¡Bienvenido! Welcome to the Mexico portal
Mexico (Spanish: México [ˈmexiko] (listen); Nahuan languages: Mēxihco), officially the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos; EUM [esˈtaðos uˈniðoz mexiˈkanos] (listen)), is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Mexico covers 1,972,550 square kilometers (761,610 sq mi), making it the world's 13th-largest country by area; with approximately 126,014,024 inhabitants, it is the 10th-most-populous country and has the most Spanish-speakers. Mexico is organized as a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, its capital and largest metropolis. Other major urban areas include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana, Ciudad Juárez, and León.
Pre-Columbian Mexico traces its origins to 8,000 BC and is identified as one of six cradles of civilization; it was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations, most notably the Maya and the Aztecs. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the region from its base in Mexico City, establishing the colony of New Spain. The Catholic Church played an important role in spreading Christianity and the Spanish language, while also preserving some indigenous cultures. Native populations were heavily exploited to mine rich deposits of precious metals, which contributed to Spain's status as a major world power for the next three centuries. Over time, a distinct Mexican identity formed, based on a fusion of indigenous and European customs; this contributed to the successful Mexican War of Independence against Spain in 1821. (Full article...)
Featured article -
This is a Featured article, which represents some of the best content on English Wikipedia.
The Convention of 1833 (April 1–13, 1833), a political gathering of settlers of Mexican Texas, was a successor to the Convention of 1832, whose requests had not been addressed by the Mexican government. Despite the political uncertainty succeeding from a recently concluded civil war, 56 delegates met in San Felipe de Austin to draft a series of petitions to the Alamo
The volatile William H. Wharton presided over the meeting. Although the convention's agenda largely mirrored that of the Convention of 1832, delegates also agreed to pursue independent statehood for the province, which was at the time part of the state of Coahuila y Tejas. Under the guidance of Sam Houston, former governor of the US state of Tennessee, a committee drafted a state constitution to submit to the Mexican Congress. The proposed constitution was largely patterned on US political principles, yet retained several Spanish customs. Delegates also requested customs exemptions and asked that a ban on immigration into Texas be lifted.
Some residents complained that this convention, like its predecessor, was illegal. Nevertheless, Stephen F. Austin
journeyed to Mexico City
to present the petitions to the government. Frustrated with the lack of progress, in October Austin wrote a letter encouraging Texans to form their own state government. This letter was forwarded to the Mexican government and Austin was imprisoned in early 1834. During his imprisonment, the federal and state legislatures later passed a series of measures to placate the colonists, including the introduction of trial by jury
. Austin acknowledged that "[e]very evil complained of has been remedied." (Full article...
Selected article -
The Revillagigedo Islands (Spanish: Islas Revillagigedo, IPA: [reˈβiʝa xiˈxeðo]) or Revillagigedo Archipelago are a group of four volcanic islands in the Pacific Ocean, known for their unique ecosystem. They lie approximately 285 miles (458 km) from Socorro Island south and southwest of Cabo San Lucas, the southern tip of the Baja California Peninsula, and 698 to 1,092 kilometres (434 to 679 mi) west of Manzanillo. They are located around . Technically part of the Mexican state of Colima, the islands are under Mexican federal jurisdiction.
In July 2016, the Revillagigedo Archipelago were inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site
, and in November 2017 they were declared to be a marine reserve
and a national park of Mexico
. Some of the volcanoes are active, with the last eruption of Volcán Bárcena
in 1953, and Socorro
in 1993. (Full article...
Good article -
This is a Good article, an article that meets a core set of high editorial standards.
Mexican forces outside the Casino de la Laguna
The Torreón massacre (Spanish: Matanza de chinos de Torreón) was a racially motivated massacre that took place on 13–15 May 1911 in the Mexican city of Torreón, Coahuila. Over 300 Asian Mexicans were killed by a local mob and the revolutionary forces of Francisco I. Madero, mostly Cantonese Mexicans and some Japanese Mexicans. A large number of Cantonese homes and shops were looted and destroyed.
Torreón was the last major city to be taken by the Maderistas
during the Mexican Revolution
. When the government forces withdrew, the rebels entered the city in the early morning and, along with the local population, began a ten-hour massacre of the Cantonese community. The event touched off a diplomatic crisis between Qing China
and Mexico, with the former demanding 30 million pesos
in reparation. At one point it was rumored that Qing China had even dispatched a warship to Mexican waters (the cruiser Hai Chi
, which was anchored in Cuba
at the time). An investigation into the massacre concluded that it was an unprovoked act of racism. (Full article...
Selected biography -
José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz Mori ( or ; Spanish: [poɾˈfiɾjo ði.as]; 15 September 1830 – 2 July 1915) was a Mexican general and politician who served seven terms as President of Mexico, a total of 31 years, from 28 November 1876 to 6 December 1876, 17 February 1877 to 1 December 1880 and from 1 December 1884 to 25 May 1911. The entire period from 1876 to 1911 is often referred to as the Porfiriato.
A veteran of the War of the Reform
(1858–1860) and the French intervention in Mexico
(1862–1867), Díaz rose to the rank of general, leading republican troops against the French-imposed rule of Emperor Maximilian
. He subsequently revolted against presidents Benito Juárez
and Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada
, on the principle of no re-election to the presidency. Díaz succeeded in seizing power, ousting Lerdo in a coup in 1876, with the help of his political supporters, and was elected in 1877. In 1880, he stepped down and his political ally Manuel González
was elected president, serving from 1880 to 1884. In 1884 Díaz abandoned the idea of no re-election and held office continuously until 1911. (Full article...
In the news
- 21 June 2021 – Foreign relations of Nicaragua
- The Argentinian and Mexican foreign ministries announce in a joint statement that they are withdrawing their respective ambassadors from Nicaragua for consultations in response to President Daniel Ortega's increasing crackdown on dissidents, including the arrest of five potential presidential candidates this month. (Al Jazeera)
- 14 June 2021 – COVID-19 pandemic
- Phase III clinical trials for the Novavax COVID-19 vaccine candidate conclude in the U.S. and Mexico, showing an efficacy rating of 90.4%, down from the initial estimate of 96.4% efficacy reported in March. Additionally, the vaccine candidate was also found to be 86.3% effective against the Lineage B.1.1.7 Alpha variant that originated in the United Kingdom. (CNN International)
- 11 June 2021 – Discoveries of exoplanets
- A group of scientists from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the University of New Mexico announces that water clouds are discovered on TOI-1231 b, a Neptune-like exoplanet that is located 90 light-years away from Earth. (CBS News)
- 7 June 2021 – U.S.-Mexico border crisis
- In Guatemala, U.S. Vice President Kamala Harris announces several steps to address the migration crisis at the Northern Triangle during a joint conference with Guatemalan President Alejandro Giammattei. She also urged migrants not to flee to the Mexico–United States border. (NBC News)
- 7 June 2021 – 2021 Mexican legislative election
- The National Electoral Institute reports that President Andrés Manuel López Obrador's coalition Juntos Hacemos Historia is projected to win between 265 and 292 seats in the Chamber of Deputies, retaining its majority but without the two-thirds majority that it previously had. His party National Regeneration Movement (MORENA) saw losses in Mexico City, previously a MORENA stronghold. López Obrador subsequently vows to do more to help the poor. (Reuters)
- 6 June 2021 – 2021 Mexican legislative election
- Mexican voters head to the polls to elect a new session to the Chamber of Deputies. Analysts predict that while President Andrés Manuel López Obrador's party National Regeneration Movement will lose seats, his coalition will retain an overall majority. The lead-up to the election saw considerable violence, with at least 89 politicians, including 35 candidates, killed in the past 200 days. (Al Jazeera English)
Selected fare or cuisine -
A sugar skull, a common gift for children and decoration for the Day of the Dead
A calavera [plural: calaveras] (Spanish – pronounced [kalaˈβeɾa] for "skull") is a representation of a human skull. The term is most often applied to edible or decorative skulls made (usually by hand) from either sugar (called Alfeñiques) or clay that are used in the Mexican celebration of the Day of the Dead (Spanish: Día de Muertos) and the Roman Catholic holiday All Souls' Day. Calavera can also refer to any artistic representations of skulls, such as the lithographs of José Guadalupe Posada. The most widely known calaveras are created with cane sugar and are decorated with items such as colored foil, icing, beads, and feathers. They range in multiple colors.
Traditional methods for producing calaveras have been in use since the 1630s. The skulls are created either for children or as offerings to be placed on altars known as ofrendas
for the Día de Muertos
, which has roots in the Aztec
, and Toltec
cultural celebration of the Day of the Dead. (Full article...
The following are images from various Mexico-related articles on Wikipedia.
Battle of Celaya (1915), earning him the nickname of Manco de Celaya ("the one-armed man of Celaya"). (from History of Mexico)
President Obregón. Note that he lost his right arm in the
History of Mexico)
Goddess, mural painting from the Tetitla apartment complex at Teotihuacan, Mexico, 650–750 CE. Pigments over clay and plaster. Elaborate mural paintings adorned Teotihuacan's elite residential compound. This example may depict the city's principal deity, a goddess wearing a jade mask and a large feathered headdress. (from
T'ah 'ak' Cha'an. (from History of Mexico)
Panel 3 from Cancuen, Guatemala, representing king
Nacional Financiera (NAFIN), the state development bank. (from History of Mexico)
P-47D with a maintenance crew after a combat mission (from History of Mexico)
A pilot standing in front of his
Chacmool, Maya, from the Platform of the Eagles, Chichen Itza, Mexico, ca. 800–90 CE. Stone, 4' 10.5" high. National Museum of Anthropology, Mexico city. Chacmools represent fallen warriors reclining on their backs with receptacles on their chests to receive sacrificial offerings. Excavators discovered one in the burial chamber inside the Castilloyo (from History of Mexico)
History of Mexico)
Rebel soldiers moving by rail during the Mexican Revolution. (from
Tula portraying warriors armed with darts and spear-throwers reflect the military regime of the Toltecs, whose arrival in central Mexico coincided with the decline of the Maya. (from History of Mexico)
Colossal atlantids, pyramid B, Toltec, Tula, Mexico, ca. 900–1180 CE. Stone, each 16' high. The colossal statue-columns of
History of Mexico)
Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz by Friar Miguel de Herrera (1700–1789) (from
History of Mexico)
1890 perhaps the streets of no other city present so diversified a picture as those of the city of Mexico. Every variety of costume, civil and religious, Indian and European, of the city and country, is intermingled in the crowd. (from
Olmec colossal are uncertain, but their individualized features and distinctive headgear, as well as later Maya practice, suggest that these heads portray rulers rather than deities. (from History of Mexico)
The identities of the
La Constitución ha muerto). (from History of Mexico)
1903. Slogan on the protest banner reads: "The Constitution has died" (
Lady Xoc, Maya, lintel 24 of temple 23, Yaxchilan, Mexico, ca. 725 ce. Limestone, 3'7" × 2' 6.5". British Museum, London. The Maya built vast complexes of temples, palaces, and plazas and decorated many with painted reliefs. (from History of Mexico)
Shield Jaguar and
Teotihuacan view of the Avenue of the Dead and the Pyramid of the Sun, from the Pyramid of the Moon. At its peak around 600 CE, Teotihuacan was the sixth-largest city in the world. It featured a rational grid plan and a two-mile-long main avenue. Its monumental pyramids echo the shapes of surrounding mountains. (from History of Mexico)
History of Mexico)
Comanchería, territory controlled by the Comaches, prior to 1850. (from
History of Mexico)
Flag and coat of arms of the Mexican Empire superimposed a map of its territorial limits. Note the crown on the eagle. (from
Kukulkan sits atop this pyramid with a total of 365 stairs on its four sides. At the spring and fall equinoxes, the sun casts a shadow in the shape of a serpent along the northern staircase. (from History of Mexico)
The Castillo, Chichen Itza, Mexico, ca. 800–900 CE. A temple to
Moctezuma Xocoyotzin was the ninth tlatoani or ruler of Tenochtitlan, reigning from 1502 to 1520. The first contact between indigenous civilizations of Mesoamerica and Europeans took place during his reign, and he was killed during the initial stages of the Spanish conquest of Mexico, when Conquistador Hernán Cortés and his men fought to escape from the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan.
horse was use in battle in a war in the Americas. Mural in the Palacio Municipal of Paraíso, Tabasco (from History of Mexico)
Battle of Centla, first time a
Ixmiquilpan occurred on September 25, 1866. between 350 soldiers of the Belgian Legion and Juarista forces, ending the battle with the victory of the latter. (from History of Mexico)
Partido Nacional Revolucionario, with the colors of the Mexican flag (from History of Mexico)
Logo of the
Select [►] to view subcategories
You are invited to participate in WikiProject Mexico, a WikiProject dedicated to developing and improving articles about Mexico.