j] 2237 [j] 4879 [j] 281 [j]
23 Apr 29443
(1113)
39395
(1476)
5324
(105)
2447
(84)
672
(27)
4286
(113) [j]
7593
(286)
9391
(340)
659
(15)
30584
(999)
5643
(131)
2395
(99)
4327
(127)
1425
(34)
2530
(84)
1932
(61)
148046 2352 5094 215
24 Apr 29792
(1153)
39939
(1525)
5459
(112)
2536
(90)
707
(27)
4358
(122)
7712
(296)
9544
(364)
661
(16)
31106
(1052)
5731
(136)
2445
(105)
4377
(135)
1436
(35)
2557
(88)
2023
(65)
150383 2337 5321 227
25 Apr 30169
(1189)
40547
(1566)
5525
(113)
2627
(97)
719
(27)
4400
(139)
7837
(305)
9691
(377)
667
(16)
31465
(1084)
5767
(138)
2468
(107)
4406
(141)
1480
(35)
2612
(95)
2058
(71)
152438 2055 5500 179
26 Apr 30761
(1237)
40912
(1596)
5600
(123)
2694
(100)
739
(27)
4429
(140)
7946
(315)
9785
(384)
673
(16)
31669
(1096)
5835
(147)
2482
(107)
4428
(147)
1494
(36)
2630
(96)
2098
(73)
154175 1737 5640 140
27 Apr 31043
(1249)
41070
(1621)
5638
(125)
2721
(100)
754
(27)
4475
(142)
7979
(320)
9847
(391)
674
(16)
31879
(1131)
5879
(152)
2503
(121)
4458
(147)
1515
(36)
2638
(98)
2120
(74)
155193 1018 5750 110
28 Apr 31196
(1269)
41406
(1681)
5669
(127)
2747
(106)
759
(27)
4505
(142)
8026
(333)
9926
(394)
675
(17)
32184
(1171)
5928
(157)
2509
(123)
4490
(148)
1520
(39)
2653
(101)
2144
(78)
156337 1144 5913 163
29 Apr 31336
(1299)
41830
(1754)
5734
(137)
2768
(109)
797
(29)
4525
(153)
8184
(346)
9972
(406)
687
(17)
32429
(1200)
5982
(161)
2514
(129)
4509
(153)
1525
(39)
2679
(103)
2170
(80)
157641 1304 6115 202
30 Apr 31609
(1353)
42080
(1799)
5827
(147)
2831
(113)
827
(29)
4562
(155)
8304
(353)
10067
(416)
690
(17)
32687
(1219)
6029
(166)
2552
(131)
4561
(156)
1549
(43)
2690
(106)
2254
(85)
159119 1478 6288 173
Date States Cases
Total infections
New cases
Total deaths
New deaths
                               
1 May 31919
(1385)
42489
(1850)
5887
(149)
2872
(120)
859
(30)
4604
(163)
8376
(360)
10141
(429)
693
(18)
33058
(1261)
6086
(172)
2581
(135)
4592
(162)
1564
(44)
2714
(110)
2323
(93)
160758 1639 6481 193
2 May 32146
(1402)
42658
(1885)
5943
(152)
2886
(122)
871
(30)
4609
(163)
8486
(364)
10246
(451)
695
(18)
33216
(1268)
6099
(173)
2597
(135)
4617
(163)
1571
(44)
2728
(112)
2335
(93)
161703 945 6575 94
3 May 32291
(1412)
42792
(1910)
5976
(154)
2905
(122)
875
(30)
4631
(164)
8524
(370)
10283
(453)
698
(18)
33428
(1287)
6133
(176)
2605
(138)
4696
(165)
1576
(44)
2738
(113)
2345
(93)
162496 793 6649 74
4 May 32411
(1421)
42997
(1926)
6010
(154)
2914
(122)
893
(30)
4636
(166)
8549
(372)
10325
(456)
699
(18)
33560
(1290)
6150
(177)
2608
(139)
4702
(167)
1578
(45)
2788
(113)
2355
(96)
163175 679 6692 43
5 May 32482
(1452)
43162
(1949)
6042
(154)
2940
(123)
895
(31)
4644
(172)
8585
(381)
10380
(463)
703
(19)
33728
(1332)
6160
(182)
2618
(139)
4745
(171)
1585
(46)
2799
(118)
2392
(99)
163860 685 6831 139
6 May 32576
(1481)
43371
(2001)
6092
(159)
2969
(127)
916
(31)
4664
(190)
8642
(386)
10453
(470)
711
(19)
33977
(1358)
6191
(187)
2627
(141)
4784
(177)
1590
(46)
2815
(119)
2429
(104)
164807 947 6966 165
7 May 32762
(1497)
43658
(2050)
6149
(162)
2999
(129)
963
(32)
4704
(194)
8736
(396)
10564
(478)
715
(19)
34249
(1372)
6213
(189)
2655
(143)
4836
(181)
1602
(48)
2834
(120)
2452
(109)
166091 1284 7119 123
8 May 32898
(1515)
43905
(2114)
6209
(163)
3037
(131)
997
(32)
4753
(201)
8850
(403)
10686
(493)
718
(19)
34522
(1397)
6241
(192)
2658
(140)
4839
(184)
1615
(48)
2860
(122)
2512
(112)
167300 1209 7266 147
9 May 33105
(1534)
44169
(2147)
6242
(164)
3098
(133)
1024
(32)
4772
(204)
8916
(408)
10803
(496)
722
(19)
34817
(1424)
6282
(195)
2660
(142)
4873
(186)
1637
(48)
2898
(122)
2533
(115)
168551 1251 7369 103
10 May 33287
(1542)
44265
(2153)
6261
(165)
3101
(134)
1043
(32)
4772
(204)
8998
(411)
10827
(498)
726
(19)
34964
(1425)
6291
(195)
2663
(142)
4886
(187)
1640
(48)
2938
(123)
2556
(117)
169218 667 7395 26
11 May 33190
(1545) [k]
44368
(2155)
6272
(165)
3106
(134)
1055
(34)
4780
(204)
9012
(412)
10854
(498)
728
(19)
35132
(1437)
6313
(195)
2665
(142)
4915
(187)
1643
(48)
2957
(124)
2585
(118)
169575 357 7417 22
12 May 33359
(1568) [l]
44593
(2182)
6274
(165)
3111
(136)
1058
(35)
4960
(216) [l]
9031
(415)
10895
(507)
729
(20)
35333
(1456)
6355
(206)
2665
(144)
4947
(190)
1648
(50)
2956
(125) [l]
2594
(118)
170508 933 7533 116
13 May 33518
(1594)
44802
(2209)
6298
(170)
3125
(137)
1077
(36)
4972
(223)
9087
(419)
10903
(508)
736
(20)
35555
(1473)
6360
(207)
2667
(144)
4962
(191)
1650
(52)
2972
(125)
2622
(126)
171306 798 7634 101
14 May 33670
(1608)
44980
(2229)
6342
(173)
3135
(138)
1104
(37)
4976
(228)
9169
(423)
11003
(524)
739
(20)
35741
(1483)
6382
(212)
2677
(145)
5031
(195)
1656
(52)
2982
(125)
2652
(131)
172239 933 7723 89
15 May 33851
(1628)
45143
(2260)
6397
(177)
3158
(148)
1129
(37)
4981
(228)
9204
(429)
11087
(534)
740
(20)
35967
(1493)
6413
(213)
2684
(147)
5061
(195)
1668
(54)
2998
(126)
2681
(135)
173152 913 7824 101
16 May 33893
(1644)
45340
(2273)
6428
(181)
3169
(149)
1150
(37)
5017
(231)
9261
(432)
11092
(535)
746
(20)
36065
(1500)
6449
(216)
2688
(149)
5089
(197)
1676
(54)
2998
(126)
2711
(137)
173772 620 7881 57
17 May 33950
(1648)
45427
(2283)
6447
(182)
3171
(149)
1164
(37)
5029
(232)
9317
(435)
11155
(544)
748
(20)
36286
(1505)
6449
(216)
2696
(149)
5115
(196)
1676
(54)
3000
(126)
2725
(138)
174355 583 7914 33
18 May 34000
(1652)
45507
(2287)
6458
(180)
3172
(149)
1171
(38)
5037
(232)
9337
(439)
11167
(545)
752
(20)
36365
(1512)
6490
(217)
2696
(149)
5125
(196)
1678
(54)
3002
(126)
2740
(139)
174697 342 7935 21
19 May 34034
(1653)
45639
(2314)
6478
(182)
3185
(150)
1237
(38)
5042
(232)
9368
(442)
11207
(548)
752
(20)
36485
(1525)
6520
(222)
2699
(154)
5133
(198)
1679
(54)
3002
(128)
2750
(147)
175210 513 8007 72
20 May 34115
(1672)
45766
(2339)
6507
(186)
3193
(151)
1256
(38)
5042
(236)
9483
(446)
11288
(557)
755
(20)
36766
(1537)
6529
(222)
2703
(154)
5150
(198)
1680
(54)
3014
(131)
2760
(149)
176007 797 8090 83
21 May 34175
(1680)
45929
(2348)
6555
(186)
3205
(151)
1273
(39)
5053
(239)
9574
(451)
11362
(566)
762
(20)
36912
(1546)
6555
(224)
2706
(157)
5185
(201)
1689
(54)
3021
(134)
2796
(151)
176752 745 8147 57
22 May 34174
(1680)
[m]
46024
(2358)
6585
(190)
3211
(152)
1291
(39)
5059
(240)
9656
(457)
11420
(568)
763
(20)
37010
(1547)
6566
(224)
2707
(157)
5197
(203)
1692
(54)
3039
(134)
2818
(151)
177212 460 8174 27
23 May 34345
(1692)
[m]
46132
(2367)
6614
(190)
3213
(154)
1296
(41)
5063
(240)
9670
(458)
11521
(571)
763
(20)
37139
(1555)
6582
(226)
2709
(157)
5219
(204)
1692
(54)
3062
(136)
2830
(151)
177850 638 8216 42
24 May 34399
(1697)
46206
(2377)
6637
(191)
3214
(154)
1299
(41)
5066
(241)
9762
(460)
11578
(572)
760
(20)
37223
(1563)
6590
(227)
2713
(157)
5221
(204)
1694
(54)
3062
(137)
2857
(152)
178281 431 8247 31
25 May 34431
(1698)
46326
(2382)
6642
(191)
3214
(154)
1312
(41)
5069
(241)
9770
(460)
11578
(572)
760
(20)
37298
(1565)
6596
(228)
2716
(157)
5231
(205)
1694
(54)
3062
(137)
2871
(152)
178570 289 8257 10
26 May 34466
(1707)
46456
(2401)
6652
(191)
3236
(154)
1313
(42)
5069
(241)
9804
(462)
11646
(574)
760
(20)
37395
(1571)
6600
(228)
2727
(158)
5236
(207)
1698
(54)
3067
(139)
2877
(153)
179002 432 8302 45
27 May 34500
(1724)
46458
(2404)
6673
(193)
3246
(154)
1322
(42)
5072
(242)
9860
(466)
11678
(578)
760
(20)
37541
(1577)
6611
(229)
2730
(160)
5247
(208)
1698
(55)
3070
(140)
2898
(157)
179364 362 8349 47
28 May 34129
(1724)
[n]
46729
(2438)
6703
(195)
3261
(155)
1348
(41)
5076
(245)
9915
(471)
11750
(583)
760
(20)
37698
(1582)
6652
(230)
2731
(161)
5260
(210)
1701
(55)
3072
(143)
2932
(158)
179717 353 8411 62
29 May 34479
(1743)
[o]
46809
(2441)
6738
(196)
3271
(155)
1372
(41)
5078
(246)
9962
(476)
11832
(585)
759
(20)
37803
(1588)
6673
(230)
2716
(162)
[o]
5230
(209)
[o]
1700
(55)
3078
(144)
2958
(159)
180458 741 8450 39
30 May 34718
(1748)
[p]
46854
(2450)
6767
(197)
3266
(155)
1398
(42)
5082
(246)
10003
(476)
11958
(593)
760
(20)
37910
(1595)
6695
(230)
2723
(163)
5297
(213)
1701
(55)
3090
(145)
2974
(161)
181196 738 8489 39
Date
Total infections
New cases
Total deaths
New deaths
                               
States Cases
Notes
  1. ^ There are no official numbers for how many have recovered, because recoveries are not always reported in Germany. The number here is an estimate by the Robert Koch Institute.
  2. ^ For days until 9th March the value announced before 10:00 in the morning is shown, as values were originally provided in the morning. As of the 10th of March the value has been announced between 15:00 and 17:00 by the Robert Koch Institute only. From the 18th March onward the value at 00:00 of the respective day is given.
  3. ^ a b c d People who have been brought back to Germany from an at-risk area. They were put into quarantine immediately after arrival in Germany.
  4. ^ Since 3 March assigned to the respective state
  5. ^ a b c d e f Robert Koch Institute (RKI) did not update the numbers for NRW on the 10th and 11th of March, these two numbers for NRW are taken from (Source:WDR).[This quote needs a citation] As a consequence there is a drop on the 12th of March, as 688 was the official number for NRW from RKI on the 12th of March.
  6. ^ a b The President of the Robert Koch Institute announced that the method of data transmission would be changed as of 16th of March. Up until this point, the RKI had reported the number of positive test results validated by the institute itself.[This quote needs a citation] Due to increasing numbers, the RKI would now instead report the number of positive test results validated by public health departments, which would likely cause a delay of three to four days. This change could result in a temporary decline in the reported number of cases, but should not be misinterpreted as a decline in infections.[citation needed]
  7. ^ a b c d e f On 27 March 2020 no data from Saxony-Anhalt were transmitted.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j On 28 March 2020 no data from Baden-Württemberg, Hesse and Saarland were transmitted.
  9. ^ a b c d e f On 29 March 2020 no data from Saxony-Anhalt were transmitted.
  10. ^ a b c d e f On 21 April 2020 no data from Hamburg were transmitted due to technical problems at the RKI.
  11. ^ On 11 May 2020 approximately 150 fewer cases were transmitted yesterday from a district in Baden-Württemberg. On this date, the causes are currently being examined.
  12. ^ a b c On 12 May 2020, 148 cases from a district in Baden-Württemberg that were transmitted less the day before yesterday were corrected and retransmitted yesterday. The data from Hamburg were revalidated, so that 180 more cases are counted compared to yesterday, which also have reporting data that dates back some time ago. Individual cases have been corrected in Schleswig-Holstein, so 1 case less than yesterday is reported.
  13. ^ a b On 21 May 2020, no data was transmitted from Baden-Württemberg.
  14. ^ On 28 May 2020, 410 cases were retracted due to a software update from a district in Baden-Württemberg and will be subsequently corrected.
  15. ^ a b c On 29 May 2020, 240 of the cases retracted yesterday from a district in Baden-Württemberg were corrected and recounted. Fewer cases were also reported from Sachsen and Saarland, the causes of which are currently being examined.
  16. ^ On 30 May 2020, 190 of the retracted cases from a county in Baden-Württemberg on 28 May were corrected and recounted.

By age and gender

See also

References

  1. ^ "Q&A on coronaviruses (COVID-19)". who.int. Retrieved 24 March 2020. the outbreak began in Wuhan, China, in December 2019.
  2. ^ Sheikh, Knvul; Rabin, Roni Caryn (10 March 2020). "The Coronavirus: What Scientists Have Learned So Far". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  3. ^ a b c "Alle bestätigten Coronavirus-Infektionen nach Landkreisen und Bundesländern". Der Tagesspiegel. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  4. ^ a b c d "Robert Koch-Institut: COVID-19-Dashboard". Robert Koch Institute (in German). Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  5. ^ a b "Erster Fall des Coronavirus in Deutschland bestätigt" (in German). 28 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  6. ^ a b "Kreis Heinsberg". Kreis Heinsberg. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
  7. ^ a b Hamburg, Hamburger Abendblatt- (9 March 2020). "Coronavirus: Zwei Tote in Deutschland – Italien sperrt das ganze Land". abendblatt.de. Retrieved 10 March 2020.
  8. ^ "SARS-CoV-2: Fallzahlen in Deutschland, China und weltweit". Robert Koch Institut (in German). Archived from the original on 3 March 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
  9. ^ a b c d e "Ergänzung zum Nationalen Pandemieplan – COVID-19 – neuartige Coronaviruserkrankung" (PDF). rki.de. Robert Koch Institute. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
  10. ^ starting 16 March 8:00, only persons with a specific reason were allowed to pass
  11. ^ "Kontaktverbot wegen Corona: Wem Sie noch einen Besuch abstatten dürfen". Frankfurter Rundschau. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
  12. ^ Elsevier. "Novel Coronavirus Information Center". Elsevier Connect. Archived from the original on 30 January 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  13. ^ Reynolds, Matt (4 March 2020). "What is coronavirus and how close is it to becoming a pandemic?". Wired UK. ISSN 1357-0978. Archived from the original on 5 March 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  14. ^ a b "Crunching the numbers for coronavirus". Imperial News. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  15. ^ "High consequence infectious diseases (HCID); Guidance and information about high consequence infectious diseases and their management in England". Government of the United Kingdom. Archived from the original on 3 March 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  16. ^ "World Federation Of Societies of Anaesthesiologists – Coronavirus". wfsahq.org. Archived from the original on 12 March 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  17. ^ "Man infected with coronavirus in Germany after Italy trip -state ministry". Reuters. 25 February 2020. Retrieved 25 February 2020.
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Further reading

External links