Pescetarianism or pescatarianism (//) is the practice of adhering to a diet that incorporates seafood as the only source of meat in an otherwise vegetarian diet. Most pescetarians are ovo-lacto vegetarians who eat seafood along with dairy products and eggs.
|A pescetarian diet is a plant-based diet where seafood is the only meat.|
|Related Dietary Choices|
|Associated and similar diets|
|Diet(Nutrition)#Diet classification table|
Pescetarian is a neologism formed as a portmanteau of the Italian word pesce ("fish") and the English word vegetarian. The English pronunciation of both pescetarian and its variant pescatarian is //, with the same /sk/ sequence present in pescato (Italian: [peˈskaːto]), although pesce is originally pronounced [ˈpeʃʃe], with a /ʃ/ sound.
Vegans, vegetarians and pescetarians were described as people practicing similar dietary principles as those of the Vegetarian Society in 1884. In the 21st century, the Vegetarian Society does not consider pescetarianism to be a vegetarian diet.
In 2018, Ipsos MORI reported 73% of people followed a conventional pattern diet where both meat and non-animal products were regularly consumed, with 14% considered as flexitarians, 5% vegetarians, 3% vegans, and 3% pescetarians. A 2018 poll of 2,000 United Kingdom adults found that 12% of adults adhered to a meat free diet, with 2% vegan, 6-7% ovo-lacto-vegetarian, and 4% pescetarian.
As a plant-based diet, pescetarianism is similar to many traditional diets emphasizing plant foods as well as seafood. Regular fish consumption and decreased red meat consumption are recognized as dietary practices that may promote health.
Motivations and rationaleEdit
Sustainability and environmental concernsEdit
Ecological sustainability and food security are growing concerns. Livestock is the world’s largest user of land, representing some 80% of total agricultural land. Beef consumption is 24% of the world's total intake of meat, but accounts for less than 2% of calories consumed worldwide. The environmental impact and amount of energy needed to feed livestock greatly exceeds its nutritional value. People may adopt a pescetarian diet out of desire to lower their dietary carbon footprint.
Some pescetarians may regard their diet as a transition to vegetarianism, while others may consider it an ethical compromise, often as a practical necessity to obtain nutrients absent or not easily found in plants. Pescetarianism may be perceived as a more ethical choice because fish and other seafood may not associate pain and fear as more complex animals like mammals do.
A common reason for adoption of pescetarianism is perceived health, such as fish consumption increasing intake of omega-3 fatty acids which are associated with reduced risk of cerebrovascular disease. Fish and plant food consumption are parts of the Mediterranean diet which is associated with lowered risk of cardiovascular diseases. In one review, pescetarians had relatively low all-cause mortality among dietary groups.
Concerns have been raised about consuming some fish varieties containing toxins such as mercury and PCBs, although it is possible to select fish that contain little or no mercury and moderate the consumption of mercury-containing fish.
Abstinence in religionEdit
The Cathars a Christian dualist sect did not eat cheese, eggs, meat or milk because they were the products of coition. The Cathars believed that animals were carriers of reincarnated souls and forbid the killing of all animal life apart from fish. The Cathars ate fish which they believed were produced by spontaneous generation.
In both the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox tradition, pescetarianism is referred to as a form of abstinence. During fast periods, Eastern Orthodox and Catholics often abstain from meat, dairy, and fish; on certain days, fish is allowed, while meat and dairy remain forbidden.
The Rule of Saint Benedict insisted upon total abstinence of meat from four-footed animals, except in cases of the sick. Thus, Benedictine monks followed a diet based on vegetables, eggs, milk, butter, cheese and fish where available. Paul the Deacon (Cir. 775 AD) specified that cheese, eggs and fish were part of a monk's ordinary diet. The Carthusians followed a strict diet that consisted of fish, cheese, eggs and vegetables, with only bread and water on Fridays. In the 13th century Cistercian monks consumed fish and eggs. Ponds were created for fish farming. From the early 14th century Benedictine and Cistercian monks no longer abstained from consuming meat of four-footed animals. In 1336, Pope Benedict XII permitted monks to eat meat four days a week outside of the fast season if it was not served in the refectory.
Pescetarianism (provided the fish is ruled kosher) conforms to Jewish dietary laws, as kosher fish is "pareve"—neither "milk" nor "meat". In essence, aquatic animals such as mammals like dolphins and whales are not kosher, nor are cartilaginous fish such as sharks and rays, since they all have dermal denticles and not bony-fish scales. In 2015, members of the Liberal Judaism synagogue in Manchester founded The Pescetarian Society, citing pescetarianism as originally a Jewish diet, and pescetarianism as a form of vegetarianism.
By tradition, most Hindu Brahmin communities follow a strict lacto-vegetarian diet. However, there are Brahmin sub-groups allowing the consumption of fish, such as the Goud Saraswat Brahmin community of coastal south-western India. This community regards seafood in general as "vegetables from the sea", and refrains from eating land-based animals. Other Hindu Brahmin communities who consume seafood are the Maithili Brahmin and the Bengali Brahmin.
- Ikaria Study — Dietary study of long-lived Ikarian people found to have semi-vegetarian diets similar to pescetarianism.
- Legal Sea Foods – Boston, Massachusetts–based network of seafood restaurants that use the "pescatarian" term in their TV advertising
- Semi-vegetarianism – other forms of semi-vegetarianism that include occasional seafood or meat consumption
- List of diets
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There are two kinds of Vegetarians—one an extreme form, the members of which eat no animal food whatever; and a less extreme sect, who do not object to eggs, milk, or fish. The Vegetarian Society ... belongs to the latter more moderate division
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A plant-based diet is not necessarily a vegetarian diet. Many people on plant-based diets continue to use meat products and/or fish but in smaller quantities.
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