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Pozole (Nahuatl languages: pozolli Spanish pronunciation: [po'sole], pozole), which means "hominy", is a traditional soup or stew from Mexican Cuisine. It is made from hominy, with meat (typically pork), and can be seasoned and garnished with shredded lettuce or cabbage, chile peppers, onion, garlic, radishes, avocado, salsa or limes.

Pozole
WhitePozoleDF.JPG
TypeSoup
Place of originMexico
Region or stateCentral Mexico
Created byNahuas
Serving temperatureHot
Main ingredientsHominy, meat (usually pork or chicken), chile peppers, seasonings
VariationsBlanco, Verde, Rojo

Pozole is typically served on New Year's Eve to celebrate the new year.[1][2] Pozole is frequently served as a celebratory dish throughout Mexico and in Mexican communities outside Mexico. Common occasions include Mexico Independence Day, birthdays, Christmas and other holidays.[3] It is a typical dish in various states such as Nayarit, Sinaloa, Michoacán, Guerrero, Zacatecas, Jalisco, and Morelos. Pozole is served in Mexican restaurants worldwide and is also popular in New Mexico where it was a common dish among the Pueblo Indians residing along the Rio Grande River in New Mexico.[4][5]

Pozole can be prepared in many ways. All variations include a base of cooked hominy in broth. Typically pork, or sometimes chicken, is included in the base. Vegetarian recipes substitute beans for the meat. The three main types of pozole are blanco/white,[6] verde/green and rojo/red. White pozole is the preparation without any additional green or red sauce. Green pozole adds a rich sauce based on green ingredients, possibly including tomatillos, epazote, cilantro, jalapeños, or pepitas. Red pozole is made without the green sauce, instead adding a red sauce made from one or more chiles, such as guajillo, piquin, or ancho.

When pozole is served, it is accompanied by a wide variety of condiments, potentially including chopped onion, shredded lettuce, sliced radish, cabbage, avocado, limes, oregano, tostadas, chicharrón, or chiles.[7]

Red pozole

HistoryEdit

 
This drawing from page 22 of the Codex f Magliabechiano depicts pozole.[8]

Pozole was mentioned in the 16th century Florentine Codex by Bernardino de Sahagún.[9] Since maize was a sacred plant for the Aztecs and other inhabitants of Mesoamerica, pozole was made to be consumed on special occasions.

According to research by the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia (National Institute of Anthropology and History) and the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, on these special occasions, the meat used in the pozole was human. After the prisoners were killed by having their hearts torn out in a ritual sacrifice, the rest of the body was chopped and cooked with maize, and the resulting meal was shared among the whole community as an act of religious communion. After the Conquest, when cannibalism was banned, pork became the staple meat as it "tasted very similar" [to human flesh], according to Bernardino de Sahagún.[10][11]

The conjunction of maize (usually whole hominy kernels) and meat in a single dish is of particular interest to scholars, because the ancient Americans believed the gods made humans out of masa (cornmeal dough)[12][unreliable source?]

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Anonymous; Seibert, Sandra; Anonymous; Pharo, Christine; Anonymous; Morethanbeefandtaters; Anonymous; G., Pauline; M., Monica (16 November 2016). "Posole Rojo". Food Network. Retrieved 13 May 2019.
  2. ^ "Red Posole with Pork". Epicurious. 30 May 2017. Retrieved 13 May 2019.
  3. ^ "Mexican Pozole". Mexico. Retrieved 13 May 2019.
  4. ^ Cocking, Lauren (12 February 2017). "A Brief History of Pozole, Mexico's Take on Traditional Stew". Culture Trip. Retrieved 13 May 2019.
  5. ^ Butel, Jane (11 December 1994). "Sacred Stew : Posole, a Native American corn dish, is served at pueblo festivals, but it can also be sampled in restaurants around Albuquerque". latimes.com. Retrieved 13 May 2019.
  6. ^ Cookpad: Pozole Blanco
  7. ^ Bauer, Elise (8 October 2011). "Authentic Pozole Rojo (Red Posole) Recipe". Simply Recipes. Retrieved 13 May 2019.
  8. ^ Pozolli. (n.d.). Nahuatl dictionary. Retrieved 28 August 2012, from http://whp.uoregon.edu/dictionaries/nahuatl/index.lasso
  9. ^ Bernardino de Sahagún, Florentine Codex: General History of the Things of New Spain (Translation of and Introduction to Historia General de Las Cosas de La Nueva España; 12 Volumes in 13 Books ), trans. Charles E. Dibble and Arthur J. O Anderson (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1950–1982). Images are taken from Fray Bernardino de Sahagún, The Florentine Codex. Complete digital facsimile edition on 16 DVDs. Tempe, Arizona: Bilingual Press, 2009. Reproduced with permission from Arizona State University Hispanic Research Center.
  10. ^ Mexico On My Plate: Red Pozole and It’s History
  11. ^ Mexico, Surviving (12 July 2016). "Aztec cannibalism". Surviving Mexico. Retrieved 13 May 2019.
  12. ^ Pixels, Grand (25 May 2017). "Mexican Pozole: A Taste Of Mexican History". Benitos Real Authentic Mexican Food Fort Worth, Texas. Retrieved 13 May 2019.