February 13–17, 2021 North American winter storm

The February 13–17, 2021 North American winter storm, unofficially referred to as Winter Storm Uri by the Weather Channel,[13][14] was a major winter and ice storm that had widespread impacts across the United States, Northern Mexico, and parts of Canada from February 13 to 17. The storm started out in the Pacific Northwest and quickly moved into the Southern United States, before moving on to the Midwestern and Northeastern United States a couple of days later.

February 13–17, 2021 North American winter storm
Category 3 "Major" (RSI/NOAA: 8.048)
Winter Storm Uri on 2-16-2021.jpg
Satellite imagery of the winter storm over the Eastern United States on February 16
TypeExtratropical cyclone
Winter storm
Blizzard
Ice storm
Tornado outbreak
FormedFebruary 13, 2021
DissipatedFebruary 24, 2021
(Exited to sea on February 17, 2021)
Highest winds
Lowest pressure960 mb (28.35 inHg)
Tornadoes
confirmed
6 total
Max. rating1EF3 tornado
Duration of
tornado outbreak2
9 hours
Maximum snowfall
or ice accretion
Snow – 26 in (66 cm) at Detroit, Oregon
Ice – 0.85 in (2.2 cm) at Pocono Mountains Munici, Pennsylvania
Fatalities290 officially confirmed[5][6][7][8][9][10]
426–978 estimated in Texas[11][12]
Damage≥ $196.5 billion (2021 USD)
(Costliest winter storm on record)[1][2]
Power outages> 9,924,000[3][4]
Areas affectedPacific Northwest, Western United States, Southern United States, Eastern United States, Northern Mexico, Eastern Canada, British Isles, Iceland, Southern Greenland

1Most severe tornado damage; see Fujita scale
2Time from first tornado to last tornado

The storm resulted in the National Weather Service issuing various winter weather alerts impacting over 170 million Americans. Over 9.9 million people in the U.S. and Mexico experienced blackouts, many due to a major power crisis in Texas,[3][4][15] which became the largest in the U.S. since the Northeast blackout of 2003.[16] The storm contributed to a severe cold wave that affected most of North America. The storm also brought severe destructive weather to Southeastern United States, including several tornadoes. On February 16, there were at least 20 direct fatalities and 13 indirect fatalities attributed to the storm;[17][18][7][19][13] by January 2, 2022, the death toll had risen to at least 290, including 276 people in the United States and 14 people in Mexico.[9][5][6][7][10][8] The system is estimated to have cost over $196.5 billion (2021 USD) in damages, including at least $195 billion in the United States and over $1.5 billion in Mexico, making it the costliest winter storm on record, as well as the costliest natural disaster recorded in the United States.[1][2] It is also the deadliest winter storm in North America since the 1993 Storm of the Century, which killed 318 people.[20]

Meteorological historyEdit

On February 13, a frontal storm developed off the coast of the Pacific Northwest and moved ashore, before moving southeastward, with the storm becoming disorganized in the process.[21][22] During this time, the storm reached a minimum pressure of 992 millibars (29.3 inHg) over the Rocky Mountains.[22] On the same day, The Weather Channel gave the storm the unofficial name Winter Storm Uri, due to the expected impacts from the storm;[13] the Federal Communications Commission later adopted the name in their reports after February 17.[14] From February 12 to 13, a trough dipped southward from Northern California into northern Mexico, which channeled moisture from Texas towards the storm, as the system moved southeastward.[23] Over the next couple of days, the storm began to develop as it entered the Southern United States and moved into Texas.[24] From February 13 to 14, a second, much larger trough developed over Central United States, aided by a southward shift from the polar vortex, while the winter storm moved into Texas. The trough became fully developed by February 15, channeling significant amounts of moisture into the winter storm and also contributing to a historic cold wave that affected most of the Central and Eastern United States.[23] Winds in the jet stream reached 170 mph (275 km/h) around the trough.[23] On February 15, the system developed a new surface low off the coast of the Florida Panhandle, as the storm turned northeastward and expanded in size.[25]

On February 16, the storm developed another low-pressure center to the north as the system grew more organized, while moving towards the northeast.[26][23] Later that day, the storm broke in half, with the newer storm moving northward into Quebec, while the original system moved off the East Coast of the U.S.[27] By the time the winter storm exited the U.S. late on February 16, the combined snowfall from the multiple winter storms within the past month had left nearly 75% of the contiguous United States covered by snow, which was the largest amount of snow cover seen in the United States since early 2003.[28][23] On February 17, the storm's secondary low dissipated as the system approached landfall on Newfoundland, intensifying in the process.[29] At 12:00 UTC that day, the storm's central pressure reached 985 millibars (29.1 inHg), as the center of the storm moved over Newfoundland.[30] On the same day, the storm was given the name Belrem by the Free University of Berlin.[31] The storm continued to strengthen as it moved across the North Atlantic, with the storm's central pressure dropping to 960 millibars (28 inHg) by February 19.[32][33] On February 20, the storm developed a second-low pressure area and gradually began to weaken, as it moved northwestward towards Iceland.[34][35] Afterward, the storm turned westward and moved across southern Greenland on February 22, weakening even further as it did so.[36] The storm then stalled south of Greenland, while continuing to weaken, before dissipating on February 24.[37][38]

Preparations and impactEdit

All warnings and advisories issued in the Central and Eastern United States due to the storm
 
 Winter Storm Warning
 Winter Storm Watch
 Winter Weather Advisory

United StatesEdit

On February 14, the expected impacts from the storm resulted in over 170 million Americans being placed under various winter weather alerts across the United States, which saw the largest portion of the country covered by winter weather alerts in 15 years.[15][23] Over 120 million of those people were placed under winter storm warnings or ice storm warnings by the National Weather Service.[39] The winter storm caused power grids to fail across the U.S., causing blackouts for over 5.2 million homes and businesses, the vast majority of which were in the state of Texas, which became one of the largest blackout events in modern U.S. history,[3][4][40] the largest one since the Northeast blackout of 2003.[16] The storm left at least 276 people dead across the United States, with 246 of them in Texas.[5][9] The initial death toll had been estimated at 70 before it was later revised upward, after more information was collected.[41][42][10] A BuzzFeed study in May 2021 estimated that the winter storm may have killed a total of 702 people in Texas, which would add hundreds of deaths to the official death toll if verified.[43] The system was estimated by NOAA to have cost $21 billion in damage in the United States, making it the costliest winter storm in U.S. history.[44] Austin County and Travis County officials estimated that the winter storm caused at least $195 billion in damage in Texas, making the winter storm the single-costliest natural disaster in the history of Texas and the United States as a whole.[1] Some insurance firms had estimated a damage total as high as $195–295 billion.[45][46]

NorthwestEdit

Snow in Portland, Oregon, on February 14, 2021

The winter storm was the second of the two snowstorms that swept through the region within a one-week period. 11.1 inches (28 cm) of snow in Seattle, Washington compounded the previous storm.[47] This was the largest two-day snowfall recorded in Seattle since 1972.[48]

The Portland metro area was hit very hard by the storm, which brought a mix of snow and ice to the region.[47] 9.4 inches (24 cm) of snow fell at Portland International Airport on February 12–13, the most snow to fall over this city in a two-day period since 1968.[48] Over 270,000 people were left without power in the region.[49] Governor Kate Brown declared a state of emergency.[50][3] Four people were killed in Oregon, due to Carbon monoxide poisoning.[6]

9.9 inches (25 cm) of snow also fell in Boise, Idaho during this same time period, making this the largest recorded two-day snowfall event for that city since 1996.[48]

SouthwestEdit

The storm brought heavy snow and bitterly cold temperatures to Colorado and New Mexico. Snow amounts in Colorado ranged from a few inches in the north to over 2 feet (0.61 m) in the San Juan Mountains in northern New Mexico and southern Colorado.[51] In New Mexico, the storm system brought a combination of heavy snow, strong winds, and bitterly cold temperatures. On February 14th, a Blizzard Warning was issued for the Albuquerque metro area due to strong winds exceeding 50 mph, cold temperatures, and blowing snow.[52] Meanwhile, Winter Storm Warnings were issued for much of the rest of New Mexico. Up to two feet of snow fell in the mountains of northern and central New Mexico. Snow amounts in the Albuquerque metro area ranged from 2 to 6 inches (51 to 152 mm). Interstate 40 through the Albuquerque metro area was closed for several hours due to numerous motor vehicle crashes caused by the icy conditions.[53] Southern New Mexico received up to two inches of snow accumulation, with locally higher amounts in the mountains.[54]

Central and Southern PlainsEdit

Drone footage of Houston

With the threat of icing, the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) pre-treated roadways, using a brine-salt mix, across six Southeast Texas counties.[55] For the first time on record, the National Weather Service (through its 13 regional offices serving Texas and adjoining portions of Oklahoma, New Mexico, Arkansas and Louisiana) issued Winter Storm Warnings for all 254 counties in the state.[13]

 
Snow at a Kroger grocery store in North Dallas.

On February 14–15, the storm dropped prolific amounts of snow across Texas and Oklahoma. As a result of the winter storm and a concurrent cold wave, power grids—unable to sustain the higher-than-normal energy and heating demand from residential and business customers—failed across the Texas Interconnection; at the peak of the outages, at least 4.5 million Texas residents were left without electricity.[4][3] Two of the electricity reliability commissions servicing the Southern U.S., the Southwest Power Pool (SPP) and the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT), ordered rolling blackouts for 14 states amid the frigid temperatures, in an attempt to manage the strain on the power grid and prevent widespread, long-duration blackouts. The controlled outages were initiated after the Southwest Power Pool declared Level 3 Emergency Energy Alerts on both February 15 and 16; the SPP and ERCOT faced criticism by government officials and residents in the region for the limited advanced notice of the outages, and for not outlining the specific areas serviced by SPP partner utilities that would be affected.[56][57][58]

At one point during the rolling outages, over 4.2 million people across the south-central states were left without power, with over 3.5 million of them in Texas alone.[59] The rolling blackouts led to calls by Governor Greg Abbott for the Texas Legislature to conduct investigations into preparations and decisions undertaken by ERCOT in advance of the storm.[60] Some of the blackouts were initiated as several cities throughout the Central and Southern Plains experienced record overnight low temperatures: on February 16 alone, daily record lows were broken in Oklahoma City (−14 °F [−26 °C], the city's coldest temperature since 1899 and its second-coldest on record), Dallas (−2 °F [−19 °C], the city's coldest temperature since 1930 and its second-coldest on record), Houston (13 °F [−11 °C], the city's coldest temperature since 1989), San Antonio (5 °F [−15 °C], the city's coldest temperature since 1989) and Little Rock (−1 °F [−18 °C], the city's coldest temperature since 1989), with all-time low temperatures being set in Fayetteville, Arkansas (−20 °F [−29 °C]) and Hastings, Nebraska (−30 °F [−34 °C]).[61]

Satellite image of Houston, Texas on February 7 (left) before the storm and on Feb 16 (right) after the storm.[62] The dark patches in the latter image depict areas left without electricity.

Rolling blackouts, longer-duration power outages and ice accretion caused by the precipitation and unusually cold temperatures (for the region's climate) caused widespread disruptions to water distribution systems across the Southern Plains. Water line breaks occurred in many areas, and power disruptions impacted water treatment plants in parts of the region that forced several cities—including Houston, San Antonio, Fort Worth, Abilene, Austin, Killeen and Arlington, Texas; and Shreveport, Louisiana—to enact residential boil-water orders (i.e., to boil drinking water for one minute in order kill bacteria and other pathogens);[63][64][65][66][67] By February 18, more than 13 million people in Texas lived in areas covered by boil-water advisories.[68] In cases where residents had no energy sources to heat water, purchasing bottled water was advised;[69] in Houston, this led to shortages of bottled water in grocery stores.[70] In addition, pipe bursts caused significant damage to numerous residences in the Dallas area and other areas of North Texas.

 
A visible satellite loop of a snow-covered South Central U.S. in the aftermath of the winter storm on February 16

After consulting Dallas Mayor Eric Johnson, two NHL games between the Nashville Predators and the Dallas Stars that were scheduled for the evenings of February 15 and 16 at American Airlines Center were postponed.[71][72] In contrast, the Oklahoma City Thunder opted to hold their February 16 home game against the Portland Trail Blazers as scheduled, even as most other buildings in Downtown Oklahoma City decided to turn off lighting and electrical equipment overnight to reduce strain on the city's power grid; the NBA team stated that Chesapeake Energy Arena would take steps to conserve power while the game was being played, including turning off concourse lighting, video panels, exterior signage and most outdoor lighting.[73][74]

Due to the deregulated electricity market and the spike in demand, since February 10, wholesale electricity prices have gone up in some places by 10,000 percent.[75] As a result, some Texans are receiving exceptionally expensive electric bills[76] as high as $450 for one day of use.[77] On February 17, U.S. Senator Ted Cruz (R-TX) stirred controversy when he was filmed boarding an airplane to Cancún, Mexico with his family. He returned to Houston the following day, and admitted he had scheduled the vacation to avoid freezing conditions inside their home.[78]

Snow in Norman, Oklahoma on February 15, 2021

In Oklahoma, winter storm warnings were issued for all 77 counties in the state ahead of the storm by National Weather Service offices in Norman, Tulsa, Amarillo and Shreveport. Governor Kevin Stitt also issued a statewide winter weather State of Emergency on February 12, as the state was already dealing with effects from minor winter weather events and prolonged sub-freezing temperatures from the days prior.[79] Widespread areas of 3–8 inches (7.6–20.3 cm) were recorded throughout the state with locally higher amounts in some areas. Roosevelt saw 12 inches (30 cm) of snow, the highest total measured in the state during the event.[80]

The heavy, blowing snow caused massive travel issues across the state on February 14. By 5:20 p.m. CST that day, the Oklahoma Highway Patrol had responded to 56 non-injury collisions, 24 injury collisions, and 116 motorist assists.[81] A fiery crash involving multiple vehicles, including two semi-trucks, shut down the Turner Turnpike near Hiwassee Road in northeastern Oklahoma County, with westbound traffic being diverted to the Kickapoo Turnpike and eastbound traffic being diverted to I-35.[82] Another vehicle collision on I-35 near Braman caused one fatality.[7] The record cold temperatures during the event also caused a dam at Lake Overholser to completely freeze over.[83]

By February 16, the storm had killed at least 17 people across the South.[84][17] By February 18, the death toll rose to at least 47.[85][86][87] At least 10 people in Texas died in weather-related incidents since February 14, including a mother and a child due to carbon monoxide poisoning.[6] By January 2, 2022, the Texas State Government revised the official death toll in Texas to 246.[9] Nine other people in the South, outside of Texas, have died as a result of the system or through indirect storm-related incidents.[6][7] According to a BuzzFeed study in May 2021, based on the excess mortalities in Texas in February 2021, the actual death toll of the winter storm may range from 426 to 978 in Texas, with a mean estimate of 702, which would add hundreds of deaths to the official death toll, if verified.[43] The official death toll was modified in December 2021 with the Texas Department of State Health Services announcing a death toll of 246.[88]

The storm was also partially responsible for a nationwide chicken shortage, due to the freezing temperatures, widespread power and water outages that lasted days.[89][90][91][92][93]

Great LakesEdit

 
Map of snow emergencies in Ohio from February 15–16, 2021, at their most severe levels
Snow in Chicago, Illinois on February 15, 2021

Chicago along with other cities in northern Illinois received up to 14–17 in (36–43 cm) of snow along with winds up to 20 mph (32 km/h). Indianapolis, Indiana received about 7 inches of snow as well as Detroit, Michigan also had 7 inches of snow. Toledo, Ohio received 14.5 in (37 cm) of snow, the third-highest two-day snowfall record, and the highest since 1912. Other Northern Ohio cities received up to 10–12 in (25–30 cm) of snow while cities in the central part received up to 3 in (7.6 cm) of snow like in Columbus, Ohio.[94]

Tornado outbreakEdit

EFU EF0 EF1 EF2 EF3 EF4 EF5
0 4 0 1 1 0 0

A severe weather outbreak struck the Southeastern United States on February 15, with large hail, damaging winds, and six tornadoes affecting five states.[95] An EF2 tornado destroyed two homes and damaged trees near Damascus, Georgia, injuring five people. A more destructive high-end EF3 tornado struck the Ocean Ridge Plantation neighborhood near Sunset Beach, North Carolina, causing major damage to many homes, some of which were leveled or swept away, before moving into rural areas and damaging or snapping hundreds of trees. This tornado killed three and injured 10.[96][97]

Confirmed tornadoesEdit

List of confirmed tornadoes – Monday, February 15, 2021[note 1]
EF# Location County / Parish State Start Coord. Time (UTC) Path length Max width Summary
EF0 NW of Panama City Beach Bay FL 30°13′16″N 85°53′23″W / 30.2211°N 85.8898°W / 30.2211; -85.8898 (Panama City Beach (Feb. 15, EF0)) 20:02–20:04 1.31 mi (2.11 km) 50 yd (46 m) A high-end EF0 tornado caused minor damage to structures, poles, benches, and fencing occurred near the beach and at Frank Brown Park in Gulf Resort Beach.[98]
EF0 W of Compass Lake Washington FL 30°35′58″N 85°27′21″W / 30.5994°N 85.4557°W / 30.5994; -85.4557 (Compass Lake (Feb. 15, EF0)) 20:39–20:41 0.71 mi (1.14 km) 100 yd (91 m) A brief high-end EF0 tornado pulled out an outbuilding anchored by wooden poles in shallow concrete, lofting it 20 yards (18 m). Several pine trees were snapped along a driveway. Further north, a double wide manufactured home had minor roof damage. Several other trees were uprooted along the path.[99]
EF0 WNW of Lake City Columbia FL 30°12′25″N 82°44′17″W / 30.207°N 82.738°W / 30.207; -82.738 (Winfield (Feb. 15, EF0)) 21:17–21:21 0.25 mi (0.40 km) 60 yd (55 m) There was sporadic damage to trees, fences roofs and other damage to residential buildings. A fence panel was blown about 750 feet (230 m).[100]
EF0 ENE of Desser Seminole GA 30°53′N 84°49′W / 30.89°N 84.82°W / 30.89; -84.82 (Desser (Feb. 15, EF0)) 21:29–21:30 0.5 mi (0.80 km) 50 yd (46 m) Trees were blown down in a rural area. No structural damage was found, but a brief tornado debris signature appeared on radar.[101]
EF2 S of Damascus to E of Iveys Mill Early, Baker GA 31°16′52″N 84°43′16″W / 31.281°N 84.7211°W / 31.281; -84.7211 (Damascus (Feb. 15, EF2)) 21:38–21:48 11.58 mi (18.64 km) 600 yd (550 m) This strong tornado first touched down just west of SR 45, where it snapped several trees and damaged the roofs of some homes. Farther northeast, the tornado reached its peak intensity as it completely destroyed two small and unanchored homes just south of Damascus, one made of concrete blocks, and the other made of wood with a concrete block foundation. Only scattered debris and the foundations remained of these structures, and a nearby detached garage was also completely destroyed. A truck was tossed from the garage, with other cars being heavily damaged. Five injuries occurred at these homes. A third home sustained damage to its exterior and was shifted off its foundation. Trees were also snapped or uprooted, with two cases of metal poles being lodged into trees. A propane tank was dislodged and moved, and power lines were downed as well. Farther northeast, the tornado weakened as it snapped and uprooted more trees. Some minor roofing damage occurred before the tornado lifted.[102][103]
EF3 N of Sunset Beach to SW of Delco Brunswick NC 33°54′42″N 78°30′35″W / 33.9118°N 78.5096°W / 33.9118; -78.5096 (Sunset Beach (Feb. 15, EF3)) 04:34–05:02 21.9 mi (35.2 km) 275 yd (251 m) 3 deaths – See section on this tornado – 10 people were injured.
Sunset Beach–Delco, North CarolinaEdit
Sunset Beach–Delco, North Carolina
EF3 tornado
 
EF3 damage to a home in Sunset Beach, NC where 2 fatalities occurred.
Highest winds
  • 165 miles per hour (266 km/h) [104]
Max. rating1EF3 tornado
Fatalities3 fatalities, 10 injuries
Power outages37,000[105]
1Most severe tornado damage; see Fujita scale

The tornado touched down at the north edge of Sunset Beach, just north of the border with South Carolina, damaging numerous pine trees and limbs at EF0 intensity as it crossed NC 179, before rapidly intensifying to EF2 strength as it neared NC 904.[104] The storm was not tornado-warned immediately and a warning wasn't issued until after the tornado touched down and began causing damage.[106] As the tornado crossed the road, a large metal building was destroyed and a number of RVs were overturned. Still rapidly strengthening, the tornado entered Grissettown and struck the Ocean Ridge Plantation subdivision at its peak intensity of high-end EF3. A community garden center and two homes were leveled at this location, one of which was swept completely away. This home was well-constructed, but built on a block foundation, and vehicles parked at the site were moved only short distances. Dozens of other nearby homes were damaged, some of which sustained loss of roofs and exterior walls. Many large trees were snapped and denuded in the subdivision, and a car was overturned. All three fatalities occurred in the Ocean Ridge Plantation subdivision. The tornado then abruptly weakened, but reached its maximum width as it crossed U.S. 17 between Grissettown and Cool Run as it exited Ocean Ridge Plantation at EF1 strength, rolling a double-wide mobile home on the north side of the highway. As the tornado continued northeast, it reintensifed to EF2 strength, causing major damage to several homes and snapping hundreds of trees. It then inflicted a continuous path of tree damage through forest and swamp land, crossing NC 130 and NC 211.[104] The tornado finally lifted east of NC 211.[107] It was the deadliest single tornado in Southeastern North Carolina since an F3 touched down on November 16, 2006.[10]

MexicoEdit

 
Snow in a chair in Monterrey, Mexico, on the early morning of February 15. Temperature was 33°F/1°C

The winter storm strained the power grids in northern Mexico, leading to cascading blackouts for 4.7 million homes and businesses in Mexico.[3] Temperatures as low as −18 °C (0 °F) were recorded, as shortages of natural gas led to blackouts in Nuevo León, Coahuila, Tamaulipas, and Chihuahua along the border with Texas.[108] At least 14 people died in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua; Río Bravo and Matamoros, Tamaulipas; and Monterrey, Nuevo León; due to the winter storm.[8][19] President Andrés Manuel López Obrador (AMLO) said on February 17 that Mexico would increase the use of oil and coal to produce electricity, as well as purchase three shiploads of natural gas to deal with power shortages. He also warned that periodic local outages would continue through February 21.[109] Local authorities mentioned that no hospitals had been left without electricity at any time.[110] The storm was estimated to have caused over $1.5 billion (2021 USD) in damages in Mexico.[2]

CanadaEdit

In Ontario, snowfall warnings were issued in advance of the winter storm. School bus service was cancelled across the Greater Toronto Area, and schools were completely closed in Halton and Durham.[111] 20 cm (7.9 in) of snow fell in Windsor, 12 cm (4.7 in) at Toronto Pearson International Airport and 18 cm (7.1 in) fell in Ottawa. The highest totals in the region were the over 30 cm (12 in) in and Hamilton and Niagara Region.[112]

AftermathEdit

The storm was shortly followed by another major winter storm a few days later, which caused at least an additional 29 fatalities and $2 billion (2021 USD) in damage, worsening the 2021 Texas power crisis and hampering recovery efforts in the state.[113][114][115]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ All dates are based on the local time zone where the tornado touched down; however, all times are in Coordinated Universal Time for consistency.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c 2021 Winter Storm Uri After-Action Review: Findings Report (PDF) (Report). City of Austin & Travis County. November 4, 2021. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 5, 2021. Retrieved November 5, 2021.
  2. ^ a b c Global Catastrophe Recap September 2021 (PDF) (Report). Aon Benfield. October 12, 2021. pp. 11, 13. Retrieved October 12, 2021.{{cite report}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  3. ^ a b c d e f Sullivan, Brian K.; Malick, Nauren S. (February 16, 2021). "5 Million Americans Have Lost Power From Texas to North Dakota After Devastating Winter Storm". Time. Retrieved February 16, 2021.
  4. ^ a b c d Douglas, Erin (February 20, 2021). "Gov. Greg Abbott wants power companies to "winterize." Texas' track record won't make that easy". The Texas Tribune. Retrieved February 26, 2021.
  5. ^ a b c Andrew Weber (July 14, 2021). "Texas Winter Storm Death Toll Goes Up To 210, Including 43 Deaths In Harris County". Houston Public Media. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  6. ^ a b c d e Jan Wesner Childs (February 18, 2021). "Houston Faces Dire Water Issues as Power Outages, Cold Push Texans To Their Limits". weather.com. The Weather Company. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  7. ^ a b c d e "Man killed in crash involving semi-truck in northern Oklahoma". KOCO News. February 15, 2021. Retrieved February 15, 2021.
  8. ^ a b c "20 deaths blamed on cold weather in north as another front moves in". Mexico News Daily. February 19, 2021. Retrieved April 27, 2021.
  9. ^ a b c d Patrick Svitek (January 2, 2022). "Texas puts final estimate of winter storm death toll at 246". The Texas Tribune. Retrieved January 3, 2022.
  10. ^ a b c d Hayley Fowler (February 19, 2021). "Deadly tornado carved 22-mile path of destruction in NC". The News & Observer. Retrieved March 7, 2022.
  11. ^ Aldhous, Peter; Lee, Stephanie; Hirji, Zahra (May 26, 2021). "The Texas Winter Storm And Power Outages Killed Hundreds More People Than The State Says". BuzzFeed News. Retrieved October 21, 2021.
  12. ^ Argwala, Matthew; Burke, Matt; Klusak, Patrycja; Mohaddes, Kamiar; Volz, Ulrich; Zenghelisa, Dimitri (September 2021). Climate Change and Fiscal Responsibility: Risks and Opportunities (PDF). Bennett Institute for Public Policy (Report). University of Cambridge. p. 5. Retrieved October 21, 2021.
  13. ^ a b c d Erdman, Jonathan (February 13, 2021). "Major Winter Storm to Bring Significant Snow, Ice from Texas to Northeast into Early Next Week". weather.com. The Weather Company. Retrieved February 14, 2021.
  14. ^ a b "Winter Storm Uri". Federal Communications Commission. February 2021. Retrieved February 19, 2021.
  15. ^ a b "Winter storm bearing down on central Ohio". Qfm96. February 15, 2021. Retrieved February 15, 2021.
  16. ^ a b "9 of the Worst Power Outages in United States History". electricchoice.com. Eisenbach Consulting, LLC. 2017. Retrieved February 19, 2021.
  17. ^ a b Brackett, Ron; Jan Wesner Childs (February 16, 2021). "Texas Officials Warn Of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning; At Least 17 Deaths Tied to Winter Storm Uri". weather.com. The Weather Company. Retrieved February 17, 2021.
  18. ^ Steinbuch, Yaron (February 17, 2021). "At least 21 dead as brutal cold from historic storm ravages Texas". New York Post. Retrieved February 17, 2021.
  19. ^ a b Estrada, Jesús (February 16, 2021). "Tormenta invernal deja 12 muertos en estados del norte". jornada.com.mx (in Spanish). La Jornada. Archived from the original on February 17, 2021. Retrieved February 16, 2021.
  20. ^ Armstrong, Tim. "Superstorm of 1993: "Storm of the Century"". NOAA. Retrieved July 17, 2021.
  21. ^ "WPC Surface Analysis for 02/13/21 at 09 UTC". Weather Prediction Center. February 13, 2021. Retrieved February 15, 2021.
  22. ^ a b "WPC Surface Analysis for 02/14/21 at 00 UTC". Weather Prediction Center. February 14, 2021. Retrieved February 15, 2021.
  23. ^ a b c d e f Jackson, Bryan (February 22, 2021). "Southern Plains to Great Lakes Winter Storm: (2/14 - 2/16)" (PDF). www.wpc.ncep.noaa.gov. Weather Prediction Center. Retrieved March 31, 2021.
  24. ^ "WPC Surface Analysis for 02/15/21 at 03 UTC". Weather Prediction Center. February 15, 2021. Retrieved February 15, 2021.
  25. ^ "WPC Surface Analysis for 02/15/21 at 18 UTC". Weather Prediction Center. February 15, 2021. Retrieved February 15, 2021.
  26. ^ "WPC Surface Analysis for 02/16/21 at 09 UTC". Weather Prediction Center. February 16, 2021. Retrieved February 17, 2021.
  27. ^ "WPC Surface Analysis for 02/17/21 at 00 UTC". Weather Prediction Center. February 17, 2021. Retrieved February 17, 2021.
  28. ^ Ansari, Talal; Findell, Elizabeth (February 16, 2021). "Winter Storm Creates Havoc Across the U.S." The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 17, 2021.
  29. ^ "WPC Surface Analysis for 02/17/21 at 09 UTC". Weather Prediction Center. February 17, 2021. Retrieved February 17, 2021.
  30. ^ "WPC Surface Analysis for 02/17/21 at 12 UTC". Weather Prediction Center. February 17, 2021. Retrieved February 17, 2021.
  31. ^ "Europe Weather Analysis on 2021-02-17". Free University of Berlin. February 17, 2021. Retrieved February 18, 2021.
  32. ^ "Europe Weather Analysis on 2021-02-18". Free University of Berlin. February 18, 2021. Retrieved February 18, 2021.
  33. ^ "Europe Weather Analysis on 2021-02-19". Free University of Berlin. February 19, 2021. Retrieved February 19, 2021.
  34. ^ "Europe Weather Analysis on 2021-02-20". Free University of Berlin. February 20, 2021. Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  35. ^ "Europe Weather Analysis on 2021-02-21". Free University of Berlin. February 21, 2021. Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  36. ^ "Europe Weather Analysis on 2021-02-22". Free University of Berlin. February 22, 2021. Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  37. ^ "Europe Weather Analysis on 2021-02-23". Free University of Berlin. February 23, 2021. Retrieved February 24, 2021.
  38. ^ "Europe Weather Analysis on 2021-02-24". Free University of Berlin. February 24, 2021. Retrieved February 24, 2021.
  39. ^ Rojas, Rick; Fazio, Marie (February 15, 2021). "At Least 120 Million Americans Are Bracing for Coast-to-Coast Storm". The New York Times. Retrieved February 15, 2021.
  40. ^ "Two million? Five million? Real size of US blackouts a mystery". livemint.com. Mint. February 17, 2021. Retrieved February 17, 2021.
  41. ^ Castronuovo, Celene (February 21, 2021). "Close to 70 dead in states with severe winter weather: report". The Hill. Retrieved February 28, 2021.
  42. ^ McDonnell Nieto del Rio, Giulia; Fausset, Richard; Diaz, Johnny (February 19, 2021). "Extreme Cold Killed Texans in Their Bedrooms, Vehicles and Backyards". The New York Times. Retrieved February 19, 2021.
  43. ^ a b Alejandro Martínez Cabrera (May 27, 2021). "Texas Winter Storm Death Toll Could Be Much Higher Than The State's Count, BuzzFeed Data Review Found". Houston Public Media. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  44. ^ "Billion-Dollar Weather and Climate Disasters: Events". NOAA. October 2021. Retrieved October 11, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  45. ^ Ivanova, Irina (February 25, 2021). "Texas winter storm costs could top $200 billion — more than hurricanes Harvey and Ike". CBS News. Retrieved March 5, 2021.
  46. ^ Ferman, Mitchell (February 25, 2021). "Winter storm could cost Texas more money than any disaster in state history". The Texas Tribune. Retrieved March 5, 2021.
  47. ^ a b "Major Winter Storm Smashed Records in Texas, Spreading Snow, Damaging Ice From the South Into the Midwest, Northeast". weather.com. The Weather Company. February 15, 2021. Retrieved February 15, 2021.
  48. ^ a b c Lamers, Alex [@AlexJLamers] (February 16, 2021). "On Friday and Saturday, February 12-13, Seattle (Sea-Tac) and Portland (PDX) had their largest two-day snowfall in about five decades, 11.1" at Sea-Tac, most since 1972, 9.4" at PDX, most since 1968...Also further inland, 9.9" at Boise, most since 1996" (Tweet). Retrieved February 19, 2021 – via Twitter.
  49. ^ "Hundreds of Thousands Without Power in Northwest US Ice Storm | Voice of America – English". Voice of America. Associated Press. February 13, 2021. Archived from the original on February 15, 2021. Retrieved February 19, 2021.
  50. ^ "Hundreds of thousands without power in Northwest ice storm". AP News. February 13, 2021. Retrieved February 15, 2021.
  51. ^ Fries, Tynin (February 14, 2021). "Colorado snow totals for Feb. 13-14, 2021". Denver Post. Retrieved February 23, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)(Subscription required.)
  52. ^ Tosterud, Grant (February 14, 2021). "Blizzard, severe weather warnings remains in effect for many parts of the state". KRQE-TV. Albuquerque, NM. Retrieved February 23, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  53. ^ Carrillo, Edmundo (February 14, 2021). "Winter storm brings arctic weather to New Mexico". Albuquerque Journal. Retrieved February 23, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  54. ^ Fish, Nathan J. (February 14, 2021). "Brr! Winter storm freezes Mesilla Valley". Las Cruces Sun News. Retrieved February 23, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  55. ^ Campion, Steve (February 12, 2021). "Crews prepare for icy roads ahead of potential winter storm". ABC13. Retrieved February 14, 2021.
  56. ^ McLaughlin, Kelly (February 15, 2021). "14 states face rolling blackouts amid massive winter storms, after a major US power grid declared an energy emergency". Insider. Retrieved February 15, 2021.
  57. ^ Autullo, Ryan (February 15, 2021). "'Basically we're stuck here': 40% of Austin Energy homes without power amid failed 'rotating blackouts'". Austin American-Statesman. Austin American Statesman. Archived from the original on February 15, 2021. Retrieved February 15, 2021.
  58. ^ Rojas, Rick (February 15, 2021). "Live Updates: Winter Storm Barrels Across Huge Band of U.S." The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 15, 2021. Retrieved February 15, 2021.
  59. ^ Rice, Doyle (February 15, 2021). "150M people under winter advisories, 1 dead as 'unprecedented' storm stretches across 25 states; 3.5M without power in Texas". USA Today. Archived from the original on February 15, 2021. Retrieved February 15, 2021.
  60. ^ Heinz, Frank (February 16, 2021). "Gov. Abbott Says ERCOT 'Anything But Reliable' With Millions of Customers Powerless in Record Cold". KXAS-TV. Archived from the original on February 16, 2021. Retrieved February 16, 2021.
  61. ^ Miller, Brandon (February 16, 2021). "These US cities had the coldest morning in decades – with some reaching all-time record lows". CNN. Archived from the original on February 16, 2021. Retrieved February 17, 2021.
  62. ^ "Extreme Winter Weather Causes U.S. Blackouts". earthobservatory.nasa.gov. February 16, 2021. Retrieved February 17, 2021.
  63. ^ "Multiple cities in North Texas under a boil water order as power outages continue". WFAA. February 16, 2021. Archived from the original on February 16, 2021. Retrieved February 17, 2021.
  64. ^ Bethel, Brian (February 15, 2021). "Abilene officials: We have no water due to power loss, no timetable to service return". Abilene Reporter-News. Archived from the original on February 16, 2021. Retrieved February 17, 2021.
  65. ^ Shapiro, Emily (February 17, 2021). "Houston issues boil water advisory amid winter storm: How to keep your water safe". ABC News. Archived from the original on February 18, 2021. Retrieved February 18, 2021.
  66. ^ Miller, Thomas (February 16, 2021). "Boil order notices issued for Central Texas water systems". KWTX-TV. Archived from the original on February 16, 2021. Retrieved February 17, 2021.
  67. ^ Heyen, Curtis; Onken, Alex (February 16, 2021). "Boil advisories issued in the ArkLaTex during severe winter weather". KSLA. Archived from the original on February 17, 2021. Retrieved February 17, 2021.
  68. ^ Hernández, Arelis R.; Hoffman, Ken; Hauslohner, Abigail; Witte, Griff (February 19, 2021). "Power returns for many in Texas, but water crisis escalates as storm damage spreads". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on February 19, 2021. Retrieved February 19, 2021.
  69. ^ "Texas weather: Residents told to boil tap water amid power blackouts". BBC News. February 19, 2021. Archived from the original on February 18, 2021. Retrieved February 19, 2021.
  70. ^ Barajas, Bill (February 19, 2021). "Houstonians rush to grocery stores in search of bottled water but find mostly empty shelves". KPRC-TV. Archived from the original on February 19, 2021. Retrieved February 19, 2021.
  71. ^ "Predators at Stars postponed due to extreme weather, power outages in Dallas area". ESPN. Associated Press. February 15, 2021. Archived from the original on February 16, 2021. Retrieved February 15, 2021.
  72. ^ "Stars, Predators game scheduled for Tuesday postponed" (Press release). National Hockey League Public Relations. February 16, 2021. Archived from the original on February 16, 2021. Retrieved February 17, 2021.
  73. ^ Stanwood, Christine (February 17, 2021). "Downtown OKC goes dark to conserve power; Thunder game goes on despite controversy". KOCO-TV. Archived from the original on February 18, 2021. Retrieved February 18, 2021.
  74. ^ "Thunder Move Forward With Game, Will Take Steps To Conserve Power". KWTV-DT. February 16, 2021. Archived from the original on February 17, 2021. Retrieved February 17, 2021.
  75. ^ McLaughlin, Tim (February 15, 2021). "Texas wholesale electric prices spike more than 10,000% amid outages". Reuters. Archived from the original on February 17, 2021. Retrieved February 18, 2021.
  76. ^ Rio, Giulia McDonnell Nieto del; Bogel-Burroughs, Nicholas; Penn, Ivan (February 21, 2021). "His Lights Stayed on During Texas' Storm. Now He Owes $16,752". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  77. ^ Monacelli, Pilar Melendez, William Bredderman, Steven (February 17, 2021). "'People Are Greedy': The Absurd Electric Bills Slamming Texans". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on February 17, 2021. Retrieved February 18, 2021.
  78. ^ Murphy, Paul P.; Klein, Betsy; Diaz, Daniella; Raju, Manu; Allen, Keith. "Cruz calls Cancun, Mexico, trip 'a mistake' as Texans remain without power amid historic winter storm". CNN. Retrieved February 19, 2021.
  79. ^ KOCO Staff (February 12, 2021). "Gov. Kevin Stitt declares winter weather State of Emergency for all 77 Oklahoma counties". KOCO. Archived from the original on February 12, 2021. Retrieved February 15, 2021.
  80. ^ Herzmann, Daryl. "IEM :: PNS from NWS SHV". mesonet.agron.iastate.edu. Retrieved February 17, 2021.Herzmann, Daryl. "IEM :: PNS from NWS AMA". mesonet.agron.iastate.edu. Retrieved February 17, 2021.Herzmann, Daryl. "IEM :: PNS from NWS TSA". mesonet.agron.iastate.edu. Retrieved February 17, 2021.Herzmann, Daryl. "IEM :: PNS from NWS OUN". mesonet.agron.iastate.edu. Retrieved February 17, 2021.
  81. ^ KOCO Staff (February 14, 2021). "LIVE UPDATES: Crashes, dangerous road conditions reported as major snowstorm moves across Oklahoma". KOCO. Archived from the original on February 15, 2021. Retrieved February 15, 2021.
  82. ^ KOCO Staff (February 14, 2021). "Turner Turnpike closed in both directions in east Oklahoma City due to multi-vehicle crash". KOCO. Archived from the original on February 15, 2021. Retrieved February 15, 2021.
  83. ^ KOCO Staff (February 14, 2021). "WATCH: Lake Overholser dam frozen during Oklahoma winter storm". Archived from the original on February 14, 2021. Retrieved February 15, 2021.
  84. ^ Villafranca, Omar (February 16, 2021). "Dangerous winter storm kills at least 11, leaves millions without power, mainly in Texas". CBS News. Retrieved February 16, 2021.
  85. ^ "At least 49 people dead from extreme winter weather". ABC Columbia. February 19, 2021. Retrieved February 19, 2021.
  86. ^ Thebault, Reis; Firozi, Paulina; Shammas, Brittany. "A boy who fell through ice, a woman who lost power: 47 deaths tied to winter storms — and counting". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on February 19, 2021. Retrieved February 19, 2021.
  87. ^ Kalich, Sydney; Yi, Ji Suk; Townsend, Haley; Ramon, Albert (February 19, 2021). "At least 49 dead amid winter weather, power outages as storm moves east". KXAN Austin. Archived from the original on February 19, 2021. Retrieved February 19, 2021.
  88. ^ Hellerstedt, John (December 31, 2021). "February 2021 Winter Storm-Related Deaths - Texas" (PDF). Texas Department of State Health Services: 1–8 – via Texas Government.
  89. ^ Khristopher J. Brooks (May 6, 2021). "Restaurants face nationwide chicken shortage". CBS News. Retrieved May 6, 2021.
  90. ^ Danielle Banks (May 6, 2021). "Texas Winter Storm Contributed to Chicken Shortage". weather.com. The Weather Company. Retrieved May 6, 2021.
  91. ^ Miranda Baines (May 6, 2021). "Chicken flying off menus as demand soars throughout nation". yourgv.com. Retrieved May 7, 2021.
  92. ^ Gowdy, ShaCamree (April 28, 2021). "Where were you the day the chicken wings disappeared?". Chron. Retrieved May 7, 2021.
  93. ^ Hartmans, Avery (April 25, 2021). "Chicken wings are in short supply nationwide due to Texas storms and soaring demand for the 'pandemic-proof' delicacy". Business Insider. Retrieved May 7, 2021.
  94. ^ Lagatta, Eric; Narciso, Dean (February 17, 2021). "Columbus weather: More snow, warmer temperatures on the way to central Ohio". Columbus Dispatch. Archived from the original on February 16, 2021. Retrieved February 18, 2021.
  95. ^ "SPC Severe Weather Event Review for Monday February 15, 2021". www.spc.noaa.gov. Retrieved February 16, 2021.
  96. ^ Preliminary Local Storm Report (Report). Iowa Environmental Mesonet. National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office in Wilmington, North Carolina. February 16, 2021. Archived from the original on February 20, 2021. Retrieved February 16, 2021.
  97. ^ Sutton, Joe; Ebrahimji, Alisha; Silverman, Hollie (February 16, 2021). "3 people were killed and 10 more injured after a tornado struck a coastal North Carolina community". Cable News Network. Archived from the original on February 16, 2021. Retrieved February 16, 2021.
  98. ^ Florida Event Report: EF0 Tornado. National Centers for Environmental Information (Report). National Weather Service. Retrieved July 3, 2021.
  99. ^ "Florida Event Report: EF0 Tornado". National Centers for Environmental Information. National Weather Service. Retrieved July 3, 2021.
  100. ^ "Florida Event Report: EF0 Tornado". National Centers for Environmental Information. National Weather Service. Retrieved July 3, 2021.
  101. ^ Storm Events Database February 15, 2021 (Report). National Centers for Environmental Information. National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
  102. ^ NWS Damage Survey for 02/15/2021 Tornado Event – Update #2 (Report). National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office in Tallahassee, Florida. February 17, 2021. Retrieved February 17, 2021.
  103. ^ Storm Events Database February 15, 2021 (Report). National Centers for Environmental Information. National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
  104. ^ a b c Storm Events Database February 15, 2021 (Report). National Centers for Environmental Information. National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved May 28, 2021.
  105. ^ Powerful EF3 tornado tears through NC, killing at least 3, AccuWeather, February 16, 2021
  106. ^ DaVonté McKenith (February 16, 2021). "UPDATE: NWS confirms "high-end" EF3 tornado struck Brunswick County; 3 killed, 10 hurt". WXII 12 News. Retrieved March 7, 2022.
  107. ^ Noah Johnson (February 18, 2021). "National Weather Service: Tornado hit Brunswick as 'high end EF3'". StarNews Online. Retrieved March 7, 2022.
  108. ^ "¿Por qué hace tanto frío en Texas? La histórica tormenta invernal que dejó sin electricidad al norte de México". BBC News Mundo (in Spanish). February 15, 2021. Archived from the original on February 16, 2021. Retrieved February 16, 2021.
  109. ^ "Se importará gas en buque y se reactivarán plantas de combustóleo y carbón ante crisis eléctrica: AMLO". proceso.com.mx (in Spanish). Proceso. February 17, 2021. Archived from the original on February 20, 2021. Retrieved February 17, 2021.
  110. ^ "Crisis energética: advirtieron de otras 48 horas complejas y pidieron a la población ahorrar luz". infobae (in European Spanish). Infobae. February 17, 2021. Archived from the original on February 17, 2021. Retrieved February 17, 2021.
  111. ^ "Snowstorm takes over the GTA and Southern Ontario – 680 NEWS". www.680news.com. Retrieved February 16, 2021.
  112. ^ ECCC Weather Ontario [@ECCCWeatherON] (February 16, 2021). "A summary of last night's snow is now available. Read the full summary here: ow.ly/jidQ50DBRSa #ONStorm" (Tweet). Retrieved February 16, 2021 – via Twitter.
  113. ^ "Winter Storm Viola Smashed Records in the South and Brought Snow, Ice Into Northeast". weather.com. The Weather Company. February 20, 2021. Retrieved March 26, 2021.
  114. ^ "Managed repair service critical to Winter Storms Uri & Viola response". Crawford. March 3, 2021. Retrieved March 5, 2021.
  115. ^ "Global Catastrophe Recap – February 2021" (PDF). Aon Benfield. March 10, 2021. p. 4. Retrieved March 11, 2021.

External linksEdit