Nuevo León (English: New León) (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈnweβo leˈon] ⓘ) is a state in Mexico. The state was named after the New Kingdom of León, an administrative territory from the Viceroyalty of New Spain, itself was named after the historic Spanish Kingdom of León. With a total land area of 64,555 square kilometers (24,771 square miles), Nuevo León is the 13th largest federal entity in Mexico. The state is located in the northeastern part of Mexico and is bordered by Tamaulipas to the east, Coahuila to the west, and both Zacatecas and San Luis Potosi to the south. To the north, it shares an extremely narrow international border with the U.S. state of Texas. The Laredo-Colombia Solidarity International Bridge is the only vehicular bridge that connects the United States with the state of Nuevo León. It crosses over the Rio Grande (Rio Bravo) between the city of Colombia, Nuevo León, and Laredo, Texas.
|Free and Sovereign State of Nuevo León|
Estado Libre y Soberano de Nuevo León (Spanish)
Semper Ascendens(Always Ascending)
|Anthem: Himno de Nuevo León|
|Largest Metropolitan Area||Greater Monterrey|
|Admission||May 7, 1824|
|Founded by||Diego de Montemayor|
|• Governor||Javier Navarro Velasco (es)|
|• Senators|| Luis David Ortíz Salinas|
Indira Kempis Martínez
Víctor Oswaldo Fuentes Solís
|• Total||64,156 km2 (24,771 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||3,710 m (12,208 ft)|
|• Density||90/km2 (230/sq mi)|
|• Total||$179.6 billion MXN|
|• Per capita||$35,081 MXN|
|• Total||$197 billion|
|• Per capita||$36,140|
|Time zone||UTC−6 (CST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−5 (CDT)|
|ISO 3166 code||MX-NLE|
|HDI||0.808 Very High Ranked 3rd of 32|
|Website||Official Web Site|
Nuevo Léon is the seventh largest state in terms of population with an estimated population of 5.78 million people in 2020. The state's most populous city is Monterrey with 1.42 million people; the Monterrey metropolitan area is the second largest metropolitan area in Mexico with an estimated population of 5.3 million people in 2020. Monterrey is known for being an important industrial, intellectual and financial city in Mexico.
Nuevo León's geography is known for englobing three of the most important physiographic provinces of the northeast region. The south end of the Great Plains is considered to start in the northernmost regions of Nuevo León. The region is characterized by the soft hills that dominates the lands neighboring the banks of the Rio Grande. The south and west of the state consists of the Sierra Madre Oriental mountain range, which dominates most of the western scenery. Due to the abrupt shape of the mountains, there are vast valleys in between the mountains. Within these valleys is where the city of Monterrey and its metropolitan area is situated. The Northern Gulf Coastal Plains are located to the east and include low altitude lands; it is classified as an "inclined plain" due to the alluvial land.
Nuevo León was founded by conqueror Alberto del Canto, although frequent raids by Chichimecas, the natives of the north given the name Indios Bárbaros, prevented the establishment of almost any permanent settlements. Subsequent to the failure of del Canto to populate the area, Luis Carvajal y de la Cueva, at the head of a group of Portuguese and Spanish settlers who were of Jewish descent, requested permission from the Spanish King to attempt to settle the area which would be called the New Kingdom of León and would fail as well. It wasn't until 1596 under the leadership of Diego de Montemayor the colony became permanent. Nuevo Leon eventually became (along with the provinces of Coahuila, Nuevo Santander and Texas) one of the Eastern Internal Provinces in Northern New Spain.
The capital of Nuevo León is Monterrey, the second largest city in Mexico with over five million residents. Monterrey is a modern and affluent city, and Nuevo León has long been one of Mexico's most industrialized states.
Nuevo León has an extreme climate, and there is very little rainfall throughout the year. The territory covers 64,220 square kilometres (24,800 sq mi), and can be divided into three regions: a hot, dry region in the north, a temperate region in the mountains, and a semi-arid region in the south. The Sierra Madre Oriental mountain range affects in an important way the lay of the land forming the Galeana and Doctor Arroyo plateaus, the Iguana, Picachos, Papagayos, and Santa Clara mountain ranges, and the Pilón, Ascensión, and Río Blanco valleys. As for hydrography, the San Juan River supplies the El Cuchillo dam, which provides water for Monterrey and the metropolitan area. There are also the Cerro Prieto, La Boca, Vaquerías, Nogalitos, and Agualeguas dams. Laguna de Labradores is a major lake in Nuevo León, and Pozo del Gavilán is a natural well. Both are located in the Galeana municipality. The flora of the region includes brush and pastures in the low regions, and pine and oak trees in the mountains. The fauna includes black bears, mountain lions, javelinas, prairie dogs, foxes, coyotes, and white-tailed deer, along with smaller species.
Nuevo León has many biomes, which is why it has different climates. Some areas in the mountains are very cold in winter and temperate in summer. In the northern part of the state the climate is arid as a result of the proximity to the Chihuahuan desert. Extreme high temperatures of 47 °C or more occur on the desert areas while winters are short and mild. In Monterrey the climate is hot semi-arid with extreme hot summers and mild winters. There is very little rainfall throughout the year, usually about 500 mm or less. February 2021 North American ice storm sent temperatures in Monterrey below zero celsius.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Flora and fauna edit
Largest cities edit
Largest cities or towns in Nuevo León
|4||San Nicolás||San Nicolás de los Garza||443,273|
|6||Santa Catarina||Santa Catarina||268,347|
|8||San Pedro||San Pedro Garza García||122,627|
Nuevo's León's demographics are overwhelmingly dominated by the metropolitan area of Monterrey. As of 2020, Nuevo León's population was about 5.784 million, and of this over 90% of that population resides within the Monterrey Metropolitan area, making it the second largest metropolitan area in the country. Life expectancy in the state is higher than average for Mexico, being 73 years for men and 79 years for women. People with disabilities are found clustered in the central areas of Monterrey.
Ninety-four percent of the total population occupies urban areas, one million of which are homeowners, and 98% have all utilities (running water, sewer systems and electric power). The remaining 2% are mostly the small indigenous population which is isolated and lives in the mountainous regions.
The majority of the population identifies as being Roman Catholic, similar to the rest of Mexico.
The high quality of life that prevails across the state is reflected on statistical rates such as education, as the entity reports an almost perfect record for finished secondary education, and 13 in 100 inhabitants earn a professional degree. In the same line, illiteracy rates for the state are within the lowest in the nation at 2.8%, just behind the Distrito Federal which still leads the country in this regard.
Institutions of higher education include:
- Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (ITESM)
- Escuela de Graduados en Administración y Dirección de Empresas (EGADE)
- Escuela de Graduados en Administración Pública (EGAP)
- Universidad tecmilenio (UTM)
- Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León (UANL)
- Centro de Estudios Universitarios (CEU)
- Universidad Regiomontana (U-ERRE)
- Universidad Metropolitana de Monterrey(UMM)
- Universidad de Monterrey (UDEM)
- Centro de Estudios Superiores de Diseño de Monterrey (CEDIM)
- Universidad de Montemorelos (UM)
- Escuela Superior de Música y Danza de Monterrey (La Superior)
- Instituto Panamericano de Alta Dirección de Empresa (IPADE)
Highly industrialized, with key industries including computing, electronic and transport equipment, food products, basic metallic industries, and oil derivatives and coal, Nuevo León possesses a standard of living similar to that of countries such as Croatia, Slovakia or Poland. In 2007, the per capita GDP of the state was similar to that of the Asian Tiger of South Korea and even higher than that of some European Union states such as Slovakia and Hungary. At about $27,000, it was the highest GDP per capita (PPP) of any Mexican state (not counting the Federal District, which also has a very high per capita), and was therefore higher than the Mexican national average (2013 GDP per capita (PPP) national average was $15,700).
According to the 2022 National Survey of Household Income and Expenditure (ENIGH) conducted by INEGI, the average yearly household income in Nuevo León, expressed in PPP adjusted US dollars, stood at $33,157, fourth highest in the nation. The lowest decile of households had an average income of $7,815, while the highest decile presented a mean income of $101,477.
One of its municipalities, San Pedro Garza García, is among the richest in the country in terms of per capita income. It is also home of powerful conglomerates, such as Cemex (one of the largest construction materials firms in the world), Bimbo (bakery and pastry), Maseca (food and grains), Banorte (the only high-street bank in Mexico wholly owned by Mexicans), ALFA (Sigma, Alestra, Nemak, Alpek and Hylsa (recently bought by Ternium), i-service (HelpDesk), Vitro SA (glass), FEMSA (Coca-Cola in Latin America), and Cervecería Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma (brewers of Sol, Tecate, XX, Bohemia, Indio and Nochebuena).
Nuevo León also boasts a rich agricultural core, called the "orange belt", which comprises the municipalities of Allende, Montemorelos, Hualahuises, General Terán and Linares. Small but productive investments have been transforming traditional harvests (mainly based on orange and cereals) into agroindustrial developments that are producing increasing revenues for the local economy.
In contrast with the relative wealth of industrial Nuevo León and the orange belt, the Southern part of the state (municipalities of Galeana, Aramberri, Zaragoza, Doctor Arroyo and Mier y Noriega) remains rural and less productive. Most of The South of the state is at the mercy of a very dry weather that represents a major hurdle for agriculture and livestock.
As of 2010, Nuevo León's economy represents 11.4% of Mexico's total gross domestic product or US$165 billion. Nuevo León's economy has a strong focus on export oriented manufacturing (i.e. maquiladora / INMEX). As of 2005, 431,551 people are employed in the manufacturing sector. Foreign direct investment in Nuevo León was 1,213.1 million USD for 2005. In recent years, the state government has been making efforts in attracting significant investments in aeronautics, biotechnology, mechatronics, information and communication technologies fields with the creation of the Research and Technology Innovation Park PIIT (Parque de Investigación e Innovación Tecnológica [es]), a technology park oriented in the development, innovation and research of sciences. The project is one of the key strategies within the Monterrey, City of Knowledge program. The park is located in the municipality of Apodaca, part of Greater Monterrey at the 10 km of the highway to Monterrey's International Airport. It consists of a total surface area of 70 Ha (172 acres), half of it already committed to R&D centers. The other 35 Ha (86 acres) are available for research and development centers, and for businesses that meet the Park's objectives.
Gubernatorial Election 2021
|Other candidates||27 534|
|See also: List of political parties in Mexico|
- Official name
- Estado Libre y Soberano de Nuevo León (Free and Sovereign State of Nuevo León).
- Official motto
- Latin: Semper Ascendens (Always Ascending).
- Type of government
- Republican and representative according to 30th article of the local constitution.
- In the June 6, 2021 gubernatorial election, Citizens' Movement (Movimiento Ciudadano or MC) – founded as a "national political grouping" in 1997 that describes itself as social-democratic – gained control of the state from Enrique Peña Nieto's Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). The new governor, Samuel García Sepúlveda of the MC, was sworn in on 4 October 2021 for a period of six years.
- Chosen directly by the Governor except for the General Comptroller and the State General Attorney, which are elected by Congress from a list of names provided by the Governor.
- The State has a unicameral chamber. The LXXVI Congress of Nuevo León is composed of 42 deputies, 26 of them chosen by first-past-the-post electoral districts and 16 of them by proportional representation on a party-list basis. The parties represented are the National Action Party with 14 deputies (PAN), the PRI with 13 deputies, the MC with 11 deputies, MORENA with 2 deputies, the Ecologist Green Party of Mexico with 1 deputy (PVEM), and 1 independent deputy.
- Judicial power rests in the Superior Court of Justice of Nuevo León, led by Minister José Arturo Salinas Garza.
- Political parties
- Official recognition is given by the State Electoral Commission to those parties getting more than 1.5% of the votes in the last election (Art.40 of the State Electoral Law), which are the ones represented in Congress.
- Current Direction of Politics
- There has been a shift in the politics of Nuevo Leon. The shift has been from a hegemonic system into a two party system, and it is currently evolving from a two party system into a multiparty system.
Metropolitan Area of Monterrey edit
The metropolitan area
|Apodaca||656,464||Part of Greater Monterrey|
|San Nicolás de los Garza||412,199|
|San Pedro Garza García||132,169|
In Nuevo León there is a wide diversity of sports that are practiced with great relevance.
The most practiced sport in the State has been baseball. It is home to the Sultanes de Monterrey, a professional baseball team with the longest history in the Mexican League, who have won ten championships since their founding in 1939. The Estadio Mobil Super is the largest baseball stadium in Mexico. In addition, its children's teams have been world champions in 1957, 1958 and 1997 in the Little League World Series.
Since the 1980s, association football has begun to gain popularity in the State after gaining followers among society. The oldest team is the C.F. Monterrey (popularly known as the Rayados), who have won the Liga MX on 5 occasions, in addition to 5 Concacaf Champions Leagues -three of them consecutively-, and 3 Cups for a total of 13 championships. For its part, Tigres UANL, the first team from Nuevo León to win a tournament, has 16 titles, including 8 League titles, 3 Cup titles and 1 Concacaf Champions League. The Clásico Regiomontano is considered one of the most anticipated matches of the season, and this is due to the already deep-rooted rivalry between Tigres and Monterrey for the honor of being the best team in the State or the luxurious squads with which they count. Both clubs have had confrontations in decisive matches, such as the two finals they faced, in 2017 and 2019. It is well known that fans each year wait in line for days outside both stadiums to get tickets, which are often priced at two or three times their original value.
Nuevo León also has a professional basketball team, with the Fuerza Regia de Monterrey squad as the greatest exponent that participates in the Liga Nacional de Baloncesto Profesional (LNBP). They play at the Gimnasio Nuevo León. In 2004, it hosted the first WNBA game outside the United States between the Detroit Shock and the San Antonio Silver Stars.
Ice hockey has shown notable growth in the state, although it is less popular than other more popular sports such as soccer or baseball. The state of Nuevo León has a professional team associated with the recent Mexican Hockey Federation, the Toros Monterrey, whose headquarters are the Monterrey Ice Complex ice rink, in Santa Catarina.
Influenced by the proximity to the U.S., American football is another popular sport. The Autonomous University of Nuevo León, with the Auténticos Tigres, and the Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education, with the Borregos Salvajes, are precursors of this sport in the country. The Auténticos play in the Organización Nacional Estudiantil de Fútbol Americano (ONEFA), and are based at the Estadio Gaspar Mass. While the Borregos play in the Comisión Nacional Deportiva Estudiantil de Instituciones Privadas (CONADEIP), and are based at the Estadio Borregos.
Newspapers and news websites of Nuevo León include: ABC Noticias, El Gráfico de Nuevo León, El Norte, El Porvenir, La Última Palabra, Milenio, Publimetro edición Monterrey, Reporte Índigo, Distrito Regio, Solo Ofertas, El Horizonte, Regio.com, Red Crucero, Noticias Nuevo León.
Twinning and covenants edit
The state has agreements with other states, provinces, regions and autonomous communities.
See also edit
- "Las Diputaciones Provinciales" (PDF) (in Spanish). p. 15.
- "Senadores por Nuevo León LXI Legislatura". Senado de la Republica. Retrieved March 29, 2010.
- "Listado de Diputados por Grupo Parlamentario del Estado de Nuevo León". Camara de Diputados. Retrieved March 28, 2010.
- "Resumen". Cuentame INEGI. Archived from the original on May 12, 2013. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
- "Relieve". Cuentame INEGI. Archived from the original on May 11, 2012. Retrieved March 30, 2011.
- "México en cifras". January 2016.
- Rodríguez, Guillermina (May 2019). "México - Indicadores Regionales de Actividad Económica 2019" (PDF). Banamex (in Spanish). Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 July 2019.
- "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". www.imf.org. Retrieved 2019-10-19.
- "Medio Físico - Nuevo León". www.inafed.gob.mx. Retrieved 2021-05-26.
- "DATA NUEVO LEÓN | N.L. Aspectos Geográficos de Nuevo León" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2021-05-26.
- "Número de habitantes. Nuevo León". cuentame.inegi.org.mx. Retrieved 2021-05-27.
- Flores, Lourdes. "Zona Metropolitana de Monterrey es la segunda más poblada de México: Inegi". El Economista. Retrieved 2021-05-27.
- Monterrey :international city of knowledge. Monterrey: Gobierno del Estado de Nuevo León. 2009.
- INEGI (1986). "Síntesis Geográfica del Estado de Nuevo León" (PDF). Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática.
- Gerhard, Peter. The North Frontier of New Spain. Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1982.
- En los albores de la independencia: Las Provincias Internas de Oriente durante la insurrección de don Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, 1810–1811. by Isidro Vizcaya Canales
- Bautista Cruz, Angelina; González Cubas, Rigoberto; Treviño Garza, Eduardo Javier; Yerena Yamallel, José Israe; Rodríguez, Eduardo Alanís; Aguirre Calderón, Oscar Alberto (2022). "Modelación de la biomasa aérea en bosques templados subtropicales secos en el noreste de México" [Modeling of aerial biomass in dry subtropical temperate forests in northeastern Mexico]. Bosque (in Spanish). 43 (3). doi:10.4067/S0717-92002022000300243.
- Estrada-Castillón, Eduardo; Villarreal-Quintanilla, José Ángel; Cuéllar-Rodríguez, Luis Gerardo; March-Salas, Martí; Encina-Domínguez, Juan Antonio; Himmeslbach, Wibke; Salinas-Rodríguez, María Magdalena; Guerra, Jacqueline; Cotera-Correa, Mauricio; Scott-Morales, Laura Magdalena; Friesen, Rebecca Jane; Garza-Zambrano, Patricio; Arévalo-Sierra, José Ramón; Garate-Escamilla, Homero; Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Maritza (6 October 2022). "Ethnobotany in Iturbide, Nuevo León: The Traditional Knowledge on Plants Used in the Semiarid Mountains of Northeastern Mexico". Sustainability. 14 (19): 12751. doi:10.3390/su141912751.
- "Censo Nuevo León 2020".
- "Mexico: extended population list". GeoHive. Archived from the original on 2012-03-11. Retrieved 2011-07-29.
- Nikolova, Silviya P.; Small, Eusebius; Campillo, Claudia (2015-07-01). "Geo-social and health disparities among persons with disabilities living in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon and Dallas, Texas". Disability and Health Journal. 8 (3): 434–442. doi:10.1016/j.dhjo.2015.03.004. ISSN 1936-6574. PMID 25908017.
- "Nuevo Leon looking to support areas beyond manufacturing". Oxford Business Group. 2018. Retrieved 15 November 2022.
- INEGI, Población total por entidad federativa según sexo, 2000 y 2005 and PIB estatal
- https://wayback.archive-it.org/all/20090325115719/http://sg.nl.gob.mx/DataNL/files%5CDNL00000431.pdf[bare URL PDF]
- "National Survey of Household Income and Expenditure (ENIGH). 2022". INEGI. 2022. Retrieved 28 November 2023.
- "Purchasing Power Parities". OECD. 2022. Retrieved 28 November 2023.
- Industrial Costs in Mexico – A Guide for Foreign Investors 2007. Mexico City: Bancomext. 2007. p. 96.
- Industrial Costs in Mexico – A Guide for Foreign Investors 2007. Mexico City: Bancomext. 2007. p. 92.
- "Research and Technology Innovation Park PIIT". Archived from the original on 2009-03-07.
- "Monterrey, city of knowledge". Mtycic.org. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
- "Elecciones Nuevo León 2021". computos2021.ceenl.mx (in Spanish). Retrieved 2023-01-06.
- Garza Castillo, Mario Alberto; Trak, Juan Manuel (November 2021). "Continuities and transformations in the democratization process of the political system in Nuevo Leon". Latin American Policy. 12 (2): 534–553. doi:10.1111/lamp.12239. ISSN 2041-7365. S2CID 240488354.
- "Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI)". INEGI - Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía. 19 May 2022. Retrieved 26 December 2022.
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- "Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores - Gobierno - gob.mx". Sre.gob.mx. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
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