Those on pescetarian or pollotarian diets may define meat only as mammalian flesh and may identify with vegetarianism. Most pescetarians maintain a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet with the addition of fish and shellfish, described as "fish but no other meat". The common use association between such diets and vegetarianism has led groups such as the Vegetarian Society to state that diets containing these ingredients are not vegetarian.
"Pescetarian" or "pescatarian" is a neologism formed as a portmanteau of the Italian word pesce ("fish") and the English word "vegetarian". The English pronunciation of both "pescetarian" and "pescatarian" is //, with the same [sk] sound present in pescato (Italian: [peˈskaːto], derived from piscatus, the perfect passive participle of the Latin verb piscor meaning "to fish"), though not in the word pesce (Italian: [ˈpeʃʃe]).
Pesce in turn derives from the Latin piscis, which has the form pisci- when it serves as a prefix, as it often does in scholarly terms (e.g. "pisciculture", "piscivore"). A piscivore, a type of carnivore, subsists on a diet primarily of fish, whereas a pescetarian eats plant derivatives as well as fish. A similar term for the latter is "vegequarian".
Some pescetarians adopt their diet because of the inefficiency of other meat sources. For example, in the United States most cattle, chickens and pork were not free-range and fed with grains specifically grown for their food. Therefore, the environmental impact and the amount of energy needed to feed a cow, a chicken or a pig greatly exceeds its nutritional value. Such pescetarians might prefer to eat wild-caught fish, as opposed to farmed carnivorous fish that require food input of other fish. They might use guides such as the Seafood Watch to determine the sustainability of their seafood source.
Other pescetarians might regard their diet as a transition to vegetarianism, an ethical compromise (ethical pescetarianism), or a practical necessity to obtain nutrients absent or not easily found in plants. They argued that they have to eat "some kind of meat", and fish is the least unethical meat source compared to chicken or mammals.
Statisticians and others who have looked at animal consumption, however, suggest that fish and aquatic animals may be the least ethical food source among animal food sources, as many more fish are killed for the same amount of food relative to other animals, though this is purely in reference to the number of animals killed, as opposed to how the animals are treated while alive, or the environmental impact of pescetarian diet versus a general omnivore diet.
Given that fish are increasingly farmed around the world, fish often experience the same causes of suffering as birds and mammals. Scientific evidence increasingly supports the view that fish are sentient beings feeling pleasure and pain.
One commonly cited reason is that of health, based on findings that red meat is detrimental to health in many cases due to non-lean red meats containing high amounts of saturated fats, choline and carnitine. Eating certain kinds of fish raises HDL levels, and some fish are a convenient source of omega-3 fatty acids, and have numerous health benefits in one food variety.
A 1999 meta-analysis of five studies comparing vegetarian and non-vegetarian mortality rates in Western countries found that in comparison with regular meat-eaters, mortality from ischemic heart disease was 34% lower in pescetarians, 34% lower in ovo-lacto vegetarians, 26% lower in vegans and 20% lower in occasional meat-eaters.
Concerns have been raised about consuming some fish varieties containing toxins such as mercury and PCBs, though it is possible to select fish that contain little or no mercury and moderate the consumption of mercury-containing fish.
Abstinence in religionEdit
Pescetarianism (provided the fish is ruled kosher – i.e., fish with fins and scales, and usually caught without bloodshed) conforms to Jewish dietary laws, as kosher fish is "pareve" (or "parve") – neither 'milk' nor 'meat'. In Sephardic Jewish homes, fish is never served with foods made with milk products. All non-fish seafood is non-kosher.Template:Leviticus 11:10
In 2015, a member of the Liberal Judaism synagogue in Manchester founded The Pescetarian Society. 
By tradition, most Hindu Brahmin communities follow a strict lacto-vegetarian diet. However, there are a number of Brahmin sub-groups that allow fish eating. These include the Goud Saraswat Brahmin community from Coastal South-Western India. This community regards seafood in general as vegetables from the sea. They refrain from eating any land-based animals. Other Hindu communities who consume seafood in great quantity are the Maithili Brahmin and the Bengali Brahmin. The latter also eat meat on special occasions. Among the northeast Indian Hindus of Assam, Tripura, and Manipur, it is common for pescatarians to include poultry in their diets.
Comparisons to other dietsEdit
Pescetarianism is similar to many traditional diets emphasizing fish as well as fruits, vegetables, grains, nuts, seeds, edible fungi, legumes, bread etc. Many coastal populations tend to eat this way. In common with some vegetarians, pescetarians often eat eggs, dairy products and packaged foods in addition to fruits, vegetables and grains.
Pescetarians are sometimes described as vegetarian or pesco-vegetarian, but vegetarians commonly do not consider the pescetarian diet to be vegetarian. The Vegetarian Society – whose members historically did not object to the consumption of "eggs, milk or fish" – now does not consider pescetarianism to be a vegetarian diet. Despite this, definitions of vegetarian in mainstream dictionaries sometimes include fish in the diet. The Pescetarian Society evolved separately from The Vegetarian Society to better represent the lifestyle and interests of pescetarians.
List of notable pescetariansEdit
- Pedro Aznar
- Brigitte Bardot
- Rowan Blanchard
- Kari Byron
- Montserrat Caballé
- Parvesh Cheena
- Tracy Chapman
- Misty Copeland
- Jeremy Corbyn
- Billy Corgan
- Fearne Cotton
- Chuck D
- Ted Danson
- Sierra Deaton
- Ellen DeGeneres
- Nate Diaz
- Nick Diaz
- David Duchovny
- Susie Essman
- Claire L. Evans
- Jon Fitch
- Martin Freeman
- Robert Fripp
- Johnny Galecki
- Ben Gibbard
- Lee Hyori
- Samantha James
- Steve Jobs
- Alejandro Jodorowsky
- Daniel Johns
- Mark Kermode
- Daniel Kessler
- Alex Kinsey
- Karlie Kloss|
- Kristin Kreuk
- Lousewies van der Laan
- Harvey Levin
- Caroline Lucas
- Wendie Malick
- Novak Djokovic
- Eva Mendes
- Alyssa Milano
- Dannii Minogue
- Mary Tyler Moore
- Cam Newton
- Conor Oberst
- Amanda Palmer
- CM Punk
- Grigory Rasputin
- A$AP Rocky
- Lluvia Rojo
- Olesya Rulin
- Brytni Sarpy.
- Andy Serkis
- Queen Sofía of Spain
- Tom Scharpling
- Hal Sparks
- Howard Stern
- Ben Stiller
- Sonny Strait
- Wendy van Dijk
- Ben Weinman
- Hayley Westenra
- David Zabriskie
- Luna, Taryn (1 July 2015). "Legal Sea Foods launches 'Pescatarianism' ad campaign". The Boston Globe.
- Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (2002 and 2007) defines "vegetarian" (noun) as "A person who on principle abstains from animal food; esp. one who avoids meat but will eat dairy produce and eggs and sometimes also fish (cf. VEGAN noun)."
- Barr SI, Chapman GE (March 2002). "Perceptions and practices of self-defined current vegetarian and nonvegetarian women". Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 102 (3): 354–360. doi:10.1016/S0002-8223(02)90083-0. PMID 11902368.
- "Pescetarian - Definition and more from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary". Merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 2015-03-31.
- "Vegetarians don't eat fish". Vegetarian Society. Retrieved July 28, 2013.
- "definition of pescatarian in Oxford dictionary (American English)". Oxford Dictionary of English.
- "definition of pescatarian in English from the Oxford dictionary". Oxford Dictionary of English.
- "Definition of pescatarian". Collins English Dictionary.
- "Definition of Pescatarian by Merriam-Webster". Merriam-Webster.
- "Define Pescatarian at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.com.
- Stevenson, Angus, ed. (2010). Oxford Dictionary of English. Oxford University Press. p. 1328.
- McFedries, Paul (2008). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Weird Word Origins. Alpha Books. p. 120.
- "pescato: significato e definizione". la Repubblica.
- "pescato: Definizione e significato di pescato". Garzanti Linguistica.
- "Pescetarianist". Statemaster.com encyclopedia.
- Ronald L. Sandler, Food Ethics: The Basics, Routledge, 2014, p. 74.
- Rohrer, Finlo (5 November 2009). "The rise of the non-veggie vegetarian". BBC News. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
- "How Much Suffering is in the Standard American Diet?". Everyday Utilitarian. Retrieved 2017-05-09.
- "How many animals does a vegetarian save?". Retrieved 2017-05-09.
- "Fish Farming Continues to Grow as World Fisheries Stagnate | Worldwatch Institute". www.worldwatch.org (in cust-en). Retrieved 2017-05-09.
- "Fish Farming | Animal Welfare Institute". awionline.org. Retrieved 2017-05-09.
- "Fish Have Feelings, Too: The Inner Lives Of Our 'Underwater Cousins'". NPR.org. Retrieved 2017-05-09.
- Barnett, Michaela J.; Dripps, Weston R.; Blomquist, Kerstin K. (2016-10-01). "Organivore or organorexic? Examining the relationship between alternative food network engagement, disordered eating, and special diets" (PDF). Appetite. 105: 1030–1036. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2012.02.048.
- E Giovannucci, EB Rimm, MJ Stampfer, GA Colditz, A Ascherio and WC Willett, "Intake of fat, meat, and fiber in relation to risk of colon cancer in men". Cancer Research 54, 2390–2397. 1994-05-01.
- Frank B. Hu, MD, PhD, JoAnn E. Manson, MD, PhD, and Walter C. Willett, MD, DrPh, "Types of Dietary Fat and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: A Critical Review". Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 2001.
- "New Culprit in Red Meat Linked with Heart Disease". DNews. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- Paul J Nestel, "Fish oil and cardiovascular disease: lipids and arterial function". 71. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. January 2000: 228S–231S.
- Sacks FM, Hebert P, Appel LJ, Borhani NO, Applegate WB, Cohen JD, Cutler JA, Kirchner KA, Kuller LH, Roth KJ, et al., "Short report: the effect of fish oil on blood pressure and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels in phase I of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention". Journal of Hypertension. 1994-02-12: 209–13.
- Frank B. Hu, MD; Leslie Bronner, MD; Walter C. Willett, MD; Meir J. Stampfer, MD; Kathryn M. Rexrode, MD; Christine M. Albert, MD; David Hunter, MD; JoAnn E. Manson, MD, "Fish and Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Women". JAMA. 287: 1815–1821. 2002. doi:10.1001/jama.287.14.1815.
- Health. "TODAY Health". TODAY. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- Key, TJ; Fraser, GE; Thorogood, M; et al. (1999). "Mortality in vegetarians and nonvegetarians: detailed findings from a collaborative analysis of 5 prospective studies". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 70: 516S–524S. doi:10.1079/phn19980006. PMID 10479225.
- Committee on the Toxicological Effects of Methylmercury, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, National Research Council, "Toxicological Effects of Methylmercury". 2000. ISBN 0-309-07140-2.
- "Experts Say Consumers Can Eat Around Toxins In Fish". ScienceDaily. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- "Mercury: Are Fish safe to eat?". Healthcastle.com. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- "Pescetarian Society Providing Sustainable Seafoods". www.thepescetariansociety.org.
- Axelrod,, P; Fuerch, MA (1998). "Portuguese Orientalism and the making of the village communities of Goa". Ethnohistory. 45 (3): 439. doi:10.2307/483320.
- CHAKRAVARTI, A. K. (December 1974). "Regional Preference for Food: Some Aspects of Food Habit Patterns in India". The Canadian Geographer. 18 (4): 395–410,. doi:10.1111/j.1541-0064.1974.tb00212.x. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "International Health Exhibition", The Medical Times and Gazette, 24 May 1884, 712. "There are two kinds of Vegetarians—one an extreme form, the members of which eat no animal food whatever; and a less extreme sect, who do not object to eggs, milk, or fish. The Vegetarian Society ... belongs to the latter more moderate division."
- "Shorter Oxford English Dictionary". 2 (6th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2007: 3506. defines "vegetarian" (noun) as "A person who on principle abstains from animal food; esp. one who avoids meat but will consume dairy produce and eggs and sometimes also fish (cf. VEGAN noun)." "Shorter Oxford English Dictionary". 2 (5th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2002: 3511. has the same definition.
- Gloria, Guerrero (11 June 2016). ""En este disco, el poeta casi que llevó de la mano al músico"". Página/12 (in Spanish). Retrieved 13 November 2016.
- Brigitte Bardot, Le carré de Pluton, 1999, ISBN 978-2-246-59501-4[page needed]
- US Weekly (December 1, 2015). "Rowan Blanchard: 25 Things You Don't Know About Me (I'm a Pescatarian!)". Retrieved 2015-12-02.
- Suicide Girls (March 30, 2011). "Interviews > Kari Byron". Retrieved 2011-03-30.
- Meléndez-Haddad, Pablo (18 November 2010). ""Soy una persona corriente, que pesa 97 kilos y le duele horrores el tobillo"". ABC (in Spanish). Barcelona (published 21 November 2010). Retrieved 28 October 2016.
- "Fame Bites – Parvesh Cheena". CNN. 2011-02-10.
- Vivinetto, G. (2000). "Chapman giggles; reporter hatches heckling plan". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- Pechin, Pauline (October 15, 2008). "Common Predicts Movie Stardom for Himself". BlackBook. BlackBook Media. Retrieved April 17, 2010.
- Ward, Michelle (August 25, 2014). "Misty Copeland". People.
- Baboulias, Yiannis (28 August 2015). "The discreet charm of Jeremy Corbyn". Retrieved 1 December 2017.
- "Musicians on Craft with Billy Corgan". www.joomag.com. 2014.
- "Ten things about Fearne Cotton". Digital Spy. 2010-09-08. Retrieved 2014-12-26.
- "PETA2 // Out There // Fight the Power With Chuck D". Peta2.com. Retrieved 2012-05-08.
- Late Night with Conan O'Brien, 2007. [TV programme] Broadway Video, Conaco, Universal Media Studios, NBC, 27 September 2007.
- "The X Factor USA Season 3: "The Groups" Mentored By Simon Cowel". Archived from the original on December 30, 2013. Retrieved December 29, 2013.
- "Ellen DeGeneres reveals why she started eating fish again after being vegan". The New Zealand Herald. July 12, 2016. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- Olivi, Megan (14 August 2016). "UFC 202: The Exchange with Megan Olivi - Nate Diaz" (video). www.ufc.com. Event occurs at 2:48. Retrieved 7 September 2017.
- Easter, Michael (February 3, 2012). "The Nick Diaz UFC Workout". Men's Health. Archived from the original on February 5, 2012. Retrieved July 29, 2016.
- Meltzer, Dave (February 18, 2011). "Vegetarianism all the rage in MMA". Yahoo! Sports. Archived from the original on 21 February 2011. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- David Hochman. "The X-Man Cometh". Men's Health. Retrieved 2011-12-17.
- "HBO: Curb Your Enthusiasm: Homepage". Hbo.com. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- Comingore, Aly (20 November 2015). "This Electronic Band May Have Just Found the Best Vegan Banh Mi in Los Angeles". munchies.vice.com. Vice. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
I've been vegan for ten years, [...] I grew up in France so I make an exception for bivalves [when I'm on tour].
- Meltzer, Dave (18 February 2011). "Vegetarianism all the rage in MMA". Yahoo! Sports. Archived from the original on 21 February 2011. Retrieved 7 September 2017.
Neither fighter is vegan. [Jon] Fitch said during his [B.J.] Penn camp he has been eating fish about once a week, although he went three straight weeks at one point with no animal products. [...]
- Millar, John (15 November 2009). "Actor Martin Freeman's back in snow business with another Yuletide flick". Daily Record. Retrieved 27 July 2016.
I am pescetarian really because I eat fish but not meat.
- "Robert Fripp's Diary". DGMLive.com. Barcelona, Spain. 2 July 2003. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 2 August 2016.
[...] Nowadays I accept that, properly put, I am a fishetarian [...]
- "24/7 Chicago interviews Galecki". YouTube. 2009-04-13. Retrieved 2011-09-19.
- Dr. Mark Liponis (2010-01-03). "Start Getting Healthier Right Now". Parade.com. Retrieved 2011-09-19.
- "Death Cab For Cutie". IGN. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- Kingpolo (2011-02-24). "Lee Hyori has officially become a vegetarian". Allkpop.com. Retrieved 2011-09-19.
- Kee, William K.C. (20 March 2017). "Sassy Samantha speaks her mind". The Star. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
- Altucher, James (October 6, 2011). "10 Unusual Things I Didn't Know About Steve Jobs". Forbes. Retrieved July 8, 2013.
- Jodorowsky, Alejandro (23 July 2015). "Alejandro Jodorowsky". Twitter (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 10 June 2016. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
No como carne... Ensaladas, verduras, cereales, nueces, frutas... A veces, cuando mi cuerpo me lo pide como camarones...
- "Q's Daily B-Sides #20". Q. 12 October 2009. Archived from the original on 17 October 2009. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- "Interview: Mark Kermode, film critic". Scotsman.com. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- "Rock, Shrimp: Dinner With Interpol's Daniel Kessler". grubstreet.com. Retrieved 12 March 2016.
- "Living In Style: Karlie Kloss". April 1, 2017. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
I'm a pescetarian
- "Kelly & Michael: Kristin Kreuk New Series "Beauty and the Beast"". recapo.com. Retrieved 2012-10-11.
- Nieuwenhuis, Marcia (2006-02-16). "Fractievoorzitter van D66 Lousewies van der Laan interviewt stand-up comedian Jan Jaap van der Wal" (in Dutch). lousewiesvanderlaan.nl. Retrieved 2008-04-16.
V: "Ben je vegetarisch?" A: "Nee, ik ben eigenlijk pescatarisch, een vegetariër die vis eet." (Q: "Are you a vegetarian?" A: "No, actually I am a pescetarian, a vegetarian who eats fish.")
- Harvey Levin (20 October 2009). TMZ Live, "Balloon, Mel and Manson Madness". Los Angeles, California: TMZ Productions, Inc. Event occurs at 21:14. Retrieved 7 December 2009.
Yeah…I'm not a vegetarian; I'm a pescetarian, and I'm trying.
- Hattenstone, Simon (28 February 2015). "Caroline Lucas: 'I'm not in politics to play about'". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 December 2017.
I eat fish. I stopped eating meat because it felt like something one could do practically that would make a small difference
- "Wendie Malick's Diet Tips". December 7, 2011. Retrieved 2012-02-18.
- Bull, Sarah (11 August 2011). "'I love bread and pasta!' Eva Mendes reveals her unusual diet habits as she shows off her figure in fitness shoot". Daily Mail. Archived from the original on 20 May 2017. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
[...] I don’t eat meat, but I eat a lot of fish and brown rice.
- "Alyssa Milano Diet And Beauty Tips". Primped.com.au. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- Nissim, Mayer (2009-11-25). "Ten Things You Never Knew About Dannii Minogue". Digital Spy. Retrieved 2011-09-19.
- Mary Tyler Moore (2001-05-07). "Interview". Larry King Live (Interview: Transcript). Interview with Larry King. CNN. Retrieved 2008-03-19.
- "Newton scales back for Thanksgiving meal". ESPN.com. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- "Conor Oberst and pescetarian". Vegetarianstar.com. 2008-09-11. Retrieved 2011-09-19.
- "blog « amanda palmer". Blog.amandapalmer.net. Retrieved 2011-09-19.
- Coach [@CMPunk] (29 March 2012). ""@lKlMONO: @CMPunk Are you a Pescetarian?" Correct" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Edvard Radzinsky, 2000. "Распутин. Жизнь и смерть". In English: The Rasputin File
- "Kathy Griffin X A$AP Rocky – Back & Forth – Ep. 22 Part 1/2". Youtube.com. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- Vallespinós, Emma (October 29, 2014). ""Un chico que no coma carne gana muchos puntos"". Soy como como (in Spanish). Retrieved October 25, 2016.
- Levinsky, Mara (September 21, 2015). "Spencer for Hire". Soap Opera Digest. United States. American Media, Inc. 40 (38): 44–47.
- Kim, Madeleine (26 August 2015). "Q&A With Brytni Sarpy". Equinox.com. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
-  Archived April 14, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Andy Serkis". Geek Blog. Archived from the original on March 20, 2009. Retrieved June 16, 2009.
- Margo C. Pope (2001-04-02). "A majestic day". The St. Augustine Record. St. Augustine, Florida. Retrieved 2011-09-19.
- Ana Martín Plaza (30 October 2008). "La Reina Sofía: 70 años de trabajo discreto". RTVE (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 October 2016.
- "Summary of wfmu.org". Archived from the original on October 24, 2012. Retrieved October 5, 2013.
- "FAQ". Hal Sparks. Retrieved 2011-09-19.
- "Mother Nature Network". Mnn.com. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- Conan, 2012. [TV program] TBS, 26 July 2012.
- "Sonny Strait.biz: FAQ". Sonnystrait.biz. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- "Afl. 5: Breda beste getest door Mystery Guest" (in Dutch). RTL. 2008-03-04. Retrieved 2008-04-26.
- Hartmann, Graham (September 14, 2016). "The Dillinger Escape Plan's Ben Weinman - Wikipedia: Fact or Fiction?" (video). Loudwire. Event occurs at 1:06. Retrieved March 16, 2016.
- "Hayley Westenra – 'I'm a tough chick'". New Zealand Herald. 2007-04-28. Retrieved 2007-06-17.
- Albergotti, Reed (June 29, 2011). "Riding the Tour De Vegetable". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
He will cheat slightly, he says, because he plans to eat small amounts of salmon two days per week to increase iron absorption
|Look up pescetarian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|