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Juana Inés de la Cruz

Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, O.S.H. (English: Sister Joan Agnes of the Cross; 12 November 1648 – 17 April 1695), was a self-taught scholar and student of scientific thought, philosopher, musician composer, and poet of the Baroque school, and Hieronymite nun of New Spain (Mexico). Her outspoken opinions granted her lifelong names such as, "The Tenth Muse", "The Phoenix of America", or the "Mexican Phoenix".[1]

Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, O.S.H.
Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz by Miguel Cabrera
Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz by Miguel Cabrera
BornJuana Inés de Asbaje y Ramírez de Santillana
12 November 1648
San Miguel Nepantla,
New Spain, Spanish Empire
(near modern Tepetlixpa, Mexico)
Died17 April 1695(1695-04-17) (aged 46)
Mexico City, New Spain,
Spanish Empire
OccupationNun, poet, writer, musician composer
NationalitySpanish
Literary movementBaroque
RelativesPedro Manuel de Asbaje and Isabel Ramírez (parents)

Signature

Sor Juana lived during Mexico's colonial period, making her a contributor both to early Spanish literature as well as to the broader literature of the Spanish Golden Age. Beginning her studies at a young age, Sor Juana was fluent in Latin and also wrote in Nahuatl,[2] and became known for her philosophy in her teens. Sor Juana educated herself in her own library, which was mostly inherited from her grandfather.[1] After joining a nunnery in 1667,[3] Sor Juana began writing poetry and prose dealing with such topics as love, feminism, and religion.[4] She turned her nun’s quarters into a salon, visited by the city’s intellectual elite. Among them was Countess Maria Luisa de Paredes, vicereine of Mexico.[5] Her criticism of misogyny and the hypocrisy of men led to her condemnation by the Bishop of Puebla, and in 1694 she was forced to sell her collection of books and focus on charity towards the poor. She died the next year, having caught the plague while treating her fellow nuns.

LifeEdit

 
Hacienda Panoaya, in Amecameca, Mexico is where Sor Juana lived between 1651 and 1656.

Early LifeEdit

Juana Inés de Asbaje y Ramírez de Santillana was born in San Miguel Nepantla (now called Nepantla de Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz in her honor) near Mexico City. She was the illegitimate child of a Spanish Captain, Pedro Manuel de Asbaje, and a Criolla woman, Isabel Ramírez. Due to her Spanish ancestry and Mexican birth, Juana is considered a Criolla. [6] Juana was baptized 2 December 1651 and described on the baptismal rolls as "a daughter of the Church"[7], although her biological father, according to all accounts, was absent from her life. However, thanks to her maternal grandfather, who owned an Hacienda in Amecameca, Juana lived a comfortable life. She spent her early years living with her mother on his estate, Panoaya.[8]

During her childhood, Juana often hid in the Hacienda chapel to read her grandfather's books from the adjoining library, something forbidden to girls. By the age of three, Juana had learned how to read and write Latin. By the age of five, she reportedly could do accounts. At age eight, she composed a poem on the Eucharist.[9] By adolescence, Juana had mastered Greek logic, and at age thirteen she was teaching Latin to young children. She also learned the Aztec language of Nahuatl and wrote some short poems in that language.[8]

 
Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz by Friar Miguel de Herrera (1700-1789),

In 1664, at the age of 16, Juana was sent to live in Mexico City. She asked her mother's permission to disguise herself as a male student so that she could enter the university there. Without the ability to obtain formal education, Juana continued her studies privately. She was a lady-in-waiting at the colonial viceroy's court,[1] where she came under the tutelage of the Vicereine Leonor Carreto (in Italian, Leonor del Carretto), wife of the Viceroy of New Spain Antonio Sebastián de Toledo. The viceroy, the Marquis de Mancera, wishing to test the learning and intelligence of the 17-year-old, invited several theologians, jurists, philosophers, and poets to a meeting, during which she had to answer many questions unprepared and explain several difficult points on various scientific and literary subjects. The manner in which she acquitted herself astonished all present and greatly increased her reputation. Her literary accomplishments garnered her fame throughout New Spain. She was much admired in the viceregal court, and she received several proposals of marriage, which she declined.[9] It is also possible, although not certain, that she may have been a lesbian.[10][11].

As a nunEdit

In 1667, she entered the Monastery of St. Joseph, a community of the Discalced Carmelite nuns, as a postulant, where she remained but a few months. Later, in 1669, she entered the monastery of the Hieronymite nuns, which had more relaxed rules. She chose to become a nun so that she could study as she wished since she wanted "to have no fixed occupation which might curtail my freedom to study."[12]

 
Monument of Sor Juana in Chapultepec.

In the convent and perhaps earlier, Sor Juana became intimate friends with fellow savant, Don Carlos de Sigüenza y Góngora, who visited her in the convent's locutorio.[13] She stayed cloistered in the Convent of Santa Paula of the Hieronymite in Mexico City from 1669 until her death, and there she studied, wrote, and collected a large library of books. The Viceroy and Vicereine of New Spain became her patrons; they supported her and had her writings published in Spain.[12] She addressed some of her poems to paintings of her friend and patron María Luisa Manrique de Lara y Gonzaga, daughter of Vespasiano Gonzaga, Duca di Guastala, Luzara e Rechiolo and Inés María Manrique, 9th Countess de Paredes, which she also addressed as Lísida.

In November of 1690, the bishop of Puebla, Manuel Fernández de Santa Cruz published, under the pseudonym of Sor Filotea, and without her permission, Sor Juana's critique of a 40-year-old sermon by Father António Vieira, a Portuguese Jesuit preacher.[14] Although Sor Juana's intentions for the work, called Carta Atenagórica are left to interpretation, many scholars have opted to interpret the work as a challenge to the hierarchical structure of religious authority.[15] Along with Carta Atenagórica, the bishop also published his own letter in which he said she should focus on religious instead of secular studies.[12] He published his criticisms to use them to his advantage against the priest, and while he agreed with her criticisms, he believed that as a woman, she should devote herself to prayer and give up her writings.[16]

In response to critics of her writing, Sor Juana wrote a letter, Respuesta a Sor Filotea de la Cruz (Reply to Sister Philotea),[17] in which she defended women's right to education. She emphasized the need for older women in positions of authority who pass on their knowledge to other women. If women could teach women, Sor Juana argued, they could avoid the danger of male teachers in intimate setting with young female students.[18]

In addition to being a woman in a self-prescribed position of authority, Sor Juana's radical position made her an increasingly controversial figure. She famously remarked by quoting an Aragonese poet and echoing St. Teresa of Ávila: "One can perfectly well philosophize while cooking supper."[19] In response, Francisco de Aguiar y Seijas, Archbishop of Mexico joined other high-ranking officials in condemning Sor Juana's "waywardness."

By 1693, she seemingly ceased to write, rather than risking official censure. However, there is no undisputed evidence of her renouncing devotion to letters, but there are documents showing her agreeing to undergo penance.[20] Her name is affixed to such a document in 1694, but given her deep natural lyricism, the tone of the supposed handwritten penitentials is in rhetorical and autocratic Church formulae; one is signed "Yo, la Peor de Todas" ("I, the worst of all women").[20] She is said to have sold all her books,[9] then an extensive library of over 4,000 volumes, and her musical and scientific instruments as well. Other sources report that her defiance toward the church led to all of her books and instruments being confiscated although the bishop himself agreed with the contents of her letters.[21]

Only a few of her writings have survived, which are known as the Complete Works. According to Octavio Paz, her writings were saved by the vicereine.[22]

She died after ministering to other nuns stricken during a plague, on 17 April 1695. Sigüenza y Góngora delivered the eulogy at her funeral.[13]

WorksEdit

PoetryEdit

First DreamEdit

 
The former Convent of St Jerome in Mexico City.

First Dream, a long philosophical and descriptive silva (a poetic form combining verses of 7 and 11 syllables), "deals with the shadow of night beneath which a person[23] falls asleep in the midst of quietness and silence, where night and day animals participate, either dozing or sleeping, all urged to silence and rest by Harpocrates. The person's body ceases its ordinary operations,[24] which are described in physiological and symbolical terms, ending with the activity of the imagination as an image-reflecting apparatus: the Pharos. From this moment, her soul, in a dream, sees itself free at the summit of her own intellect; in other words, at the apex of an own pyramid-like mount, which aims at God and is luminous.[25]

There, perched like an eagle, she contemplates the whole creation,[26] but fails to comprehend such a sight in a single concept. Dazzled, the soul's intellect faces its own shipwreck, caused mainly by trying to understand the overwhelming abundance of the universe, until reason undertakes that enterprise, beginning with each individual creation, and processing them one by one, helped by the Aristotelic method of ten categories.[27]

The soul cannot get beyond questioning herself about the traits and causes of a fountain and a flower, intimating perhaps that his method constitutes a useless effort, since it must take into account all the details, accidents, and mysteries of each being. By that time, the body has consumed all its nourishment, and it starts to move and wake up, soul and body are reunited. The poem ends with the Sun overcoming Night in a straightforward battle between luminous and dark armies, and with the poet's awakening.[27]

DramasEdit

In addition to the two comedies outlined here (Pawns of a House [Los empeños de una casa] and Love is but a Labyrinth [Amor es mas laberinto]), Sor Juana is attributed as the author of a possible ending to the comedy by Agustin de Salazar: The Second Celestina (La Segunda Celestina).[28] In the 1990s, Guillermo Schmidhuber found a release of the comedy that contained a different ending than the otherwise known ending. He proposed that those one thousand words were written by Sor Juana. Some literary critics, such as Octavio Paz,[29] Georgina Sabat-Rivers,[30] and Luis Leal[31]) have accepted Sor Juana as the co-author, but others, such as Antonio Alatorre[32] and Jose Pascual Buxo, have refuted it.

ComediesEdit

Scholars have debated the meaning of Juana's comedies. Julie Greer Johnson describes how Juana protested against the rigorously defined relationship between genders through her full-length comedies and humor. She argues that Juana recognized the negative view of women in comedy which was designed to uphold male superiority at the expense of women. By recognizing the power of laughter, Juana appropriated the purpose of humor, and used it as a socially acceptable medium with which to question notions of men and women. [33]

Pawns of a House

The work was first performed on October 4, 1683, during the celebration of the Viceroy Count of Paredes’ first son’s birth.[34] However, some critics maintain that it could have been set up for the Archbishop Francisco de Aguiar y Seijas’ entrance to the capital, even though this theory is not considered reliable.[34]

The story revolves around two couples who are in love but, by chance of fate, cannot yet be together. This comedy of errors is considered one of the most prominent works of late baroque Spanish-American literature. One of its most peculiar characteristics is that the driving force in the story is a woman with a strong, decided personality who expresses her desires to a nun.[35] The protagonist of the story, Dona Leonor, fits the archetype perfectly.[34]

It is often considered the peak of Sor Juana’s work and even the peak of all New-Hispanic literature. Pawns of a House is considered a rare work in colonial Spanish-American theater due to the management of intrigue, representation of the complicated system of marital relationships, and the changes in urban life.[34]

Love is but a Labyrinth

The work premiered on February 11, 1689, during the celebration of the inauguration of the viceroyalty Gaspar de la Cerda y Mendoza. However, in his Essay on Psychology, Ezequiel A. Chavez mentions Fernandez del Castillo as a coauthor of this comedy.[36]

The plot takes on the well-known theme in Greek mythology of Theseus: a hero from Crete Island. He fights against the Minotaur and awakens the love of Ariadne and Fedra.[37] Sor Juana conceived Theseus as the archetype of the baroque hero, a model also used by her fellow countryman Juan Ruis de Alarcon. Theseus’ triumph over the Minotaur does not make Theseus proud, but instead allows him to be humble.[36]

MusicEdit

Besides poetry and philosophy, Sor Juana was interested in science, mathematics and music. The latter represents an important aspect because, not only because musicality was an intrinsic part of the poetry of the time but also for the fact that she devoted a significant portion of her studies to the theory of instrumental tuning that, especially in the Baroque period, had reached a point of critical importance. So involved was Sor Juana in the study of music, that she wrote a treatise called El Caracol (unfortunately lost) that sought to simplify musical notation and solve the problems that Pythagorean tuning suffered. In the writings of Juana Ines, it is possible to detect the importance of sound. We can observe this in two ways. First of all, the analysis of music and the study of musical temperament appears in several of her poems. For instance, in the following poem, Sor Juana delves into the natural notes and the accidents of musical notation.[38]

Propiedad es de natura
que entre Dios y el hombre media,
y del cielo el be cuadrado
junto al be bemol de la tierra.
(Villancico 220)

On the other, Sarah Finley[39] offers an interesting idea. She argues that the visual is related with patriarchal themes, while the sonorous offers an alternative to the feminine space in the work of Sor Juana. As an example of this, Finley points out that Narciso falls in love with a voice, and not with a reflection.

Other Notable WorksEdit

Translations and InterpretationsEdit

 
Sor Juana, by Juan de Miranda (circa 1680).

Translations

Her works have appeared in translation. An early translation of Sor Juana's work into English is Ten Sonnets from Sor Juana Inez de la Cruz [sic], 1651-1695: Mexico's Tenth Muse, published in Taxco, Guerrero, in 1943. The translator, Elizabeth Prall Anderson, had settled in Taxco. In 1997, Margaret Seyers Peden published a translated English copy of a work by Juana Inés de la Cruz in Poems, Protest, and a Dream. This work includes her response to authorities censuring her.

Scholarly InterpretationsEdit

Octavio Paz and Tarsicio Herrera Zapién are two scholars who have published work on Juana Inez de la Cruz.

Paz makes a thorough analysis of Sor Juana's poetry and traces some of her influences to the Spanish writers of the Golden Age and the Hermetic tradition, mainly derived from the works of a noted Jesuit scholar of her era, Athanasius Kircher. Paz analyses Sor Juana's most ambitious and extensive poem, "First Dream" ("Primero Sueño") as largely a representation of the desire of knowledge through a number of hermetic symbols, albeit transformed in her own language and skilled image-making abilities. In conclusion, Paz makes the case that Sor Juana's works were the most important body of poetic work produced in the Americas until the arrival of 19th-century figures such as Emily Dickinson and Walt Whitman.[22]

Tarsicio Herrera Zapién, a classical scholar, has devoted much of his career to the study of Sor Juana's works. Some of his publications (in Spanish) include Buena fe y humanismo en Sor Juana: diálogos y ensayos: las obras latinas: los sorjuanistas recientes (1984); López Velarde y sor Juana, feministas opuestos: y cuatro ensayos sobre Horacio y Virgilio en México (1984); Poemas mexicanos universales: de Sor Juana a López Velarde (1989) and Tres siglos y cien vidas de Sor Juana (1995).

Feminist Analyses and TranslationsEdit

Scholars such as Scout Frewer argue that because Juana's advocacy for religious and intellectual authority would now be associated with feminism, she was a protofeminist.[40] In the twenty-first century, scholars generally interpret Juana as a feminist before the time of feminism.

For instance, scholars like Rachel O’Donnell argue that Sor Juana occupied a special place in between socially acceptable and socially unacceptable roles in seventeenth century Mexico. By examining Sor Juana intersectionally, they prioritize the context of New Spain, specifically the influence of religion and social norms, in understanding Sor Juana as a female theologian and poet.[41]

In colonial Mexico, education was an undertaking reserved for men, especially activities like writing and reading.[41] Consequently, scholars like Octavio Paz argue, religion became a way for women to avoid marriage. Since Sor Juana was opposed to marriage, Paz argues, entering the convent was a socially acceptable way to be a single woman in seventeenth century Mexico.[42] Entering the convent also meant that Sor Juana could read and write about religion despite the barriers to formal education for women. O’Donnell argues that Sor Juana was called a rare bird because although theology was only an acceptable pursuit for men in the Catholic Church, she actively studied religion.[41] Sor Juana likely perceived wisdom and religion as inseparable, so she probably also believed that to follow God was to pursue wisdom.[42] Also, to Sor Juana, entering the convent likely represented forgoing marriage to a human man and instead entering into a marriage with God.

Octavio PazEdit

Octavio Paz is a Nobel Prize laureate and scholar. In the 1989 book, Sor Juana: Or, the Traps of Faith (translated from Spanish to English by Margaret Sayers Peden), Paz examines and contemplates Sor Juana’s poetry and life in the context of the history of New Spain, particularly focusing on the difficulties women then faced while trying to thrive in academic and artistic fields. Primarily, Paz aims to explain why Sor Juana chose to become a nun.[22] In Juana Ramirez, Octavio Paz and Diane Marting find that Sor Juana’s decision to become a nun stemmed from her refusal to marry; joining the convent, according to Paz and Marting, was a way for Juana to obtain authority and freedom without marrying.[42]

Margaret Seyers PedenEdit

Margaret Sayers Peden translated Sor Juana: Or, the Traps of Faith in 1989. Unlike other translations, Peden translated the title of Sor Juana’s best known work, First Dream, as First I dream instead. Peden’s use of first person instills authority in Sor Juana as an author, as a person with knowledge, in a male-dominated society.[43]

Electa Arenal and Amanda PowellEdit

An equally valuable feminist analysis and interpretation of Sor Juana’s life and work is found in The Answer/La Respuesta by Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz by Electa Arenal, a Sor Juana scholar who is recognized among feminists who changed America, and Amanda Powell, a poet and translator.[44] The original publication, released in 1994 by The Feminist Press, was re-released in an updated second edition in 2009, also by The Feminist Press. The bilingual publication includes poems, an annotated publication of Sor Juana’s response to church officials and her impassioned plea for education of women, analysis and a bibliography. The Answer applies a valuable gender lens to Sor Juana’s writings and life.[45] In their feminist analysis, Powell and Arenal translate the viewpoint of Sor Juana’s writing as gender-ambiguous [36] Released in an updated second edition in 2009, also by The Feminist Press, the bilingual publication includes poems, an annotated publication of Sor Juana’s response to church officials and her impassioned plea for education of women, analysis and a bibliography.[45]

Dr. Theresa YugarEdit

Dr. Theresa Yugar, who has written her Masters and Doctoral theses on Juana, wrote Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz: Feminist Reconstruction of Biography and Text, a book in which she discusses the life of Juana through a feminist lens and analyzes Juana's La Respuesta and El Sueño. Yugar argues that Juana is the first feminist of the Americas, and acted in ways that are now associated with ecofeminism and feminist theology.[46]

 
The first part of Sor Juana's complete works, Madrid, 1689.

Historical InfluenceEdit

 
Statue of Sor Juana Inés in Madrid, Spain.

EducationEdit

The San Jerónimo Convent, where Juana lived the last 27 years of her life and where she wrote most of her work is today the University of the Cloister of Sor Juana in the historic center of Mexico City. The Mexican government founded in the university in 1979.[47]

Political ControversyEdit

While Juana was a famous and controversial figure in the seventeenth century, she is also an important figure in modern times.

During renovations at the cloister in the 1970s, bones believed to be those of Juana were discovered. A medallion similar to the one depicted in portraits of Juana was also found. Margarita López Portillo, the sister of President José López Portillo (1976-1982), kept the medallion. During the tercentennial of Sor Juana's death in 1995, a member of the Mexican congress called on Margarita López Portillo to return the medallion, which she said she had taken for safekeeping. She returned it to Congress on November 14, 1995, with the event and description of the controversy reported in The New York Times a month later. Whether or not the medallion belonged to Juana, the incident sparked discussions about Juana and abuse of official power in Mexico.[48]

Influence on Modern MovementsEdit

FeminismEdit

Yugar connects Juana to feminist advocacy movements in the twenty-first century, such as religious feminism, ecofeminism, and the feminist movement in general.

Although the current religious feminist movement grew out of the Liberation Theology movement of the seventies [49], Yugar uses Sor Juana's criticism of the religious law that only permits men to occupy leadership positions within the church as early evidence of religious feminism. Based on her critique of the oppressive and patriarchal structures of the church[50], Yugar argues that Sor Juana predated current movements, like Latina Feminist Theology, that privilege latina women's views on religion.[49] She also cites modern movements such as the Roman Catholic Women Priest Movement, the Women's Ordination Conference, and the Women's Alliance for Theology, Ethics and Ritual, that also retaliate against the patriarchal limitations on women in religious institutions. [49]

Yugar also connects Sor Juana to current interpretations of intersectional feminism by emphasizing that Juana interpreted the bible as being concerned with people of all backgrounds, as well as the earth and its animals.[46] Most significantly, Yugar argues, Juana expressed concern over the consequences of the capitalistic Spanish domination over the earth. These ideas, Yugar points out, are commonly associated with modern feminist movements concerned with decolonization[49] and the protection of the earth.[46]

A symbol for Latina womenEdit

  • the Sor Juana Ines Services for Abused Women[51] was established in 1993 to pay Sor Juana's dedication to helping women survivors of domestic violence forward. Renamed the Community Overcoming Relationship Abuse (CORA), the organization offers community, legal, and family support services in Spanish to latina women and children who have faced or are facing domestic violence.[51]

Official recognition by the Mexican governmentEdit

In present times, Sor Juana is still an important figure in Mexico.

  • In Mexico, Sor Juana is connected to the religious symbol of the Virgin of Guadalupe[41]
  • Sor Juana's name was inscribed in gold on the wall of honor in the Mexican congress in April 1995.[48]
  • Sor Juana is pictured on the obverse of the 200 pesos bill issued by the Banco de Mexico.[52]
  • Sor Juana also appears on the 1000 pesos coin minted by Mexico between 1988 and 1992
  • Sor Juana's hometown of San Miguel Nepantla in the municipality of Tepetlixpa, State of Mexico, was renamed in her honor as Nepantla de Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz.

Inspiration and influenceEdit

 
Juana Ines de la Cruz in art by Mexican artist Mauricio García Vega.

Sor Juana has been the inspiration for film makers and authors of poetry, plays, opera, and literary fiction.

  • American composer John Adams and director Peter Sellars used two of Sor Juana's poems, Pues mi Dios ha nacido a penar and Pues está tiritando in their libretto for the Nativity oratorio-opera El Niño (2000).
  • The Spanish-language mini-series Juana Inés (2016) by Canal Once TV, starring Arantza Ruiz and Arcelia Ramírez as Sor Juana, dramatizes her life.
  • María Luisa Bemberg wrote and directed the 1990 film, Yo, la peor de todas (I, the Worst of All), based on Octavo Paz's Sor Juana: Or, the Traps of Faith based on Sor Juana's life.
  • A telenovela about her life, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz was created in 1962.
  • Diane Ackerman wrote a dramatic verse play, Reverse Thunder, about Sor Juana (1992).
  • Alicia Gaspar de Alba wrote a historical novel, Sor Juana's Second Dream (1999), which won the Latino Literary Hall of Fame Award for Best Historical Novel in 2000. The novel was translated into Spanish and published as El Segundo Sueño by Grijalbo Mondadori in 2001. The novel has been adapted to a stage play, The Nun and the Countess by Odalys Nanin. It has also been adapted to a film, Juana de Asbaje, directed by Mexican filmmaker Rene Bueno, the screenplay co-written by Bueno and Gaspar de Alba, with Mexican actress Ana de la Reguera cast in the title role. Juana, an opera based on the novel will be performed by Opera UCLA in November 2019, the music composed by Carla Lucero and the libretto co-written by Lucero and Gaspar de Alba.
  • Jesusa Rodríguez has produced a number of works concerning Sor Juana, including Sor Juana en Almoloya and Striptease de Sor Juana, based on Juana's poem, "Primero Sueño".
  • Canadian novelist Paul Anderson devoted 12 years writing a 1300 page novel entitled Hunger's Brides (pub. 2004) on Sor Juana. His novel won the 2005 Alberta Book Award.
  • Helen Edmundson's play The Heresy of Love, based on the life of Sor Juana, was premiered by the Royal Shakespeare Company in early 2012 and revived by Shakespeare's Globe in 2015.[53]
  • Composer Daniel Crozier and librettist Peter M. Krask wrote With Blood, With Ink, an opera based around her life, while both were students at Baltimore's Peabody Institute in 1993. The work was premiered at Peabody and won first prize in the National Operatic and Dramatic Association's Chamber Opera Competition. In May 2000, excerpts from the opera were included in the New York City Opera's Showcasing American Composers Series. The work in its entirety was premiered by the Fort Worth Opera on April 20, 2014 and recorded by Albany Records.
  • Puerto Rican singer ILE (singer) recites part of one of Sor Juana's sonnets in her song "Rescatarme".
  • Playwright, director, dramaturg, teacher, and producer Kenneth Prestininzi wrote Impure Thoughts (Without Apology) which follows Sor Juana's experience with Bishop Francisco Aguilar y Seijas. "[2]".
  • Canadian poet and novelist Margaret Atwood's 2007 book of poems 'The Door' includes a poem entitled 'Sor Juana Works in the Garden'.[54]
  • On 12 November 2017, Google Doodle commemorated her 366th birthday.[55]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Murray, Stuart (2009). The Library: An Illustrated History. Chicago: Skyhorse Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8389-0991-1.
  2. ^ TOWNSEND, C. (2015). SOR JUANA'S NAHUATL. Le Verger – bouquet VIII, September 2015 [1].
  3. ^ "Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz Biography". Biography.com. A&E Television Networks. Retrieved 11 March 2017.
  4. ^ "Sor Juana Ines de La Cruz, famous women of Mexico". Mexonline.com. Retrieved 11 March 2017.
  5. ^ Stephanie, Merrim. "Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 11 March 2017.
  6. ^ Kennett, Frances (May 2003). "Sor Juana and the Guadalupe". Feminist Theology. 11(3): 307–324 – via JSTOR.
  7. ^ Arenal, Electa; Powell, Amanda (1993). "A Life Without and Within: Juana Ramírez / Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz (1648/51-1695)". Women's Studies Quarterly. 21 (1/2): 67–80. ISSN 0732-1562.
  8. ^ a b "Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz", Academy of American Poets
  9. ^ a b c   Wilson, J. G.; Fiske, J., eds. (1900). "Cruz, Juana Inés de la" . Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton.
  10. ^ "Celebrated Mexican nun was baroque sensation, but Catholic Church put a stop to that", Oakland Ross in "The Star", March 16, 2013
  11. ^ "Juana: The feminist, nun, scholar, thinker, poet—and now an opera", Eric Gordon in "People's World", 5 December 2019
  12. ^ a b c "Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz Biography". Biography.com. A&E Television Networks. Retrieved 2016-04-15.
  13. ^ a b Leonard, Irving A. (1960). Baroque Times in Old Mexico: Seventeenth-Century Persons, Places, and Practices (12th ed.). University of Michigan Press. pp. 191–192. ISBN 9780472061105.
  14. ^ "Manuel Fernandez de Santa Cruz, bishop of Puebla". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2016-04-15.
  15. ^ Bergmann, Emilie L., 1949- Herausgeber. Schlau, Stacey, 1948- Herausgeber. The Routledge research companion to the works of Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz. ISBN 978-1-4724-4407-3. OCLC 1011112232.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  16. ^ Murray, Stuart (2012). Library : an illustrated history. New York: W W Norton. p. 139. ISBN 1-61608-453-7.
  17. ^ "Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz". www.ensayistas.org.
  18. ^ Murray, Stuart A.P. (2009). The library : an illustrated history. New York, NY: Skyhorse Pub. ISBN 9781602397064.
  19. ^ "Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, Mexican poet and scholar". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  20. ^ a b "Cabrera, Portrait of Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz". Khan Academy. Retrieved 2019-12-05.
  21. ^ Murray, Stuart (2009). The Library: An Illustrated History. Chicago: Skyhorse Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8389-0991-1.
  22. ^ a b c Paz, Octavio (1988). Sor Juana, Or, The Traps of Faith. Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674821064.
  23. ^ In the final verse we come to know it is Sor Juana herself because she uses the first person, feminine.
  24. ^ Sor Juana is inspired by Fray Luis de Granada's Introducción al Símbolo de la Fe, where an extended verbal description of physiological functions is the closest match to what is found in the poem.
  25. ^ It must be understood that this light of intellect is Grace given by God. poemas cortos
  26. ^ This pinnacle of contemplation is clearly preceded by Saint Augustine (Confessions, X, VIII, 12), who also inspired Petrarch's letter about the contemplation of the world created by God from the summit of a mountain (in his letter Familiares, IV, 1)
  27. ^ a b Olivares Zorrilla, Rocío. "The Eye of Imagination. Emblems in the Baroque Poem The Dream, by Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz", Emblematica. An Interdisciplinary Journal for Emblem Studies, volume 18 (2010): 111-61: 115-17.
  28. ^ Kirk Rappaport, Pamela (1998). Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz. Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0826410436.
  29. ^ Paz, Octavio. «¿Azar o justicia», La segunda Celestina, ed. Guillermo Schmidhuber. México: Vuelta, 1990, págs. 7-10.
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SourcesEdit

Further readingEdit

  • ALATORRE, Antonio, Sor Juana a través de los siglos. México: El Colegio de México, 2007.
  • BENASSY-BERLING, Marié-Cécile, Humanisme et Religion chez Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz: la femme et la cultura au 17e siècle. Paris: Editions Hispaniques, 1982. ISBN 2-85355-000-1
  • BEAUCHOT, Mauricio, Sor Juana, una filosofía barroca, Toluca: UAM, 2001.
  • BUXÓ, José Pascual, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz: Lectura barroca de la poesía, México, Renacimiento, 2006.
  • CORTES, Adriana, Cósmica y cosmética, pliegues de la alegoría en sor Juana Inés de la Cruz y Pedro Calderón de la Barca. Madrid: Vervuert, 2013. ISBN 978-84-8489-698-2
  • GAOS, José. "El sueño de un sueño". Historia Mexicana, 10, 1960.
  • JAUREGUI, Carlos A. "Cannibalism, the Eucharist, and Criollo Subjects." In Creole Subjects in the Colonial Americas: Empires, Texts, Identities. Ralph Bauer & Jose A. Mazzotti (eds.). Chapel Hill: Omohundro Institute of Early American History & Culture, Williamsburg, VA, U. of North Carolina Press, 2009. 61-100.
  • JAUREGUI, Carlos A. "El plato más sabroso’: eucaristía, plagio diabólico, y la traducción criolla del caníbal." Colonial Latin American Review 12:2 (2003): 199-231.
  • MERKL, Heinrich, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz. Ein Bericht zur Forschung 1951-1981. Heidelberg: Winter, 1986. ISBN 3-533-03789-4
  • MURATTA BUNSEN, Eduardo, "La estancia escéptica de Sor Juana". Sor Juana Polímata. Ed. Pamela H. Long. México: Destiempos, 2013. ISBN 978-607-9130-27-5
  • NEUMEISTER, Sebastian, "Disimulación y rebelión: El Político silencio de Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz". La cultura del barroco español e iberoamericano y su contexto europeo. Ed. Kazimierz Sabik and Karolina Kumor, Varsovia: Insituto de Estudios Ibéricos e Iberoamericanos de la Universidad de Varsovia, 2010. ISBN 978-83-60875-84-1
  • OLIVARES ZORRILLA, Rocío, "The Eye of Imagination: Emblems in the Baroque Poem 'The Dream,' by Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz", in Emblematica. An Interdisciplinary Journal for Emblem Studies, AMC Press, Inc., New York, vol. 18, 2010: 111-161.
  • ----, La figura del mundo en "El sueño", de Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz. Ojo y "spiritus phantasticus" en un sueño barroco, Madrid, Editorial Académica Española, 2012. ISBN 978-3-8484-5766-3
  • PERELMUTER, Rosa, Los límites de la femineidad en sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, Madrid, Iberoamericana, 2004.
  • PAZ, Octavio. Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz o las trampas de la fe. México: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1982.
  • PFLAND, Ludwig, Die zehnte Muse von Mexiko Juana Inés de la Cruz. Ihr Leben, ihre Dichtung, ihre Psyche. München: Rinn, 1946.
  • RODRÍGUEZ GARRIDO, José Antonio, La Carta Atenagórica de Sor Juana: Textos inéditos de una polémica, México: UNAM, 2004. ISBN 9703214150
  • ROSAS LOPATEGUI, Patricia, Oyeme con los ojos : de Sor Juana al siglo XXI; 21 escritoras mexicanas revolucionarias. México: Universidad Autónoma Nuevo León, 2010. ISBN 978-607-433-474-6
  • SABAT DE RIVERS, Georgina, El «Sueño» de Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz: tradiciones literarias y originalidad, Londres: Támesis, 1977.
  • SORIANO, Alejandro, La hora más bella de Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, México, CONACULTA, Instituto Queretano de la Cultura y las Artes, 2010.
  • WEBER, Hermann, Yo, la peor de todas – Ich, die Schlechteste von allen. Karlsruhe: Info Verlag, 2009. ISBN 978-3-88190-542-8

External linksEdit