Lombardy[b] (Italian: Lombardia; Lombard: Lombardia)[a] is an administrative region of Italy that covers 23,844 km2 (9,206 sq mi); it is located in the northern-central part of the country and has a population of about 10 million people, constituting more than one-sixth of Italy's population. Over a fifth of Italy's gross domestic product (GDP) is produced in the region.[11][12]

Lombardia (Italian)
Lombardia (Lombard)[a]
Official logo of Lombardy
Coordinates: 45°35′N 9°55′E / 45.583°N 9.917°E / 45.583; 9.917
Country Italy
 • TypePresident–council
 • BodyRegional Cabinet
 • PresidentAttilio Fontana
 • LegislatureRegional Council
 • Total23,844 km2 (9,206 sq mi)
 (31 December 2019)[1]
 • Total10,103,969
 • Density420/km2 (1,100/sq mi)
Demonym(s)English: Lombard
Italian: lombardo (man), lombarda (woman)
Lombard: lombard (man), lombarda (woman)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
ISO 3166 codeIT-25
GDP€403 billion (2021)[2]
GDP per capita€39,700 (2019)[3]
$51,666 (2016) (PPP)[4]
HDI (2021)0.915[5]
very high · 4th of 21

The Lombardy region is located between the Alps mountain range and tributaries of the river Po, and includes Milan, the largest metropolitan area in the country, and among the largest in the European Union (EU).[13] Of the fifty-eight UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Italy, eleven are in Lombardy.[14] Virgil, Pliny the Elder, Ambrose, Gerolamo Cardano, Caravaggio, Claudio Monteverdi, Antonio Stradivari, Cesare Beccaria, Alessandro Volta and Alessandro Manzoni; and popes John XXIII and Paul VI originated in the area of modern-day Lombardy region.

Etymology Edit

The name Lombardy comes from Lombard, which is derived from Late Latin Longobardus, Langobardus ("a Lombard"), which derived from the Proto-Germanic elements *langaz + *bardaz; equivalent to long beard. According to some scholars, the second element derives from Proto-Germanic *bardǭ, *barduz ("axe"), related to German Barte, or the whole word comes from the Proto-Albanian *Lum bardhi "white river" (Compare modern Albanian lum i bardhë).[15]

Alboin enters Pavia

The name of the region derives from the name of the people of the Lombards who arrived in Italy in 568 and made Pavia their capital. During the Early Middle Ages, "Lombardy" referred to the Kingdom of the Lombards (Latin: Regnum Langobardorum), which was ruled by the Germanic Lombard raiders who had controlled most of early Christian Italy since their invasion of Byzantine Italy in CE 568 until the fall of Pavia on the river Ticino, in CE 774 by the Frankish Charlemagne on the Pope's behalf. As such, "Lombardy" and "Italy" were almost interchangeable; by the mid-8th century, the Lombards ruled everywhere except the Papal possessions around Rome—roughly modern Lazio and northern UmbriaVenice and some Byzantine possessions in the south—southern Apulia and Calabria; some coastal settlements including Amalfi, Gaeta, Naples and Sorrento; Sicily and Sardinia; their culture is foundational to Italy in the Middle Ages.[16] The term was also used until around 965 in the form Λογγοβαρδία (Longobardia) as the name for the territory roughly covering modern Apulia, which the Byzantines had recovered from the Lombard rump state Duchy of Benevento.

Geography Edit

Lombardy has a surface area of 23,861 km2 (9,213 sq mi), and is the fourth-largest region of Italy. It is bordered by Canton Ticino and Canton Graubünden of Switzerland to the north, and by the Italian regions of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol and Veneto to the east, Emilia-Romagna to the south and Piedmont to the west. Lombardy has three natural zones; mountains, hills and plains—the last being divided into Alta (high plains) and Bassa (low plains).

Soils Edit

Pizzo Coca is the highest peak in the Bergamasque Alps (3,050 m (10,010 ft)).

The orography of Lombardy is characterised by three distinct belts; a northern mountainous belt constituted by the Alpine relief, a central piedmont area of mostly alluvial pebbly soils, and the Lombard section of the Padan Plain in the south of the region.

The most important mountainous area is the Alpine zone, which includes the Lepontine and Rhaetian AlpsPiz Bernina (4,020 m (13,190 ft)), the Bergamo Alps, the Ortler Alps and the Adamello massif. It is followed by the Alpine foothills zone Prealpi, the main peaks of which are the Grigna Group (2,410 m (7,910 ft)), Resegone 1,875 m (6,152 ft), and Presolana (2,521 m (8,271 ft)).[17]

The plains of Lombardy, which are formed by alluvial deposits, can be divided into the Alta—an upper, permeable ground zone in the north—and the Bassa, a lower zone dotted by the line of fontanili, spring waters rising from impermeable ground. Inconsistent with the three distinctions above is the small sub-region of Oltrepò Pavese, which is formed by the Apennine foothills beyond the Po.

Hydrography Edit

The Adda, the longest river within the region and tributary of the Po

The Po marks the southern border of the region for about 210 km (130 mi); its major tributaries are the Ticino, which rises in the Bedretto Valley in Switzerland and joins the Po near Pavia, the Olona, the Lambro, the Adda, the Oglio and the Mincio.

The numerous lakes of Lombardy are all of glacial origin and are located in the northern highlands. From west to east, these are: Lake Maggiore, Lake Lugano (both shared with Switzerland), Lake Como, Lake Iseo, Lake Idro, and Lake Garda (the largest lake in Italy). South of the Alps are a succession of low hills of morainic origin that were formed during the Last Glacial Period and small, barely fertile plateaux with typical heaths and conifer woods. A minor mountainous area the Oltrepò Pavese lies in the Apennines range south of the Po.

Flora and fauna Edit

The Alpine ibex (Capra ibex)

The plains have been intensively cultivated for centuries, and little of the original environment remains. The most common trees are elm, alder, sycamore, poplar, willow and hornbeam. In the area of the foothills lakes, however, olive, cypresses and larches grow, as do varieties of subtropical flora such as magnolia, azalea and acacias. Numerous species of endemic flora in the Prealpine area include some species of saxifrage, Lombardy garlic, groundsel and bellflowers.

The highlands are characterised by the typical vegetation of the Italian Alps. At and below about 1,100 m (3,600 ft), oaks or broadleaf trees grow; on the mountain slopes between 2,000 and 2,100 m (6,600 and 6,900 ft), beech trees grow at the lowest limits with conifer woods higher up. Shrubs such as rhododendron, dwarf pine and juniper are native to the summit zone beyond 2,200 m (7,200 ft).

Lombardy includes many protected areas. The most important are Stelvio National Park—the largest Italian natural park, with typically alpine wildlife such as red deer, roe deer, ibex, chamois, foxes, ermine and golden eagles; and the Ticino Valley Natural Park, which was instituted in 1974 on the Lombard side of the river Ticino to protect one of the last major examples of fluvial forest in northern Italy. There have also been efforts to protect the endangered Italian agile frog.

Other parks in the region are the Campo dei Fiori and the Cinque Vette Park, both of which are located in the Province of Varese.

Climate Edit

Moraine of Lake Garda

Lombardy has a wide array of climates due to variance in elevation, proximity to inland water basins, and large metropolitan areas. The climate is mainly humid subtropical (Köppen Cfa), especially in the plains, though with significant variations to the Köppen model, especially in the normally long, damp, and cold winters. There is high seasonal temperature variation; in Milan, average temperature is 2.5 °C (36.5 °F) in January and 24 °C (75 °F) in July. The plains are often subject to fog during the coldest months.[18]

In the Alpine foothills with oceanic climate (Köppen Cfb), numerous lakes have a mitigating influence, allowing typically Mediterranean crops (olive, citrus fruit) to grow. In the hills and mountains, the climate is humid continental (Köppen Dfb). In the valleys, it is relatively mild while it can be severely cold with copious snowfalls above 1,500 m (4,900 ft).

Precipitation is more intense in the Prealpine zone, up to 1,500 to 2,000 mm (59.1 to 78.7 in) annually, but is also abundant n the plains and alpine zones, with an average of 600 to 850 mm (23.6 to 33.5 in) annually. Average annual rainfall is 827 mm (32.6 in).[19]

Pollution Edit

Lombardy is one of the most-air-polluted areas of Europe.[20] Because of high levels of industrialisation and the lack of wind due to the region being enclosed between mountain ranges, air pollution remains a severe problem in Lombardy and northern Italy.

In March 2019, the European Space Agency (ESA)[21] published images taken from its satellites that show a large stain composed of nitrogen dioxide and fine particles above the Po Valley area. Lombardy is the geographic and economic centre of this area, with more than 10 million residents and the highest GRP per inhabitant of the country. Most of its major cities are located in the Po river basin, which crosses the region. The stain analysed by ESA is the main reason Po Valley air pollution levels are so high. Milan also has high levels of ozone and nitrogen oxides, which are mainly produced by cars diesel and petrol engines.

According to Chicago Energy Policy Institute,[22] which has recently developed the Air Quality Life Index (AQLI), Po Valley air pollution reduces life expectancy by about six months. Air pollution in the Po Valley is connected to livestock and factories. The use of NPK fertilizers, made of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, along with manure emissions from intensive breeding and high levels of nitrogen dioxide released by diesel and petrol engines are all causes of pollution in the north of Italy. Lombardy also produces vast amounts of animal waste, a big contributor to pollution. Lombardy produces more than 40% of Italy's milk and over half of the Italian pig production is located in the Po Valley.[23]

According to research published in The Lancet Planetary Health,[24] in January 2021, Brescia and Bergamo had the highest death rate from fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Europe.

The data show many cities in Lombardy and the Po Valley suffer the most-serious impact of poor air quality in Europe, primarily the metropolitan area of Milan, which is 13th in terms of fine particulate impact, with an annual premature death rate of 3,967 – approximately 9% of the total.

History Edit

Prehistory and antiquity Edit

The Rock Drawings in Valcamonica are among the largest collections of prehistoric petroglyphs in the world.[25]

It is thought from archaeological findings of ceramics, arrows, axes, and carved stones, the area of current-day Lombardy has been settled at least since the second millennium BC. Well-preserved rock drawings left by ancient Camuni in the Valcamonica depicting animals, people, and symbols were made over 8,000 years before the Iron Age,[26] based on about 300,000 records.[27]

The many artifacts found in a necropolis near Lake Maggiore and the Ticino demonstrate the presence of the Golasecca Bronze Age culture that prospered in the western Lombardy between the ninth and the fourth centuries BC. In the following centuries, Lombardy was inhabited by different peoples; the Etruscans founded the city of Mantua and spread the use of writing. It was seat of the Celtic Canegrate culture starting from the 13th century BC, and later of the Celtic Golasecca culture. From the fifth century BC, the area was invaded by more Celtic Gallic tribes coming from north of the Alps. These people settled in several cities including Milan and extended their rule to the Adriatic Sea. Celtic development was halted by the Roman expansion in the Po Valley from the third century BC. After centuries of struggle, in 194 BC, the entirety of modern-day Lombardy became a Roman province called Gallia Cisalpina—"Gaul on the inner side (with respect to Rome) of the Alps".

The Roman culture and language overwhelmed the former civilisation in the following years, and Lombardy became one of the most-developed and richest areas of Italy with the construction of roads, and the development of agriculture and trade. Important figures were born here, such as Pliny the Elder (in Como) and Virgil (in Mantua). In late antiquity the strategic role of Lombardy was emphasised by the temporary move of the capital of the Western Empire to Mediolanum (Milan). Here, in 313 AD, Roman Emperor Constantine issued the famous Edict of Milan that gave freedom of confession to all religions within the Roman Empire.

Kingdom of the Lombards Edit

For centuries, the Iron Crown of Lombardy was used in the Coronation of the King of Italy.

During and after the fall of the Western Empire, Lombardy heavily suffered from destruction brought about by a series of invasions by tribal peoples. After 540, Pavia become the permanent capital of the Ostrogothic Kingdom, the fixed site of the court and the royal treasury.[28] The last and most effective invasion was that of the Germanic Lombards or Longobards, whose nation migrated to the region from the Carpathian basin in fear of the conquering Pannonian Avars in 568. The Lombards' long-lasting reign, with its capital in Pavia, gave the current name to the region. There was a close relationship between the Frankish, Bavarian and Lombard nobility for many centuries.

After the initial struggles, relationships between the Lombard people and the Gallo-Roman peoples[29] improved. The Lombard language and culture was integrated with the Latin culture, leaving evidence in many names, the legal code and laws. The Lombards became intermixed with the Roman population owing to their relatively smaller number.[30] The end of Lombard rule came in 774, when the Frankish king Charlemagne conquered Pavia, deposed Desiderius the last Lombard king, and annexed the Kingdom of Italy—mostly northern and central present-day Italy—to his newly established Holy Roman Empire. Charlemagne was crowned by the Pope on 25 December 800. The former Lombard dukes and nobles were replaced by other German vassals, prince-bishops and marquises. The entire northern part of the Italian peninsula continued to be called "Lombardy" and its population "Lombards" throughout the following centuries.

Communes and the Empire Edit

San Michele Maggiore, Pavia, where almost all the kings of Italy were crowned up to Frederick Barbarossa
Member cities of the first and second Lombard League

In the tenth century, Lombardy, although formally under the rule of the Holy Roman Empire, was included in the kingdom of Italy, of which Pavia remained the capital until 1024. Starting gradually in the late-11th century, Lombardy became divided into many small, autonomous city-states, the medieval communes. Also in the 11th century, the region's economy underwent a significant boom due to improved trading, sartorial manufacturing of silk and wool, and agricultural conditions; arms manufacturing for the purpose of defensive army development, by the German imperial divisions of Guelphs (Welfen) defending Pope and Ghibellins (Wibellingen) defending Emperor, became a significant factor. As in other areas of Italy, this led to a growing self-acknowledgement of the cities, whose increasing wealth made them able to defy the traditional feudal supreme power that was represented by the German emperors and their local legates. This process peaked in the 12th and 13th centuries, when Lombard Leagues formed by allied cities of Lombardy, usually led by Milan, defeated the Hohenstaufen Emperor Frederick I, at Legnano but not his grandson Frederick II at Battle of Cortenuova. Subsequently, among the local city-states, a process of consolidation took place, and by the end of the 14th century, two signoria emerged as rival hegemons in Lombardy; Milan and Mantua.

Renaissance duchies of Milan and Mantua Edit

Mantua as it appeared in 1575

In the 15th century, the Duchy of Milan was a major political, economical and military force in Europe. Milan and Mantua became centres of the Renaissance, whose culture with people such as Leonardo da Vinci and Andrea Mantegna, and works of art such as da Vinci's The Last Supper were highly regarded. The enterprising class of the communes extended its trade and banking activities well into northern Europe; the metanym "Lombard" designated a merchant or banker from northern Italy, for example Lombard Street, London. The name "Lombardy" came to denote the whole of northern Italy until the 15th century and sometimes later. From the 14th century onward, the instability created by the internal and external struggles ended in the creation of noble seigniories, the most-significant of whom were the Viscontis (later Sforzas) in Milan and of the Gonzagas in Mantua. This wealth, however, attracted the now-more-organised armies of national powers such as France and Austria, which waged a lengthy battle for Lombardy in the late-15th to early 16th centuries.

Late-Middle Ages, Renaissance and Enlightenment Edit

The Consulta of the République cisalpine receives the First Consul on 26 January 1802.

After the Battle of Pavia, the Duchy of Milan became a possession of the Habsburgs of Spain; the new rulers did little to improve the economy of Lombardy, instead imposing a growing series of taxes to support their lengthy series of European wars. The eastern part of modern-day Lombardy, including the cities Bergamo and Brescia, was controlled by the Republic of Venice, which had begun to extend its influence in the area from the 14th century onwards. Between the mid-15th century and the battle of Marignano in 1515, the northern part of east Lombardy from Airolo to Chiasso (modern Ticino), and the Valtellina valley came under possession of the Old Swiss Confederacy.

Pestilences like that of 1628–1630,[31] which Alessandro Manzoni described in his I Promessi Sposi, and the general decline of Italy's economy in the 17th and 18th centuries halted further development of Lombardy. In 1706 the Austrian Empire came to power, and introduced some economic and social measures that allowed a degree of recovery to occur.

Austrian rule was interrupted in the late-18th century by the French; under Napoleon, Lombardy became the centre of the Cisalpine Republic and of the Kingdom of Italy, both of which were puppet states of France's First Empire, with Milan as capital and Napoleon as head of state. During this period, Lombardy regained Valtellina from Switzerland.

Modern era Edit

The Five Days of Milan, 1848

The restoration of Austrian rule in 1815 as the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia was characterised by a struggle with the new ideals introduced by the Napoleonic era. The popular but short-lived republic established by the 1848 revolution was suppressed, leading to renewed Austrian rule, which ended when Lombardy was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1859 as a result of the Second Italian War of Independence except Province of Mantua remained in Austrian hands as part of Veneto till 1866. After the annexation, Lombardy achieved its present-day territorial shape by adding the Oltrepò Pavese, formerly the southern part of the Province of Novara, to the Province of Pavia.

COVID-19 pandemic Edit

In early 2020, Lombardy was severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, in which Italy was one of the worst-affected countries in Europe. Several towns were quarantined from 22 February after community transmission was documented in Lombardy and Veneto the previous day. The entirety of Lombardy was placed under lockdown on 8 March,[32] followed by all of Italy the following day,[33] making Italy the first country to implement a nationwide lockdown in response to the epidemic, which the World Health Organization (WHO) declared a pandemic on 11 March. The lockdown was extended twice, and the region toughened restrictions on 22 March, banning outdoor exercise and the use of vending machines,[34] but from the beginning of May, following a reported decrease in the number of active cases, restrictions were gradually relaxed.[35]

Economy Edit

As of 2021, the gross regional product (GRP) of Lombardy was equal to over €366 billion and accounted for about 22% of Italy's total GDP. Lombardy's 2021 GRP was €36,500 per person, more than 25% higher than the national average of €25,729.[36]

GDP and GDP per capita in Lombardy (2000–2018)
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
247.052 259.431 270.653 279.450 289.471 297.600 307.718 320.844 323.973 310.952 346.797 354.342 348.665 349.008 350.025 357.200 375.270 385.133 390.461
GDP per capita[37]
27.488 28.766 29.837 30.449 31.060 31.545 32.356 33.443 33.425 31.743 35.713 36.220 35.367 35.127 35.044 35.700 37.474 38.407 38.858

Lombardy's services sector has grown since the 1980s, led by innovative activities in business services, credit and financial services. Lombardy also remains the main industrial area of Italy.

A view over the business district of Milan: with a metropolitan area of 7.4m people,[38] it is Italy's most important industrial, commercial and financial center.

Lombardy has cultural and economic relationships with many foreign countries including Azerbaijan,[39] Austria,[40][41][42] France,[43] Hungary,[44][45][46][47][48] Switzerland (especially the cantons of Ticino and Graubünden),[49][50][51][52][53] Canada (the Province of Quebec),[54] Germany (the States of Bavaria, Saxony, and Saxony-Anhalt),[55][56][57] Kuwait,[58] the Netherlands (Province of Zuid-Holland),[59] and Russia.[60]

Lombardy is a member of the Four Motors for Europe, an international economical organization whose other members are Baden-Württemberg in Germany, Catalonia in Spain, and Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes in France.[61] The Lombardy region is also part of the EUSALP, which promotes innovation, sustainability, and economy in the Alpine regions of Austria, France, Liechtenstein, Northern Italy, Southern Germany, Switzerland, and Slovenia,[62][63][64] and ARGE ALP, an economic forum of alpine regions of Austria, Northern Italy, Southern Germany, and Switzerland.[65] Economical and cultural relationship are also strong with neighbouring Italian regions Friuli-Venezia Giulia, South Tyrol, Trentino, and Veneto.[66][67][68][69][70][71][72][73][74][75][76]

The European Union has developed the Central Europe program in 2014–2020 to foster cooperation between Lombardy and other northern Italian regions and several countries in central Europe.[77][78]

The region can be broadly divided into three economic areas: Milan, where the services sector comprises 65.3% of employment; the provinces of Varese, Como, Lecco, Monza and Brianza, Bergamo and Brescia, the latter having the highest value added in industry in Europe,[79] where there is a highly industrialised economy and a rich agricultural sector; and the provinces of Sondrio, Pavia, Cremona, Mantova and Lodi, where there is consistent agricultural activity and an above-average development of the services sector.

Agriculture Edit

The productivity of agriculture is enhanced by a use of fertilisers and the traditional abundance of water, which has been boosted since the Middle Ages by the construction of irrigation systems that were partly designed by Leonardo da Vinci. Lower plains are used for fodder crops, cereals (rice, wheat and maize) and sugar beet. Lombardy is one of the main European regions for rice production and together with Piedmont, produces 93% of Italian rice. Cultivation is concentrated in the provinces of Pavia (84,000 ha (210,000 acres), Milan (14,000 ha (35,000 acres)), Lodi 2,000 ha (4,900 acres) and Mantua (1,200 ha (3,000 acres)).[80] Produce of the higher plains includes cereals, vegetables, fruit trees and mulberries. Fruits and wine are produced in upland areas such as the Prealps and Alps sectors in the north.

Lombardy is a centre of animal breeding, which includes dairy cows (36%) and pigs (50%). The region's dairy industry produces 30% of Italian milk,[81] which is used to produce different types of cheese, totalling about 4,715,130 tonnes, 36% of Italian cheese production.[81]

A variety of sausages are produced in Lombardy, like Salame Milano, Salame bergamasco, Salame mantovano, Salame di Varzi, Bastardei, Salam casalin, Salame Brianza, Salame pancettato.

Vineyards cover 26,951 ha (66,600 acres). The most important produce is the sparkling wines Franciacorta and Oltrepò Pavese, which are produced using the same traditional method as Champagne, unlike other Italian sparkling wines, which use the charmat method. Lombardy ranks 9 of 20 in production of DOC and DOCG wines with 877.351 hl.[82] Lombardy also produces still red, white and rosé wines made from a variety of grapes, including Nebbiolo wines in the Valtellina region and Trebbiano di Lugana white wines produced with the Chiaretto-style rosé along the shores of Lake Garda. The wine region currently has 15 Denominazione di origine controllata (DOC), 3 Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita (DOCG) and 13 Indicazione Geografica Tipica (IGT) designations.[83]The region annually produces around one point four million hectolitres (30,795,694.76 imp gal; 36,984,087.33 US gal) of wine.[84]

Brescia is also the main production centre of Italian caviar. The world's largest sturgeon farm is located in Calvisano, about 30 km (19 mi) south of the city centre,[85] producing 25 tonnes of caviar annually, which is exported worldwide.[86]

The main activity in Canneto sull'Oglio is the nursery production of broad-leaved plants, for which much land is dedicated. Together with the neighbouring municipalities, the Cannetese Nursery District has been created approximately 2,500 ha (6,200 acres), which produces an annual turnover of around 150 million euros.[citation needed]

Aerospace and defence Edit

Italy is a major exporter of heavy helicopters (over 2,000 kg (4,400 lb)) with market share of about 30%.[87] The headquarters of Leonardo Helicopters Division (ex-AgustaWestland) is in Lombardy, and is responsible for about a third of the company's orders.[88] The region also has a plant of Leonardo Aircraft Division (ex-Aermacchi).[89] The main helicopter design, production and training facilities are located in Cascina Costa di Samarate, Vergiate and Sesto Calende. The company's aircraft division manufactures military training aircraft in Venegono Superiore.[89]

The world's oldest firearms manufacturer, Beretta, is located in Gardone Val Trompia. Other firearms manufacturers in the region are Tanfoglio and Pedersoli. Ammunition is produced by Fiocchi. The former OTO Melara, now part of Leonardo Electronics Division in Brescia, produces small-calibre naval and airborne weapons.[89]

Automotive Edit

There is no longer any car production in Lombardy; the factories of mass-market manufacturers Alfa Romeo,[90] Autobianchi[91] and Innocenti[92] having been closed, abandoned or demolished. Iveco continues to manufacture light trucks Daily in Suzzara[93] and makes lorries EuroCargo in Brescia.[94] Same-Deutz Fahr manufactures tractors under the brands SAME and Lamborghini in Treviglio, and BCS Group makes tractors in Abbiategrasso.

The best-known automotive-parts suppliers are Brembo, Bergamo (ceramic brake systems);[95] Pirelli, Milan (tyres);[96] and Magneti Marelli, Corbetta (electronic systems, powertrain).[97][95]

Motorcycles from Lombardy:

Electronics Edit

The largest European semiconductor company STMicroelectronics employs 5,600 people at its plant in a suburb of Milan. Manufacturers of general-purpose integrated circuits (ICs) Agrate Brianza, which employs 4,500, and Cornaredo, which employs 1,100, have R&D and production facilities.[98]

SAES Getters in Lainate produce getters, alkaline metal dispensers, cathodes and materials for thermal management. Their products are used in various devices such as X-ray tubes, microwave tubes, solid state lasers, electron sources, photomultipliers, radio-frequency amplification systems, night-vision devices, pressure sensors, gyroscopes for navigation systems and MEMS devices.[99]

Magneti Marelli has headquarters and manufactures automotive electronics in Corbetta.[97] Leonardo Electronics Division in Nerviano designs and develops airborne radar and computers, space equipment.[89] Candy Hoover[100] and Whirlpool (brands: Whirlpool, Indesit, Ariston, Hot Point, Ignis) make home appliances in Lombardy.

Fashion Edit

Dolce & Gabbana is headquartered in Milan.

Lombardy has always been an important centre for silk and textile production, notably the cities Pavia, Vigevano and Cremona. Milan is one of the fashion capitals of the world; the city has approximately 12,000 companies, 800 showrooms and 6,000 sales outlets; the city hosts the headquarters of global fashion houses. The best-known high-class shopping district is Quadrilatero della moda.

In 2009, Milan was regarded as the world fashion capital, surpassing New York, Paris and London.[101] Most of the major Italian fashion brands, such as Luxottica, Valentino, Versace, Prada, Armani and Dolce & Gabbana and Zegna are currently headquartered in Milan.

Castel Goffredo, in the Province of Mantua, is known locally as the "city of the stocking"; it is an important district for the production of women's hosiery. Fourteen other communities also belonging to this district are:

Buttons are manufactured in the industrial district of Grumello del Monte (Mabo Group)[citation needed] and lingeries made in the industrial district of Val Camonica.[citation needed]

Furniture Edit

Furniture is manufactured in the industrial district around Brianza, which has an annual turnover of about €2 billion from 1,700 companies.[102] The furniture factories, which have about 40,000 employees, are mainly concentrated in Lissone, Meda, Cantù and Mariano Comense. Other important production centres are Giussano, Seveso, and Seregno.[citation needed] This district has close relations with Milan's design industry. A number of large furniture exhibitions take place in Milan, including "Salone del Mobile Milano".[103]

Unemployment Edit

The unemployment rate of Lombardy stood at 5% in 2020. In that year, regional unemployment was one of the lowest in Italy.[104]

Year 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
unemployment rate
(in %)
3.7% 3.4% 3.7% 5.3% 5.5% 5.7% 7.4% 8.0% 8.2% 7.9% 7.4% 6.4% 6.0% 5.6% 5.0% 5.9%

Demographics Edit

Historical population
1861 3,160,000—    
1871 3,529,000+11.7%
1881 3,730,000+5.7%
1901 4,314,000+15.7%
1911 4,889,000+13.3%
1921 5,186,000+6.1%
1931 5,596,000+7.9%
1936 5,836,000+4.3%
1951 6,566,000+12.5%
1961 7,406,000+12.8%
1971 8,543,000+15.4%
1981 8,892,000+4.1%
1991 8,856,000−0.4%
2001 9,033,000+2.0%
2011 9,704,151+7.4%
2019 (est.) 10,067,500+3.7%
Source: ISTAT 2017
The largest resident foreign-born groups on 31 December 2019[105]
Nationality Population
  Romania 172,063
  Morocco 91,530
  Albania 87,859
  Egypt 87,262
  China 67,332
  Philippines 55,558
  Ukraine 52,579
  India 46,321
  Peru 41,127
  Pakistan 40,221
  Ecuador 34,150
  Senegal 32,905
  Sri Lanka 32,548
  Bangladesh 22,930
  Moldova 19,828
  Tunisia 16,595
  Nigeria 15,498
  Brazil 14,392
  El Salvador 12,908
  Ghana 10,307

One-sixth of the Italian population, about 10 million people, live in Lombardy (16.2% of the national population; 2% of the European Union population).

The population is highly concentrated in the Milan metropolitan area (2,029 inh./km2) and the Alpine foothills that compose the southern section of the provinces Varese, Como, Lecco, Monza and Brianza and Bergamo, (1,200 inh./km2). A lower average population density (250 inh./km2) is found in the Po Valley and the lower Brescia valleys; much lower densities (fewer than 60 inh./km2) inhabit the northern mountain areas and the southern Oltrepò Pavese subregion.[36]

The growth of the regional population was particularly sustained during the 1950s–1960s, due to a prolonged economic boom, high birth rates and strong migration inflows—especially from southern Italy. Since the 1980s, Lombardy has become the destination of a large number of international migrants; in the early 21st century, more than a quarter of all foreign-born residents in Italy live in this region.[citation needed] As of 2016, the Italian National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT) estimated 1,139,430 foreign-born people live in Lombardy, equal to 11.4% of the total population.[citation needed] The primary religion is Roman Catholicism; significant religious minorities include Christian Waldenses, Protestants and Orthodox Christians, as well as Jews, Sikhs and Muslims.[citation needed]

Government and politics Edit

Palazzo Lombardia, the main seat of the government of Lombardy

Lombardy has a system of representative democracy in which the President of the Region (Presidente della Regione) is the head of government and of a pluriform multi-party system. Executive power is vested in the regional government (Giunta Regionale) and legislative power is vested in the Regional Council (Consiglio Regionale).

From 1945 to the early 1990s, the moderate Christian Democrats maintained a large majority of the popular support and the control of the most important cities and provinces from the end of the Second World War. The opposition Italian Communist Party was a considerable presence only in southern Lombardy and in the working-class districts of Milan; their base, however, was increasingly eroded by the rival centrist Italian Socialist Party until the Mani Pulite corruption scandal, which spread from Milan to the whole of Italy, almost completely erased the old political class.[citation needed]

This, together with general disaffection for the central government, led to the sudden growth of the secessionist Northern League, which was particularly strong in the mountain and rural areas.[citation needed] Since 2002, Lombardy remained strongly conservative, overwhelmingly voting for Silvio Berlusconi in six general elections.[citation needed] The regional capital Milan elected progressive Giuliano Pisapia at the 2011 municipal elections and the 2013 regional elections saw a narrow victory for the centre-right coalition.[citation needed]

On 22 October 2017 a non-binding autonomy referendum took place in Lombardy. The turnout was 38.3%, of which 95.3% voted in favour. In 2018, the Lombardy regional government was still under negotiation with Rome for the devolution of some powers.[106][107][needs update]

Administrative divisions Edit

The region of Lombardy is divided in 11 administrative provinces, one metropolitan city and 1,530 communes.

Province/Metropolitan city Area (km2) Population Density (inh./km2)
Province of Bergamo 2,723 1,108,853 407.2
Province of Brescia 4,784 1,265,077 264.4
Province of Como 1,288 599,905 465.7
Province of Cremona 1,772 361,610 204.4
Province of Lecco 816 340,251 416.9
Province of Lodi 782 229,576 293.5
Province of Mantua 2,339 414,919 177.3
Metropolitan City of Milan 1,575 3,259,835 2,029.7
Province of Monza and Brianza 405 864,557 2,134.7
Province of Pavia 2,965 548,722 185.1
Province of Sondrio 3,212 182,086 56.6
Province of Varese 1,211 890,234 735.1
Largest cities or towns in Lombardy
Source: ISTAT;[108] estimates for 31 December 2019
Rank Province Pop. Rank Province Pop.
1 Milan Milan 1,396,059 11 Cremona Cremona 72,672  
2 Brescia Brescia 199,597 12 Vigevano Pavia 63,623
3 Monza Monza 124,051 13 Legnano Milan 60,336
4 Bergamo Bergamo 121,178 14 Gallarate Varese 53,934
5 Como Como 85,915 15 Rho Milan 51,323
6 Busto Arsizio Varese 83,909 16 Mantua Mantua 49,440
7 Sesto San Giovanni Milan 81,841 17 Lecco Lecco 48,173
8 Varese Varese 80,645 18 Cologno Monzese Milan 48,030
9 Cinisello Balsamo Milan 76,264 19 Paderno Dugnano Milan 47,467
10 Pavia Pavia 73,334 20 Lissone Monza 46,445
The provinces/metropolitan cities of Lombardy

Culture Edit

Lombardy has a rich, diverse cultural heritage ranging from prehistory to the present day. Artifacts from the Roman period and the Renaissance can be found in museums and churches. Major tourist destinations in the region include (in order of arrivals as of 2013):[109]

UNESCO World Heritage Sites Edit

The Rock Drawings in Valcamonica
The Last Supper, Convent of Sta. Maria delle Grazie, Milan, Italy (1499), by Leonardo da Vinci
The Fortified City of Bergamo
Remains of Roman forum in Brescia

There are nine UNESCO World Heritage sites wholly or partially located in Lombardy.[111] Some of these comprise several individual objects in different locations. One of the entries has been listed as natural heritage and the others are cultural heritage sites.

At Monte San Giorgio on the border with Swiss canton Ticino just south of Lake Lugano, a wide range of marine Triassic fossils have been found. During the Triassic period, 245-230 million years ago, the area was a shallow tropical lagoon. Fossils include reptiles, fish, crustaceans and insects.[112]

The Rock Drawings in Valcamonica date to between 8000 BC and 1000 BC, covering prehistoric periods from the Epipaleolithic and Mesolithic to the Iron Age. The engravings depict agricultural and war scenes, alongside more abstract symbols.[citation needed]

The multi-centred heritage site Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps includes 111 objects in France, Switzerland, Italy, Germany, Austria and Slovenia, of which 10 are located in Lombardy.[citation needed] Each of these objects consists of remnants of buildings erected on wooden piles in sub-alpine rivers, lakes and wetlands, which were built between 5000 BC and 500 BC. In general, only the submerged wooden parts have been preserved in the alluvial sediment, although in some places pile buildings have been reconstructed.[citation needed]

Another multi-centred site, Longobards in Italy, Places of Power (568–774 A.D.) consists of seven locations across mainland Italy which illustrate the history of the Lombard period. Two of the sites are in modern-day Lombardy: the fortifications (the castrum and the Torba Tower), and the church of Santa Maria foris portas ("outside the gates") has Byzantinesque frescoes at Castelseprio, and the monastic complex of San Salvatore-Santa Giulia at Brescia. The UNESCO site at Brescia also includes the remains of its Roman forum, the best-preserved in northern Italy.[113][114]

The Church and Dominican Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan with "The Last Supper" by Leonardo da Vinci represent architectural and painting styles of the 15th-century Renaissance period.[115] The towns Mantua and Sabbioneta are also listed as a combined World Heritage site relating to this period, here focussing more on town-planning aspects of the time than on architectural detail. While Mantua was rebuilt in the 15th and 16th centuries, according to Renaissance principles, Sabbioneta was planned as a new town in the 16th century.[116]

The Sacri Monti of Piedmont and Lombardy are a group of nine sites in north-west Italy, two of which are in Lombardy. The concept of holy mountains can be found elsewhere in Europe. These sites were created as centres of pilgrimage by placing chapels in the natural landscape, and were loosely modelled on the topography of Jerusalem. In Lombardy, Sacro Monte del Rosario di Varese and Sacro Monte della Beata Vergine del Soccorso, which were built in the early-to mid-17th century, mark the architectural transition from the late Renaissance to the Baroque style.[117]

Crespi d'Adda is a company town that was founded in 1878 to accommodate workers of a local textile mill. At its height, the town was home to 3,200 employees and their families.[citation needed]

Parco Naturalistico-Archeologico della Rocca di Manerba del Garda is a fortress of Manerba del Garda.[citation needed]

The Rhaetian Railway in the Albula/Bernina Landscapes is mostly located in the Swiss canton Graubünden, but extends over the border into Tirano. The site is listed because of the complex railway engineering (tunnels, viaducts and avalanche galleries) necessary to take the narrow-gauge railway across the main chain of the Alps.[citation needed] The two railway lines were opened in several stages between 1904 and 1910.[citation needed]

The Venetian Works of Defence between the 16th and 17th centuries: Stato da Terra – western Stato da Mar is a transnational system of fortifications that were built by the Republic of Venice on its mainland domains (Stato da Terra) and its territories stretching along the Adriatic coast (Stato da Mar). This site includes the fortified city Bergamo.[118]

Museums Edit

Lombardy has more than 300 museums in subjects such as ethnographic, historical, technical-scientific, artistic and naturalistic fields. Among the region's most famous museums are:

Other sights Edit

The Certosa of Pavia
Lake Garda
Lake Como
The Floating Piers by Christo and Jeanne-Claude on Lake Iseo (2016)

Cuisine Edit

Rice is popular in Lombardy; the region is the largest in Europe for rice production and in particular the province of Pavia, where over 84,000 ha (210,000 acres) are cultivated.[80] Rice is often used in soups and risotti, such as "risotto alla milanese", with saffron. In Monza, a popular recipe adds pieces of sausages to the risotto, while in Pavia they eat Carthusian risotto, according to the legend created by the monks of the Certosa, which is based on crayfish, carrots and onions. They also eat risotto with eye beans, and a version with sausage and bonarda, and risotto with common hops (ürtis in pavese dialect). Polenta is common throughout the region.

Regional cheeses include Robiola, Crescenza, Taleggio, Gorgonzola and Grana Padano. Butter and cream are used. Single pot dishes, which take little work to prepare, are popular. Common types of pasta include Casoncelli in Brescia and Bergamo and Pizzoccheri in Valtellina. In Mantua, festivals feature tortelli di zucca (ravioli with pumpkin filling) accompanied by melted butter and followed by turkey stuffed with chicken or other stewed meats.[119] Among typical regional desserts is Nocciolini di Canzo—dry biscuits.

Typical dishes and products Edit

Wines Edit

  • Franciacorta
  • Nebbiolo red
  • Bellavista
  • Santi
  • Nino Negri
  • Bonarda Lombardy
  • Inferno (Valtellina)
  • Grumello (Valtellina)
  • Sassella (Valtellina)

Music Edit

The auditorium of the Teatro alla Scala in Milan

Each of Lombardy's 12 provinces has its own musical traditions. Bergamo is famous for being the birthplace of Gaetano Donizetti and home of the Teatro Donizetti; Brescia hosts the 1709 Teatro Grande; Cremona is regarded as the origin of the violin and is home to several of the most prestigious luthiers; and Mantua was one of the founding and most important cities in 16th- and 17th-century opera and classical music.

Other cities such as Lecco, Lodi, Varese and Pavia (Teatro Fraschini) also have rich musical traditions, but Milan is the centre of the Lombard musical scene. It was the workplace of Giuseppe Verdi, one of the most famous and influential 19th-century opera composers. The province has acclaimed theatres, such as the Piccolo Teatro and the Teatro Arcimboldi; however, the most famous is the 1778 Teatro alla Scala (popularly La Scala), one of the most important and prestigious opera houses in the world.

Language Edit

Lombard is widely used in Lombardy, in diglossia with Italian. Lombard is a language[120] belonging to the Gallo-Italic group within the Romance languages.[121] It is a cluster of homogeneous varieties used by at least 3,500,000 native speakers in Lombardy and some areas of neighbouring regions, such as the eastern part of Piedmont and the southern Switzerland cantons of Ticino and Graubünden.[121]

The Lombard language should not be confused with that of the LombardsLombardic language, a Germanic language extinct since the Middle Ages.[citation needed]

Sports Edit

The most popular sport in Lombardy is football. Lombardy has some of the most-successful men's football teams in the country. In the 2022-2023 Serie A season, Lombardy hosts 4 out of 20 teams: A.C. Milan and Inter Milan (both based in Milan) and Atalanta (based in Bergamo); Monza. Other big teams of the region are Brescia and Cremonese playing in the 2020-21 Serie B; Lecco, AlbinoLeffe, Como, Pro Patria, A.C. Renate, Giana Erminio, Pro Sesto and Pergolettese playing in the 2020-21 Serie C.

Olimpia Milano (based in Milan) is the most-successful men's basketball team in Italy. In the 2020–21 LBA season 5 teams out of 15 are from Lombardy (Olimpia Milano, Pallacanestro Brescia, Pallacanestro Varese, Pallacanestro Cantù, Guerino Vanoli Basket).

Milan will host the 2026 Winter Olympics alongside Cortina d'Ampezzo. The Autodromo Nazionale di Monza, located outside Milan, hosts the Formula One Italian Grand Prix. The Giro d'Italia, a famous annual bicycle race, usually ends in Milan. Alpine skiing is also important for the region; the FIS Alpine Ski World Cup holds an annual race in Bormio.

Twinning and covenants Edit

See also Edit

Notes Edit

  1. ^ a b c Classical Milanese orthography, some Eastern orthographies, Scriver Lombard [lmo] and Noeuva Ortografia Lombarda [lmo]. Ticinese and Modern Western orthographies use the spelling Lumbardia.[8][9] Other Eastern orthographies use the spelling Lombardéa.[10]
  2. ^ /ˈlɒmbərdi, ˈlʌm-/ LOM-bər-dee, LUM-;[6][7] Italian: Lombardia [lombarˈdiːa]; Lombard: Lombardia,[a] Western Lombard: [lũbarˈdiːa], Eastern Lombard: [lombarˈdi.a, -ˈde.a]; Romansh: Lumbardia.

References Edit

  1. ^ "Monthly demographic balance, January–June 2013". Demo.istat.it. Archived from the original on 22 June 2017. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
  2. ^ "EU regions by GDP, Eurostat".
  3. ^ "Regional GDP per capita ranged from 30% to 263% of the EU average in 2018" (Press release). ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 1 September 2020.
  4. ^ "OECD Statistics". stats.oecd.org. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
  5. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 5 March 2023.
  6. ^ "Lombardy". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). HarperCollins. Retrieved 7 July 2019.
  7. ^ "Lombardy". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins. Retrieved 7 July 2019.
  8. ^ "Vocabolario dei dialetti della Svizzera italiana - CDE (DECS) - Repubblica e Cantone Ticino" [Vocabulary of Swiss Italian dialects]. www4.ti.ch. Retrieved 8 November 2022.
  9. ^ Marzatico, Angelo (October 2012). Vucabui Dialet Ludesan. Edizioni Simple. p. 152.
  10. ^ Sergio Gigante, ed. (2020). "J-K-L" (PDF). Vocabolario italiano-bergamasco [Italian-Bergamasque Dictionary] (8th ed.). Societas Cremonensis. p. 946. Retrieved 15 February 2023.
  11. ^ "EUROPA Press Releases – Regional GDP per inhabitant in the EU27, GDP per inhabitant in 2006 ranged from 25% of the EU27 average in Nord-Est in Romania to 336% in Inner London". Europa (web portal). 19 February 2009. Retrieved 10 May 2010.
  12. ^ OECD Data Synthesis.
  13. ^ Eurostat – Functional urban areas Archived 16 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
  14. ^ List of World Heritage Sites by country.
  15. ^ Partridge, Eric (2009). Origins: an etymological dictionary of modern English ([Paperback ed.] ed.). London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0415474337.
  16. ^ I Longobardi: I 'barbari' che fondarono il Medioevo italiano, II
  17. ^ "Lombardy Mountains". PeakVisor. Retrieved 19 June 2022.
  18. ^ "Climate and average monthly weather in Lombardy, Italy". World Weather & Climate Information. Retrieved 19 June 2022.
  19. ^ "Regional Statistical Yearbook: average rainfall, yearly and ten-year average, Lombardy and its provinces". Regione Lombardia. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
  20. ^ Carugno, Michele; Consonni, Dario; Randi, Giorgia; Catelan, Dolores; Grisotto, Laura; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Biggeri, Annibale; Baccini, Michela (2016). "Air pollution exposure, cause-specific deaths and hospitalizations in a highly polluted Italian region". Environmental Research. 147: 415–424. Bibcode:2016ER....147..415C. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2016.03.003. PMID 26969808. S2CID 22664973.
  21. ^ "Nitrogen dioxide over northern Italy". Retrieved 28 January 2021.
  22. ^ "Air pollution hotspots in Europe". Retrieved 29 January 2021.
  23. ^ "Italy's polluted Po Valley gasps for fresh air". Retrieved 31 January 2021.
  24. ^ Khomenko, S.; Cirach, M.; Pereira-Barboza, E.; Mueller, N.; Barrera-Gómez, J.; Rojas-Rueda, D.; De Hoogh, K.; Hoek, G.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M. (2021). "Premature mortality due to air pollution in European cities: a health impact assessment". The Lancet. Planetary Health. 5 (3): e121–e134. doi:10.1016/S2542-5196(20)30272-2. PMID 33482109. S2CID 231687871.
  25. ^ "Rock Drawings in Valcamonica – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". UNESCO. Retrieved 29 June 2010.
  26. ^ Piero Adorno, Mesolitico e Neolitico, p. 16.
  27. ^ "Introduzione all'arte rupestre della Valcamonica". Archeocamuni.it (in Italian). Retrieved 11 May 2009.
  28. ^ "Pavia Royal town". Monasteri Imperiali Pavia. Retrieved 29 July 2022.
  29. ^ Pellegrini: "L'Italia settentrionale nei secoli del tardo impero ed in quelli successivi sino al 1000 (forse anche dopo) risulta strettamente collegata con la Gallia sul piano politico e linguistico; si può parlare senza tema di errore di un'ampia 'Galloromania' che include non soltanto la Rezia ma anche la Cisalpina con buona parte del Veneto." [Northern Italy in the centuries of the Late Empire and in the following ones up to 1000 (maybe even later) is closely connected with Gaul on a political and linguistic level; one can speak without fear of error of a broad 'Galloromania' which includes not only Rhaetia but also the Cisalpine with a good part of Veneto.]
  30. ^ Maciamo Hay (July 2013). "Genetic History of the Italians". Eupedia. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
  31. ^ "Storia di Milano ::: Gian Giacomo Mora". Storiadimilano.it.
  32. ^ "Italy announces quarantine affecting quarter of population". CNBC. 8 March 2020.
  33. ^ Ziady, Hanna (10 March 2020). "Italy just locked down the world's 8th biggest economy. A deep recession looms". CNN.
  34. ^ "Italy's worst-hit region introduces stricter measures". BBC News. 22 March 2020.
  35. ^ "Anger as Italy slowly emerges from long Covid-19 lockdown | Italy | The Guardian". amp.theguardian.com.
  36. ^ a b "Regional Statistical Yearbook 2014" (PDF). Regione Lombardia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
  37. ^ a b Dati Istat consultati il 15 giugno 2016. Nota: per visualizzare i dati occorre selezionare nella colonna a destra la voce Conti nazionali, Conti e aggregati economici territoriali, Valori procapite (euro) e in tabella selezionare la voce prodotto interno lordo ai prezzi di mercato per abitante (edizione novembre 2015) valutazione a prezzi correnti.
  38. ^ OECD. "Competitive Cities in the Global Economy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 October 2008. Retrieved 30 April 2009.
  39. ^ "Italian official: Azerbaijan has obtained impressive achievements [PHOTO]". AzerNews.az. 6 December 2018.
  40. ^ "Design, in Lombardia crescono gli scambi con l'Austria". Giornalemetropolitano.it. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
  41. ^ "Accordo IED-Camera Commercio Austriaca, vice presidente Regione: nuova opportunità di sviluppo".
  42. ^ "Expo Milano – Regione Lombardia". Ambvienna.esteri.it. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
  43. ^ "Milano, Attilio Fontana incontra l'ambasciatore francese: "Distendere gli animi tra Italia e Francia"". Corriere della Sera. 14 June 2018. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
  44. ^ "Regione Lombardia, il presidente Fontana riceve il ministro degli affari esteri ungherese". BresciaToday.
  45. ^ "Ungheria, Fontana riceve ministro Esteri a Palazzo Lombardia". 5 December 2018.
  46. ^ "Il Console Generale è stato accolto dal Presidente della Regione di Lombardia – Consolato Generale di Ungheria Milano". Milano.mfa.gov.hu. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
  47. ^ "Lecco: cresce l'export sul mercato ungherese – Tecnologie del Filo". Tecnologiedelfilo.it. Archived from the original on 9 September 2018. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
  48. ^ "Delegazione Ungherese in visita di studio in Italia – :. ERSAF – Ente Regionale per i Servizi all' Agricoltura e alle Foreste:Regione Lombardia ". Ersaf.lombardia.it. Archived from the original on 9 September 2018. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
  49. ^ "[Comunicato stampa Giunta regionale Lombardia] CANTON TICINO, FONTANA E ASSESSORI INCONTRANO DELEGAZIONE SVIZZERA:SUL TAVOLO INFRASTRUTTURE, TRASPORTI E AMBIENTE". Regioni.it. 31 July 2018. Archived from the original on 2 August 2018. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
  50. ^ "Rivedere l'accordo fiscale". Prealpina.it. 31 July 2018. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
  51. ^ "Fontana: "I rapporti con la Svizzera vanno intensificati"". Varesenews.it. 16 April 2018. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
  52. ^ swissinfo.ch, S. W. I.; Corporation, a branch of the Swiss Broadcasting (13 December 2018). "GR: Milano, trasporto transfrontaliero, incontro Grigioni-Lombardia". TVSvizzera.
  53. ^ "Tra Lombardia e Grigioni massima collaborazione, anche per le Olimpiadi". VareseNews. 24 September 2019.
  54. ^ "Political and institutional relations". MRIF – Ministère des Relations internationales et de la Francophonie. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
  55. ^ "Baviera partner ship Lombardia". Newsfood.com. 15 June 2018. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
  57. ^ "Incontro del Consiglio regionale lombardo con delegazione parlamentare della Bassa Sassonia". Giornalemetropolitano.it. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
  58. ^ "KUNA : Kuwait works to boost cooperation with Italy's northern provinces, Lombardy - Politics - 13/07/2018". 15 July 2018. Archived from the original on 15 July 2018.
  59. ^ "Province of Zuid-Holland intensifies water cooperation with Lombardy, Italy | Dutch Water Sector". dutchwatersector.com.
  60. ^ "Tavola rotonda Lombardia-Russia, Fontana: "Collaborazione importante per il nostro territorio"". BresciaToday.
  61. ^ Casqueiro, Javier (4 July 2018). "Borrell ordena a todas las embajadas responder a las "lindezas" independentistas contra España". El País. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
  62. ^ "Action Group 1". EUSALP. 17 November 2016.
  63. ^ "Presidenza Italiana EUSALP 2019".
  64. ^ "Il timone di Eusalp passa dal Tirolo alla Lombardia". 22 November 2018.
  65. ^ "Chi siamo – Arge Alp". it.argealp.org. Archived from the original on 5 April 2019. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
  66. ^ "Olimpiadi 2026 e Fondi di confine, si rafforza la collaborazione fra Trentino e Lombardia". 2 May 2019.
  67. ^ Trento, Redazione (4 May 2019). "Trentino e Lombardia: si rafforza la sinergia per le Olimpiadi 2026".
  68. ^ "ladigetto.it – Trentino e Lombardia: si rafforza la collaborazione". ladigetto.it.
  69. ^ "PAT * Trentino e Lombardia: "Incontro a Milano tra i presidenti Fugatti e Fontana, si rafforza la collaborazione"". 2 May 2019.
  70. ^ "Fontana incontra Fugatti: Collaborazione tra Lombardia e Trentino". 2 May 2019.
  71. ^ "Regione del Veneto". Regione del Veneto.
  72. ^ "Lombardia Quotidiano". Lombardia Quotidiano. 19 October 2018. Archived from the original on 3 August 2020. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  73. ^ "Lombardia e Friuli Venezia Giulia due regioni a confronto". valtellinanews.it.
  74. ^ "Parco dello Stelvio, intesa Trentino, Alto Adige e Lombardia sulla biodiversità – Cronaca". Trentino. 4 March 2019.
  75. ^ "News & Media | Provincia autonoma di Bolzano – Alto Adige". Südtiroler Informatik AG | Informatica Alto Adige SPA. Amministrazione provinciale.
  76. ^ "Lombardia, Veneto e Trentino: "Regole comuni per la pesca su tutto il lago di Garda"". l'Adige.it. 4 April 2019.
  77. ^ "Il Programma Central Europe 2014-2020".
  78. ^ "Discover Interreg CENTRAL EUROPE". Interreg CENTRAL EUROPE. Archived from the original on 1 May 2018. Retrieved 11 March 2020.
  79. ^ "Brescia, the Capital of the European Industry".
  80. ^ a b "Riso italiano, dove si coltiva". Ricette e racconti di riso. 14 November 2020. Retrieved 17 August 2022.
  81. ^ a b "Produzione industriale di latte alimentare, di burro e di formaggio" (in Italian). Archived from the original on 7 June 2021. Retrieved 7 June 2021.
  82. ^ "Weinbau in Zahlen 2019" (PDF). V.Q.P.R.D. d'Italia 2019 (in Italian). federdoc.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 October 2022. Retrieved 25 November 2020.
  83. ^ M. Ewing-Mulligan & E. McCarthy Italian Wines for Dummies pg 89-99 Hungry Minds 2001 ISBN 0-7645-5355-0
  84. ^ Wine Production by Region
  85. ^ Black, Jane (26 September 2006). "Caviar from farms instead of the seas". The New York Times. Retrieved 31 July 2015.
  86. ^ "E' Brescia la capitale mondiale del caviale" [Brescia is the world capital of caviar]. quibrescia.it (in Italian). 26 March 2015. Retrieved 31 July 2015.
  87. ^ "Who exported Helicopters >2,000kg in 2018?".
  88. ^ "Leonardo Reports 2020".
  89. ^ a b c d "Leonardo Location". Archived from the original on 28 June 2021. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  90. ^ "Lo Stabilimento di Arese" (in Italian).
  91. ^ "MA L' AUTOBIANCHI SALUTA E VA IN GARAGE" (in Italian). 29 October 1995.
  93. ^ "Daily tour plant suzzara" (in Italian). Archived from the original on 7 June 2021. Retrieved 7 June 2021.
  94. ^ "Dove nasce Eurocargo".
  95. ^ a b "The biggest italian automotive component manufacturers".
  96. ^ "The largest tyre manufacturers worldwide". 5 July 2018.
  97. ^ a b "Magneti Marelli Location".
  98. ^ "agrate lavoro" (in Italian). 21 March 2018.
  99. ^ "A hidden champion of the 21st century: SAES Getters".
  100. ^ "The Chinese group Haier acquires Candy".
  101. ^ "The Global Language Monitor " Fashion". Languagemonitor.com. 20 July 2009. Archived from the original on 1 November 2009. Retrieved 3 January 2010.
  102. ^ "Brianza furniture district".
  103. ^ "Salone del Mobile Milano".
  104. ^ "Regional Unemployment by NUTS2 Region". Eurostat.
  105. ^ "Foreign Citizens. Resident Population by sex and citizenship on 31st December 2019". National Institute of Statistics. Retrieved 22 May 2021.
  106. ^ "Autonomia Lombardia, Fontana Giovedi' A Roma da Ministro Affari Regionali Erika Stefani". Archived from the original on 3 August 2018. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
  107. ^ Giorno, Il. "Autonomia Lombardia, Fontana: consegnato al ministro dossier con le prime 15 materie – Il Giorno". Il Giorno. Italy. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
  108. ^ "Lomabrdy (Italy). Resident population on 31 December 2019 by territory". tuttitalia.it. Istat. Retrieved 25 September 2020.
  109. ^ "RSY Lombardia-Arrivals and nights spent by guests in accommodation establishments, by type of resort and by type of establishment. Total accommodation establishments. Part III Tourist resort. Year 2013". Asr-lombardia.it. Archived from the original on 3 May 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
  110. ^ "Arrivi e presenze di clienti italiani e stranieri nel complesso degli esercizi ricettivi. - Italia, Lombardia e province lombarde 2021". Istat. Retrieved 17 August 2022.
  111. ^ "World Heritage List". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. UNESCO. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  112. ^ "Monte San Giorgio". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. UNESCO. Retrieved 11 August 2023.
  113. ^ "Italia langobardorum, la rete dei siti Longobardi italiani iscritta nella Lista del Patrimonio Mondiale dell'UNESCO" [Italia langobardorum, the network of the Italian Longobards sites inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List]. Beniculturali.it (in Italian). Archived from the original on 30 October 2016. Retrieved 27 October 2015.
  114. ^ "THE LONGOBARDS IN ITALY. PLACES OF THE POWER (568–774 A.D.). NOMINATION FOR INSCRIPTION ON THE WORLD HERITAGE LIST" (PDF). UNESCO. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 27 October 2015.
  115. ^ "Church and Dominican Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie with "The Last Supper" by Leonardo da Vinci". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. UNESCO. Retrieved 11 August 2023.
  116. ^ "Mantua and Sabbioneta". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. UNESCO. Retrieved 11 August 2023.
  117. ^ "Sacri Monti of Piedmont and Lombardy". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. UNESCO. Retrieved 11 August 2023.
  118. ^ "Venetian Works of Defence between the 16th and 17th Centuries: Stato da Terra – Western Stato da Mar". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. UNESCO. Retrieved 11 August 2023.
  119. ^ Piras, 87.
  120. ^ "Documentation for ISO 639 identifier: LMO". Identifier: LMO / Name: Lombard / Status: Active / Code set: 639-3 / Scope: Individual / Type: Living
  121. ^ a b Jones, Mary C.; Soria, Claudia (2015). "Assessing the effect of official recognition on the vitality of endangered languages: a case of study from Italy". Policy and Planning for Endangered Languages. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 130. ISBN 9781316352410. Lombard (Lumbard, ISO 639-9 lmo) is a cluster of essentially homogeneous varieties (Tamburelli 2014: 9) belonging to the Gallo-Italic group. It is spoken in the Italian region of Lombardy, in the Novara province of Piedmont, and in Switzerland. Mutual intelligibility between speakers of Lombard and monolingual Italian speakers has been reported as very low (Tamburelli 2014). Although some Lombard varieties, Milanese in particular, enjoy a rather long and prestigious literary tradition, Lombard is now mostly used in informal domains. According to Ethnologue, Piedmontese and Lombard are spoken by between 1,600,000 and 2,000,000 speakers and around 3,500,000 speakers, respectively. These are very high figures for languages that have never been recognised officially nor systematically taught in school

Further reading Edit

  • Cochrane, Eric. Historians and historiography in the Italian Renaissance (U of Chicago Press, 1981).
  • Conca Messina, Silvia A., and Catia Brilli. "Agriculture and nobility in Lombardy. Land, management and innovation (1815–1861)". Business History (2019): 1-25.
  • de Klerck, Bram. The Brothers Campi: Images and Devotion. Religious Painting in Sixteenth-Century Lombardy (Amsterdam UP. 1999).
  • Di Tullio, Matteo. "Cooperating in time of crisis: war, commons, and inequality in Renaissance Lombardy." Economic History Review 71.1 (2018): 82–105.
  • Di Tullio, Matteo. The wealth of communities: war, resources and cooperation in Renaissance Lombardy (Ashgate, 2014).
  • Gamberini, Andrea. The Clash of Legitimacies: The State-Building Process in Late Medieval Lombardy (2018) online
  • Greenfield, Kent Roberts. Economics and liberalism in the Risorgimento: a study of nationalism in Lombardy, 1814–1848 (1934).
  • Klang, Daniel M. "Cesare Beccaria and the clash between jurisprudence and political economy in eighteenth-century Lombardy." Canadian journal of history 23.3 (1988): 305–336.
  • Klang, Daniel M. "The problem of lease farming in eighteenth-century Piedmont and Lombardy." Agricultural history 76.3 (2002): 578-603. JSTOR 3744731.
  • Klang, Daniel M. Tax reform in eighteenth century Lombardy (1977) online
  • Messina, Silvia A. Conca. Cotton Enterprises: Networks and Strategies: Lombardy in the Industrial Revolution, 1815–1860 (2018). Excerpt.
  • Pyle, Cynthia Munro. Milan and Lombardy in the Renaissance: Essays in cultural history (1997).
  • Sella, Domenico. Crisis and continuity: the economy of Spanish Lombardy in the seventeenth century (1979)
  • Soresina, Marco. "Images of Lombardy in historiography." Modern Italy 16.1 (2011): 67–85.
  • Storrs, Christopher.
    • "The Army of Lombardy and the Resilience of Spanish Power in Italy in the Reign of Carlos II (1665–1700) (Part I)". War in History Vol. 4, No. 4 (November 1997): 371–397. JSTOR 26004503
    • "The Army of Lombardy and the Resilience of Spanish Power in Italy in the Reign of Carlos II (1665–1700) (Part II)". War in History Vol. 5, No. 1 (January 1998): 1–22. JSTOR 26004536.
  • Pellegrini, Giovan Battista (1993). Emanuele Banfi, Giovanni Bonfadini, Patrizia Cordin, Maria Iliescu. "Il cisalpino e il retoromanzo" [Cisalpine and Rhaeto-Romance]. Italia settentrionale: Crocevia di idiomi romanzi. Atti del convegno internazionale di studi di Trento, 21-23 ottobre 1993 (in Italian). De Gruyter.

Guide books Edit

External links Edit