Margaret Eleanor Atwood (born November 18, 1939) is a Canadian poet, novelist, literary critic, essayist, inventor, and environmental activist. She is a winner of the Arthur C. Clarke Award, Prince of Asturias Award for Literature and the Peace Prize of the German Book Trade. She has been shortlisted for the Booker Prize five times, winning once, and has been a finalist for the Governor General's Award several times, winning twice. In 2001, she was inducted into Canada's Walk of Fame. She is also a founder of the Writers' Trust of Canada, a non-profit literary organization that seeks to encourage Canada's writing community. Among innumerable contributions to Canadian literature, she was a founding trustee of the Griffin Poetry Prize.
CC OOnt FRSC
|Born||Margaret Eleanor Atwood
November 18, 1939
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
|Education||University of Toronto (BA)
Harvard University (MA)
|Notable works||The Handmaid's Tale
The Blind Assassin
Oryx and Crake
|Spouse||Jim Polk (m. 1968; div. 1973)|
Atwood is also the inventor and developer of the LongPen and associated technologies that facilitate the remote robotic writing of documents. She is the Co-Founder and Director of Syngrafii Inc. (formerly Unotchit Inc.), a company that she started in 2004 to develop, produce and distribute the LongPen technology. She holds various patents related to the LongPen technologies.
While she is better-known as a novelist, she has published around fifteen books of poetry. Many of her poems are inspired by myths and fairy tales which interested her from a very early age. Atwood has published short stories in Tamarack Review, Alphabet, Harper's, CBC Anthology, Ms., Saturday Night, and many other magazines. She has also published four collections of stories and three collections of unclassifiable short prose works.
Early life and educationEdit
Atwood was born in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, as the second of three children of Carl Edmund Atwood, an entomologist and Margaret Dorothy (née Killam), a former dietitian and nutritionist from Woodville, Nova Scotia. Because of her father’s ongoing research in forest entomology, Atwood spent much of her childhood in the backwoods of northern Quebec and travelling back and forth between Ottawa, Sault Ste. Marie, and Toronto. She did not attend school full-time until she was eight years old. She became a voracious reader of literature, Dell pocketbook mysteries, Grimm's Fairy Tales, Canadian animal stories and comic books. She attended Leaside High School in Leaside, Toronto, and graduated in 1957. Atwood began writing plays and poems at the age of six.
Atwood realized she wanted to write professionally when she was 16. In 1957, she began studying at Victoria College in the University of Toronto, where she published poems and articles in Acta Victoriana, the college literary journal. Her professors included Jay Macpherson and Northrop Frye. She graduated in 1961 with a Bachelor of Arts in English (honours) and minors in philosophy and French.
In late 1961, after winning the E. J. Pratt Medal for her privately printed book of poems, Double Persephone, she began graduate studies at Harvard's Radcliffe College with a Woodrow Wilson fellowship. She obtained a master's degree (MA) from Radcliffe in 1962 and pursued doctoral studies at Harvard University for two years, but did not finish her dissertation, "The English Metaphysical Romance".
She taught at the University of British Columbia in 1965, the Sir George Williams University in Montreal from 1967 to 1968, the University of Alberta from 1969 to 1970, York University in Toronto from 1971 to 1972, the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa in 1985, where she was visiting M.F.A. Chair, and New York University, where she was Berg Professor of English.
Atwood, who was surrounded by the intellectual dialogue of the female faculty members at Victoria College, often portrays female characters dominated by patriarchy in her novels. She also sheds light on women's social oppression as a result from patriarchal ideology. Still, Atwood denies that The Edible Woman, published in 1969 and coinciding with the early second wave of the feminist movement, for example, is feminist, and claims that she wrote it four years before the movement. Atwood believes that the feminist label can only be applied to writers who consciously work within the framework of the feminist movement.
Atwood has resisted the suggestion that The Handmaid's Tale and Oryx and Crake are science fiction, suggesting to The Guardian in 2003 that they are speculative fiction instead: "Science fiction has monsters and spaceships; speculative fiction could really happen." She told the Book of the Month Club: "Oryx and Crake is a speculative fiction, not a science fiction proper. It contains no intergalactic space travel, no teleportation, no Martians." On BBC Breakfast, she explained that science fiction, as opposed to what she herself wrote, was "talking squids in outer space." The latter phrase particularly rankled advocates of science fiction and frequently recurs when her writing is discussed.
In 2005, Atwood said that she does at times write social science fiction and that The Handmaid's Tale and Oryx and Crake can be designated as such. She clarified her meaning on the difference between speculative and science fiction, admitting that others use the terms interchangeably: "For me, the science fiction label belongs on books with things in them that we can't yet do... speculative fiction means a work that employs the means already to hand and that takes place on Planet Earth." She said that science fiction narratives give a writer the ability to explore themes in ways that realistic fiction cannot.
Invention of the LongPenEdit
In early 2004, while on the paperback tour in Denver for her novel Oryx and Crake, Atwood conceived the concept of a remote robotic writing technology, what would later be known as the LongPen, that would enable a person to remotely write in ink anywhere in the world via tablet PC and the Internet, thus allowing her to conduct her book tours without being physically present. She quickly founded a company, Unotchit Inc., to develop, produce and distribute this technology. By 2011, Unotchit Inc. shifted its market focus into business and legal transactions and was producing a range of products, for a variety of remote writing applications, based on the LongPen technologies and renamed itself to Syngrafii Inc. As of September 2014, Atwood is still Co-founder and a Director of Syngrafii Inc. and holder of various patents related to the LongPen technology.
In March 2008, Atwood accepted her first chamber opera commission. Pauline, a chamber opera in two acts composed by Tobin Stokes to a libretto by Atwood, premiered on May 23, 2014 at Vancouver's York Theatre. Commissioned by City Opera of Vancouver, the opera is set in Vancouver in March 1913 during the final days of the life of Canadian writer and performer Pauline Johnson.
In 2008, The Economist called her a "scintillating wordsmith" and an "expert literary critic", but commented that her logic does not match her prose in Payback: Debt and the Shadow Side of Wealth, a book which commences with the conception of debt and its kinship with justice.
In 1984, she was the subject of a documentary film by Michael Rubbo, Margaret Atwood: Once in August. In 2003, Shaftesbury Films produced an anthology series, The Atwood Stories, which dramatized six of Atwood's short stories.
Contribution to the theorizing of Canadian identityEdit
Atwood’s contributions to the theorizing of Canadian identity have garnered attention both in Canada and internationally. Her principal work of literary criticism, Survival: A Thematic Guide to Canadian Literature, is considered outdated in Canada but unfortunately remains the standard introduction to Canadian literature in Canadian Studies programs internationally.
In Survival, Atwood postulates that Canadian literature, and by extension Canadian identity, is characterized by the symbol of survival. This symbol is expressed in the omnipresent use of “victim positions” in Canadian literature. These positions represent a scale of self-consciousness and self-actualization for the victim in the “victor/victim” relationship. The "victor" in these scenarios may be other humans, nature, the wilderness or other external and internal factors which oppress the victim. Atwood’s Survival bears the influence of Northrop Frye’s theory of garrison mentality; Atwood instrumentalizes Frye’s concept to a critical tool. Atwood continued her exploration of the implications of Canadian literary themes for Canadian identity in lectures such as Strange Things: The Malevolent North in Canadian Literature (1995). The continued reprinting of Survival by Anansi Press and Atwood has been criticized as a disservice to students of Canadian Literature. (Pivato 2015)
Atwood's contribution to the theorizing of Canada is not limited to her non-fiction works. Several of her works, including The Journals of Susanna Moodie, Alias Grace, The Blind Assassin and Surfacing, are examples of what postmodern literary theorist Linda Hutcheon calls “Historiographic metafiction”. In such works, Atwood explicitly explores the relation of history and narrative and the processes of creating history.
Ultimately, according to her theories in works such as Survival and her exploration of similar themes in her fiction, Atwood considers Canadian literature as the expression of Canadian identity. According to this literature, Canadian identity has been defined by a fear of nature, by settler history, and by unquestioned adherence to the community.
Margaret Atwood has repeatedly made observations about our relationships to animals in her works. In Surfacing, one character remarks about eating animals: "The animals die that we may live, they are substitute people...And we eat them, out of cans or otherwise; we are eaters of death, dead Christ-flesh resurrecting inside us, granting us life." Some characters in her books link sexual oppression to meat-eating and consequently give up meat-eating. In The Edible Woman, Atwood's character Marian identifies with hunted animals and cries after hearing her fiancé's experience of hunting and eviscerating a rabbit. Marian stops eating meat but then later returns to it.
In Cat's Eye, the narrator recognizes the similarity between a turkey and a baby. She looks at "the turkey, which resembles a trussed, headless baby. It has thrown off its disguise as a meal and has revealed itself to me for what it is, a large dead bird." In Atwood's Surfacing, a dead heron represents purposeless killing and prompts thoughts about other senseless deaths.
In her dystopian novel, The Handmaid's Tale, all the horrible developments take place in the United States near Boston, while Canada is portrayed as the only hope for an escape. This reflects her status of being "in the vanguard of Canadian anti-Americanism of the 1960s and 1970s." Critics have seen Gilead (the US) as a repressive regime and the mistreated Handmaid as Canada. During the debate in 1987 over a free trade agreement between Canada and the United States, Atwood spoke out against the deal and wrote an essay opposing the agreement.
Atwood has indicated in interviews that she considers herself a Red Tory in the historical sense of the term. Atwood and her partner Graeme Gibson are strong supporters of Green Party of Canada leader, Elizabeth May. Atwood has strong views on environmental issues, and she and Gibson are the joint honorary presidents of the Rare Bird Club within BirdLife International. She has been chair of the Writers' Union of Canada and helped to found the Canadian English-Speaking chapter of PEN, a group originally started to free politically imprisoned writers. She held the position of PEN Canada president in the mid 80's, during which she held meetings in her house and and attended PEN international conferences to help the organization grow from an unknown entity with a non-existent budget into a nationally recognized cause. She currently holds the position of vice president of PEN International. In the 2008 federal election, she attended a rally for the Bloc Québécois, a Quebec separatist party, because of her support for their position on the arts, and stated that she would vote for the party if she lived in a riding in Quebec in which the choice was between the Bloc and the Conservatives. In a Globe and Mail editorial, she urged Canadians to vote for any other party to stop a Conservative majority.
Atwood celebrated her 70th birthday at a gala dinner at Laurentian University in Sudbury, Ontario, marking the final stop of her international tour to promote The Year of the Flood. She stated that she had chosen to attend the event because the city has been home to one of Canada's most ambitious environmental reclamation programs: "When people ask if there's hope (for the environment), I say, if Sudbury can do it, so can you. Having been a symbol of desolation, it's become a symbol of hope."
Despite calls for a boycott by Gazan students, Atwood visited Israel and accepted the $1,000,000 Dan David Prize along with Indian author Amitav Ghosh at Tel Aviv University in May 2010. Atwood commented that "we don't do cultural boycotts."
In the Wake of the Flood, a documentary film by Canadian director Ron Mann released in October 2010, followed Atwood on the unusual book tour for her novel The Year of the Flood. During this innovative book tour, Atwood created a theatrical version of her novel, with performers borrowed from the local areas she was visiting. The documentary is described as "a fly-on-the-wall film vérité."
Since February 2013, Atwood made it clear via Twitter that she strongly opposed the University of Toronto putting in an artificial turf field and hinted that she might write the university out of her will if it proceeded with the plan. This was not the first time she had openly challenged the university.
Future Library projectEdit
With her novel Scribbler Moon, Atwood is the first contributor to the Future Library project. The work, completed in 2015, was ceremoniously handed over to the project on 27 May of the same year. The book will be held by the project until its eventual publishing in 2114. She thinks that readers will probably need a paleo-anthropologist to translate some parts of her story. In an interview with the Guardian newspaper, Atwood said, “There’s something magical about it,” says Atwood. “It’s like Sleeping Beauty. The texts are going to slumber for 100 years and then they’ll wake up, come to life again. It’s a fairytale length of time. She slept for 100 years.”
In 1968, Atwood married Jim Polk; they were divorced in 1973. She formed a relationship with fellow novelist Graeme Gibson soon after and moved to a farm near Alliston, Ontario, where their daughter, Eleanor Jess Atwood Gibson, was born in 1976. The family returned to Toronto in 1980.
Awards and honoursEdit
Atwood holds honorary degrees from Oxford University, Cambridge University, and the Sorbonne. She has won more than 55 awards in Canada and internationally, along with receiving numerous honorary degrees, including:
- Governor General's Award, (1966, 1985)
- Companion of the Order of Canada, 1981
- Guggenheim fellowship, 1981
- Los Angeles Times Fiction Award, 1986
- American Humanist Association Humanist of the Year, 1987 
- Nebula Award, 1986 and Prometheus Award, 1987 nominations, both science fiction awards.
- Arthur C. Clarke Award for best Science Fiction, 1987
- Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1988
- Canadian Booksellers Association Author of the Year, 1989
- Trillium Book Award, 1991, 1993, 1995
- Government of France's Chevalier dans l'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres, 1994
- Helmerich Award, 1999, by the Tulsa Library Trust.
- Booker Prize, 2000
- Kenyon Review Award for Literary Achievement, 2007
- Prince of Asturias Award for Literature, 2008
- Nelly Sachs Prize, Germany, 2010
- Dan David Prize, Israel, 2010
- Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal, Canada, 2012
- Los Angeles Times Book Prize "Innovator's Award", 2012
- Gold medal of the Royal Canadian Geographical Society, 2015
- Golden Wreath of Struga Poetry Evenings, Macedonia, 2016
- Franz Kafka Prize, Czech Republic, 2017
- Peace Prize of the German Book Trade, Germany, 2017
- Trent University, 1973
- Queen's University, 1974
- Concordia University, 1979
- Smith College, 1982
- University of Toronto, 1983
- University of Waterloo, 1985
- University of Guelph, 1985
- Mount Holyoke College, 1985
- Victoria College, 1987
- Université de Montréal, 1991
- University of Leeds, 1994
- McMaster University, 1996
- Lakehead University, 1998
- University of Oxford, 1998
- Algoma University, 2001
- University of Cambridge, 2001
- Dartmouth College, 2004
- Harvard University, 2004
- Université de la Sorbonne Nouvelle, 2005
- National University of Ireland, Galway, 2011
- Ryerson University, 2012
- Royal Military College of Canada (LL.D), 16 November 2012 
- University of Athens, 2013
- University of Edinburgh, 2014
The MaddAddam TrilogyEdit
Short fiction collectionsEdit
2017 she is credited as playing herself in all 26 episodes of Wandering Wenda where she wears funny hats to match the various themes
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- Weir, Lorraine (1981), "Meridians of Perception: A Reading of The Journals of Susanna Moodie", in Davidson, Arnold E.; Davidson, Cathy N., The Art of Margaret Atwood: essays in criticism (pdf), Toronto: Anansi, pp. 69–79, ISBN 978-0-88784-080-7, retrieved November 27, 2014
- Sullivan, Rosemary (1998). The Red Shoes: Margaret Atwood Starting Out. Toronto: HarperFlamingoCanada. ISBN 978-0-00-255423-7.
- Cooke, Nathalie (January 1, 2004). Margaret Atwood: A Critical Companion. Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-32806-0.
- Tolan, Fiona (2007). Margaret Atwood: Feminism and Fiction. Netherlands: Rodopi. ISBN 90-420-2223-X.
- VanSpanckeren, Kathryn; Castro, Jan Garden, eds. (1988). Margaret Atwood: Vision and Forms. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. ISBN 978-0-8093-1408-9.
- Wrethed, Joakim. ‘‘‘I am a place’: Aletheia as Aesthetic and Political Resistance in Margaret Atwood’s Surfacing.” Journal of Aesthetics & Culture [Online], 7 (2015): n. pag. Web. 13 Jul. 2015. Available at: https://dx.doi.org/10.3402/jac.v7.28020
- Pivato, Joseph. "Atwood's Survival: A Critique (2015) online canadian-writers.athabascau.ca/english/writers/matwood/survival.php
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