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Mexico (Spanish: México [ˈmexiko] (listen); Nahuan languages: Mēxihco), officially the United Mexican States (Spanish: Estados Unidos Mexicanos; EUM [esˈtaðos uˈniðoz mexiˈkanos] (listen)), is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Mexico covers 1,972,550 square kilometers (761,610 sq mi) and has approximately 128,649,565 inhabitants, making it the world's 13th-largest country by area, 10th-most populous country, and most populous Spanish-speaking nation. It is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, its capital city and largest metropolis. Other major urban areas include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana, Ciudad Juárez, and León.
Pre-Columbian Mexico traces its origins to 8,000 BC and is identified as one of six cradles of civilization; it was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations, most well-known among them the Maya and the Aztecs. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its base in Mexico City, which then became known as New Spain. The Catholic Church played an important role as millions of indigenous inhabitants converted. These populations were heavily exploited to mine rich deposits of precious material, which became a major source of wealth for the Spanish. Mexico became an independent nation state after the successful Mexican War of Independence against Spain in 1821.
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The cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus) is a species of wren that is endemic to the deserts of the southwestern United States and northern and central Mexico. It is the state bird of Arizona, and the largest wren in the United States. Their coloration is brown with black and white spots as markings. They have a distinctive white eyebrow that sweeps to the nape of the neck. The chest is white, whereas the underparts are cinnamon-buff colored. Both sexes appear similar. The tail, as well as flight feathers, are barred in black and white. Their song is a loud raspy chirrup; akin—in the description of some ornithologists—to the sound of a car engine that will not start. They are well-adapted to their native desert environment, and can meet their water needs from their diet which consists chiefly of insects, but also of some plant matter. The cactus wren is a poor flier, and generally forages for food on the ground. Ornithologists generally recognize seven subspecies, with the exact taxonomy under dispute.
Their common name
derives from their frequenting desert cactus
plants such as the saguaro
, building nests, roosting, and seeking protection from predators among them. Their bulky and globular nests are constructed of plant material and lined with feathers. They do not migrate
, establishing and defending territories
around their nests where they live year-round. They live as pairs, or as family groups from late spring through winter. Pairing among cactus wrens is monogamous
; in each breeding season
, the males chiefly build nests, the females incubate eggs, and both parents feed the young. Read more...
Selected biography -
Fortino Mario Moreno y Reyes, known casually as Mario Moreno and professionally as Cantinflas (12 August 1911 – 20 April 1993), was a Mexican film actor, producer, and screenwriter. He is considered to have been the most accomplished Mexican comedian and is celebrated throughout Latin America and in Spain. His humor, loaded with Mexican linguistic features of intonation, vocabulary, and syntax, is beloved in all the Spanish-speaking countries of Latin America and in Spain and has given rise to a range of expressions including cantinflear, cantinflada, cantinflesco, and cantinflero.
Though some of his films were translated into English and French, the word games so particular in Mexican Spanish were difficult to translate. He often portrayed impoverished farmers or a peasant
origin. The character allowed Cantinflas to establish a long, successful film career that included a foray into Hollywood
. Charlie Chaplin
once commented that he was the best comedian alive, and Moreno has been referred to as the "Charlie Chaplin of Mexico". To audiences in most of the world, he is best remembered as co-starring with David Niven
in the Academy Award winner for Best Picture
film Around the World in 80 Days
, for which Moreno won a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy
. Read more...
Selected fare or cuisine -
) are a popular Mexican antojito
(street food) that consists of Tostitos tortilla chips
topped with cueritos
, lime juice
, Valentina hot sauce
, Tajín chili powder
, salt, and "Japanese peanuts
". The dish was first conceived in the late 1990s by street vendors in Mexico. Tostilocos are now commonly sold by street vendors, stadium vendors, and at Mexican juice bars
in both Mexico and the Southwestern United States
. Read more...
The following are images from various Mexico-related articles on Wikipedia.
A pilot standing in front of his P-47D with a maintenance crew after a combat mission
Teotihuacan view of the Avenue of the Dead and the Pyramid of the Sun, from the Pyramid of the Moon. At its peak around 600 CE, Teotihuacan was the sixth-largest city in the world. It featured a rational grid plan and a two-mile-long main avenue. Its monumental pyramids echo the shapes of surrounding mountains.
President Enrique Peña Nieto with President of China Xi Jinping
Flag and coat of arms of the Mexican Empire superimposed a map of its territorial limits. Note the crown on the eagle.
1890 perhaps the streets of no other city present so diversified a picture as those of the city of Mexico. Every variety of costume, civil and religious, Indian and European, of the city and country, is intermingled in the crowd.
A unit of Cristeros preparing for battle.
El Chapo in US custody after his extradition from Mexico.
The identities of the Olmec colossal are uncertain, but their individualized features and distinctive headgear, as well as later Maya practice, suggest that these heads portray rulers rather than deities.
1903. Slogan on the protest banner reads: "The Constitution has died" (La Constitución ha muerto).
Comanchería, territory controlled by the Comaches, prior to 1850.
Moctezuma Xocoyotzin was the ninth tlatoani or ruler of Tenochtitlan, reigning from 1502 to 1520. The first contact between indigenous civilizations of Mesoamerica and Europeans took place during his reign, and he was killed during the initial stages of the Spanish conquest of Mexico, when Conquistador Hernán Cortés and his men fought to escape from the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan.
Since the 16th century, the poinsettia, a native plant from Mexico, has been associated with Christmas carrying the Christian symbolism of the Star of Bethlehem; in that country it is known in Spanish as the Flower of the Holy Night.
Logo of Nacional Financiera (NAFIN), the state development bank.
Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz by Friar Miguel de Herrera (1700–1789)
The Castillo, Chichen Itza, Mexico, ca. 800–900 CE. A temple to Kukulkan sits atop this pyramid with a total of 365 stars on its four sides. At the spring and fall equinoxes, the sun casts a shadow in the shape of a serpent along the northern staircase.
A map of Mexico 1845 after Texas annexation by U.S.
Goddess, mural painting from the Tetitla apartment complex at Teotihuacan, Mexico, 650–750 CE. Pigments over clay and plaster. Elaborate mural paintings adorned Teotihuacan's elite residential compound. This example may depict the city's principal deity, a goddess wearing a jade mask and a large feathered headdress.
Rebel soldiers moving by rail during the Mexican Revolution.
Maximilian receiving a Mexican delegation at Miramare Castle in Trieste. Painting by Cesare dell'Acqua (1821-1905).
Chacmool, Maya, from the Platform of the Eagles, Chichen Itza, Mexico, ca. 800–90 CE. Stone, 4' 10.5" high. National Museum of Anthropology, Mexico city. Chacmools represent fallen warriors reclining on their backs with receptacles on their chests to receive sacrificial offerings. Excavators discovered one in the burial chamber inside the Castilloyo
Logo of the Partido Nacional Revolucionario, with the colors of the Mexican flag
President Obregón. Note that he lost his right arm in the Battle of Celaya (1915), earning him the nickname of Manco de Celaya ("the one-armed man of Celaya").
A detachment of Rurales during the Porfiriato
Flag of the Second Mexican Empire
The dahlia was declared the national flower of Mexico in 1963.
Colossal atlantids, pyramid B, Toltec, Tula, Mexico, ca. 900–1180 CE. Stone, each 16' high. The colossal statue-columns of Tula portraying warriors armed with darts and spear-throwers reflect the military regime of the Toltecs, whose arrival in central Mexico coincided with the decline of the Maya.
Plaza de la Constitución (Constitution Square) The "Zocalo"
Battle of Centla, first time a horse was use in battle in a war in the Americas. Mural in the Palacio Municipal of Paraíso, Tabasco
Shield Jaguar and Lady Xoc, Maya, lintel 24 of temple 23, Yaxchilan, Mexico, ca. 725 ce. Limestone, 3'7" × 2' 6.5". British Museum, London. The Maya built vast complexes of temples, palaces, and plazas and decorated many with painted reliefs.
A 20th-century mural by Diego Rivera depicting Spaniards' exploitation of indigenous labor
The National film library.
Cristeros (Catholic rebels) hung in Jalisco.
Mexico City street market
Northern Dance in Nuevo León
Entry into Mexico City by the Mexican army.
Detail of a relief from Palenque, a Classic-era city. Maya script is the only known complete writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas and enabled the beginning of recorded history.
Spanish and Portuguese empires in 1790
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