An individual's diet is the sum of food and drink that one habitually consumes. Dieting is the practice of attempting to achieve or maintain a certain weight through diet.[1] People's dietary choices are often affected by a variety of factors, including ethical and religious beliefs, clinical need, or a desire to control weight.

Not all diets are considered healthy. Some people follow unhealthy diets through habit, rather than through a conscious choice to eat unhealthily. Terms applied to such eating habits include "junk food diet" and "Western diet". Many diets are considered by clinicians to pose significant health risks and minimal long-term benefit. This is particularly true of "crash" or "fad" diets – short-term, weight-loss plans that involve drastic changes to a person's normal eating habits.

Only diets covered on Wikipedia are listed under alphabetically sorted headings.

Belief-based diets

Some people's dietary choices are influenced by their religious, spiritual or philosophical beliefs.

  • Buddhist diet: While Buddhism does not have specific dietary rules, some Buddhists practice vegetarianism based on Mahayana Buddhism's strict interpretation of the first of the Five Precepts.[2]
  • Hindu diet: It is popular for followers of Hinduism to follow lacto vegetarian diets (though most do not), based on the principle of ahimsa (non-harming).[3] Consuming beef/cattle is forbidden or at least taboo among followers due to cow veneration. Most Hindus in India do intentionally limit their meat consumption one way or another.[4]
  • Jain diet: Due to how the Jain faith interprets ahisma, vegetarianism is considered mandatory for followers; a lacto-vegetarian diet[5] or vegan diet[6] in particular is considered appropriate for Jains. Most Jains also abstain from consuming root vegetables in order to prevent harming insects, worms and microorganisms when they are uprooted. Most also partake in some form of fasting.[4] Some variants of Jainism further discourage or forbid the consumption of honey, fungi, alcoholic beverages and fermented foods.
  • Islamic diet: Muslims follow a diet consisting solely of food that is halal – permissible in Islam. The opposite of halal is haraam, food that is Islamically impermissible. Haraam substances include alcohol, carnivores, pork and other non-ruminant animals, and any meat from an animal which was not killed through the Islamic method of ritual slaughter (Dhabiha).[7] If an otherwise Halal animal was subject to torture by humans, its meat can still be considered non-permissible for Muslims.
  • I-tal: A set of principles which influences the diet of many members of the Rastafari movement. One principle is that natural foods should be consumed. Emphasis is put on consuming produce that is fresh, organic and ideally grown at home or locally. Another principle involves avoiding "unclean" types of food; the definition which is influenced by Biblical teachings. In order to preserve "life energy" Rastafarians encourage teetotalism, and many Rastafarians interpret I-tal to advocate vegetarianism or veganism as well.[8] Many followers do view seafood as an acceptable addition to an I-tal diet but they restrict which kinds they permit; fish over a foot long are typically avoided and all shellfish are eschewed as they are not Kosher animals—unlike finned-fish with scales.
  • Kosher diet: Food permissible under Kashrut, the set of Jewish dietary laws, is said to be Kosher. Some foods and food combinations are non-Kosher, and failure to prepare food in accordance with Kashrut can make otherwise permissible foods non-Kosher.[9]
  • Seventh-day Adventist diet: Combines the Kosher food rules of Judaism with prohibitions against alcoholic beverages and (sometimes) caffeinated beverages. There is emphasis on consuming whole foods. Meat-consumption is heavily discouraged but not necessarily disallowed; about half of Adventists are lacto-ovo-vegetarians.[10] Vegan and pescetarian diets are also more popular among Adventists compared to the general public[11] but other Adventists are still willing to eat Kosher meats.
  • Word of Wisdom diet: The name of a section of the Doctrine and Covenants, a book of scripture accepted by members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Dietary advice includes (1) wholesome plants "in the season thereof", (2) eating meat sparingly and only "in times of winter, or of cold, or famine", and (3) grain as the "staff of life".[12] Unlike injunctions against tobacco, alcohol, coffee and tea—compliance with meat-avoidance has always remained optional among the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and emphasis on refraining from meat has largely been dropped.[13] An official church publication states, "modern methods of refrigeration now make it possible to preserve meat in any season".[14]

Calorie and weight control diets

A desire to lose weight is a common motivation to change dietary habits, as is a desire to maintain an existing weight. Many weight loss diets are considered by some to entail varying degrees of health risk, and some are not widely considered to be effective. This is especially true of "crash" or "fad" diets.[15]

Many of the diets listed below could fall into more than one subcategory. Where this is the case, it is noted in that diet's entry.

Low-calorie diets

  • 5:2 diet: an intermittent fasting diet
  • Intermittent fasting: Cycling between non-fasting and fasting as a method of calorie restriction.[16]
  • Body for Life: A calorie-control diet, promoted as part of the 12-week Body for Life program.[17]
  • Cookie diet: A calorie control diet in which low-fat cookies are eaten to quell hunger, often in place of a meal.[18]
  • The Hacker's Diet: A calorie-control diet from The Hacker's Diet by John Walker. The book suggests that the key to reaching and maintaining the desired weight is understanding and carefully monitoring calories consumed and used.
  • Nutrisystem diet: The dietary element of the weight-loss plan from Nutrisystem, Inc. Nutrisystem distributes low-calorie meals, with specific ratios of fats, proteins and carbohydrates.[19]
  • Weight Watchers diet: Foods are assigned point values; dieters can eat any food with a point value provided they stay within their daily point limit.[20]

Very low calorie diets

A very low calorie diet is consuming fewer than 800 calories per day. Such diets are normally followed under the supervision of a doctor.[21] Zero-calorie diets are also included.

  • Inedia (breatharian diet): A diet in which no food is consumed, based on the belief that prana but not food is necessary for human subsistence.[22]
  • KE diet (feeding tube diet): A diet in which an individual feeds through a feeding tube and does not eat anything.[23]
  • The Last Chance diet: General premise is that the dieter will consume only one low-calorie high protein beverage daily. This equated to no more than 400 calories per day.[24][25]
  • Tongue Patch Diet: Stitching a Marlex patch to the tongue to make eating painful. Daily calories are then limited to 800 per day maximum in liquid form.

Low-carbohydrate diets

  • Atkins diet: A low-carbohydrate diet, popularized by nutritionist Robert Atkins in the late-20th and early-21st centuries.[26] Proponents argue that this approach is a more successful way of losing weight than low-calorie diets;[27] critics argue that a low-carb approach poses increased health risks.[28] The Atkins diet consists of four phases (Induction, Balancing, Fine-Tuning and Maintenance) with a gradual increase in consumption of carbohydrates as the person goes through the phases.[29]
  • Dukan Diet: A multi-step diet based on high protein and limited carbohydrate consumption. It starts with two steps intended to facilitate short term weight loss, followed by two steps intended to consolidate these losses and return to a more balanced long-term diet.[30]
  • Kimkins: A heavily promoted diet for weight loss, found to be fraudulent.
  • South Beach Diet: Diet developed by the Miami-based cardiologist Arthur Agatston, who says that the key to losing weight quickly and getting healthy is not cutting all carbohydrates and fats from the diet, but choosing the right carbs and the right fats.[31]
  • Stillman diet: A carbohydrate-restricted diet that predates the Atkins diet, allowing consumption of specific food ingredients.

Low-fat diets

  • McDougall's starch diet is a high calorie, high fiber, low fat diet that is based on starches such as potatoes, rice, and beans which excludes all animal foods and added vegetable oils. John A. McDougall draws on historical observation of how many civilizations around the world throughout time have thrived on starch foods.

Crash diets

Crash diets are very-low-calorie diets used for the purpose of very fast weight loss.[32][33][34] They describe diet plans that involve making extreme, rapid changes to food consumption, but are also used as disparaging terms for common eating habits which are considered unhealthy. This diet is dangerous and can lead to sudden death when not done in a medically supervised setting.[35][36] Several diets listed here are weight-loss diets which would also fit into other sections of this list. Where this is the case, it will be noted in that diet's entry.

  • Beverly Hills Diet: An extreme diet which has only fruits in the first days, gradually increasing the selection of foods up to the sixth week.[37]
  • Cabbage soup diet: A low-calorie diet based on heavy consumption of cabbage soup. Considered a fad diet.[38]
  • Grapefruit diet: A fad diet, intended to facilitate weight loss, in which grapefruit is consumed in large quantities at meal times.[39]
  • Monotrophic diet: A diet that involves eating only one food item, or one type of food, for a period of time to achieve a desired weight reduction.
  • Subway diet: A crash diet[40] in which a person consumes Subway sandwiches in place of higher calorie fast foods. Made famous by convicted sex offender and former obese student Jared Fogle, who lost 245 pounds after replacing his meals with Subway sandwiches as part of an effort to lose weight.[40]

Detox diets

Detox diets involve either not consuming or attempting to flush out substances that are considered unhelpful or harmful. Examples include restricting food consumption to foods without colorings or preservatives, taking supplements, or drinking large amounts of water. The latter practice in particular has drawn criticism, as drinking significantly more water than recommended levels can cause hyponatremia.[41] There is no scientific evidence of any benefit from detox diets, and so they are considered to be pseudoscientific.[42][43]

  • Juice fasting: A form of detox diet, in which nutrition is obtained solely from fruit and vegetable juices. The health implications of such diets are disputed.[44]
  • Master Cleanse: A modified juice fast that substitutes tea and lemonade for food.

Diets followed for medical reasons

People's dietary choices are sometimes affected by intolerance or allergy to certain types of food. There are also dietary patterns that might be recommended, prescribed or administered by medical professionals for people with specific medical needs.

  • DASH diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension): A recommendation that those with high blood pressure consume large quantities of fruits, vegetables, whole-grains and low fat dairy foods as part of their diet, and avoid sugar sweetened foods, red meat and fats. Promoted by the US Department of Health and Human Services, a United States government organisation.[45]
  • Diabetic diet: An umbrella term for diets recommended to people with diabetes. There is considerable disagreement in the scientific community as to what sort of diet is best for people with diabetes.[46]
  • Elemental diet: A medical, liquid-only diet, in which liquid nutrients are consumed for ease of ingestion.[47]
  • Elimination diet: A method of identifying foods which cause a person adverse effects, by process of elimination.[48]
  • Gluten-free diet: A diet which avoids the protein gluten, which is found in barley, rye and wheat. It is a medical treatment for gluten-related disorders, which include coeliac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, gluten ataxia, dermatitis herpetiformis and wheat allergy.[49][50][51][52]
  • Gluten-free, casein-free diet: A gluten-free diet which also avoids casein, a protein commonly found in milk and cheese. This diet has been researched for efficacy in treatment of autism spectrum disorder.[53]
  • Healthy kidney diet: This diet is for those impacted with chronic kidney disease, those with only one kidney, those who have a kidney infection and those who may be suffering from some other kidney failure.[54] This diet is not the dialysis diet,[55] which is completely different. The healthy kidney diet restricts large amounts of protein, which are hard for the kidney to break down, but especially limits potassium and phosphorus-rich foods and beverages. Liquid intake is often limited as well.[54][56]
  • Ketogenic diet: A high-fat, low-carb diet, in which dietary and body fat is converted into energy. It is used as a medical treatment for refractory epilepsy.[57]
  • Liquid diet: A diet in which only liquids are consumed. May be administered by clinicians for medical reasons, such as after a gastric bypass[58] or to prevent death through starvation from a hunger strike.[59]
  • Low-FODMAP diet: A diet that consists in the global restriction of all fermentable carbohydrates (FODMAPs).
  • Soft diet
  • Specific carbohydrate diet: A diet that aims to restrict the intake of complex carbohydrates such as found in grains and complex sugars.[60]

Fad diets

A fad diet is a diet that is popular for a time, similar to fads in fashion, without being a standard dietary recommendation, and often promising unreasonably fast weight loss or nonsensical health improvements.[61][62][63][64][65] There is no single definition of what a fad diet is, encompassing a variety of diets with different approaches and evidence bases, and thus different outcomes, advantages and disadvantages,[62] and it is ever-changing.[61][62] Generally, fad diets promise short-term changes with little effort, and thus may lack educating consumers about whole-diet, whole lifestyle changes necessary for sustainable health benefits.[61][62][66][67] Fad diets are often promoted with exaggerated claims, such as rapid weight loss of more than 1 kg/week or improving health by "detoxification", or even dangerous claims.[62][63][68][69]

Since the "fad" qualification varies over time, social, cultural and subjective view, this list cannot be exhaustive,[61] and fad diets may continue or stop being fads, such as the Mediterranean diet.[70] Some of them have therapeutic indications, such as epilepsy or obesity,[71][72] and there is no one-size-fits-all diet that would be a panacea for everyone to lose weight or look better.[61][62] Dieticians are a regulated profession that can distinguish nutritionally sound diets from unhealthy ones.[63]

Food-specific diets

Low-carbohydrate / high-fat diets

High-carbohydrate / low-fat diets

Liquid diets



Other fad diets

Vegetarian diets

A vegetarian diet is one which excludes meat. Vegetarians also avoid food containing by-products of animal slaughter, such as animal-derived rennet and gelatin.[142]

  • Fruitarian diet: A diet which predominantly consists of raw fruit.[143]
  • Lacto vegetarianism: A vegetarian diet that includes certain types of dairy, but excludes eggs and foods which contain animal rennet.[144] A common diet among followers of several religions, including Hinduism, Sikhism and Jainism, based on the principle of Ahimsa (non-harming).[3]
  • Ovo vegetarianism: A vegetarian diet that includes eggs, but excludes dairy.
  • Ovo-lacto vegetarianism: A vegetarian diet that includes eggs and dairy.[144]
  • Vegan diet: In addition to the abstentions of a vegetarian diet, vegans do not use any product produced by animals, such as eggs, dairy products, or honey.[142] The vegan philosophy and lifestyle is broader than just the diet and also includes abstaining from using any products tested on animals and often campaigning for animal welfare and animal rights.

Semi-vegetarian diets

  • Semi-vegetarianism: A predominantly vegetarian diet, in which meat is occasionally consumed. This includes "flexitarian", reducetarian and demitarian diets [145] Sometimes semi-vegetarian and flexitarian diets are defined as distinct from one another, where the former is defined as abstaining from red meat while the latter simply entails only eating meat infrequently.[146][147][148]
  • Pescetarianism: A diet which includes seafood, but not poultry, other white meat or meat from mammals.
  • Pollotarianism: A diet which includes poultry, but no other white meat, seafood or meat from mammals.
  • Kangatarian: A diet originating from Australia. In addition to foods permissible in a vegetarian diet, kangaroo meat is also consumed.[149] The name is a protologism that may have started out as a joke rather than a dietary term or identifying label that was ever intended to be taken seriously or used unironically.[150]
  • Planetary health diet: Dietary paradigms that have the following aims: to feed a growing world's population, to greatly reduce the worldwide number of deaths caused by poor diet, and to be environmentally sustainable as to prevent the collapse of the natural world.[151]
  • Plant-based diet: A broad term to describe diets in which animal products do not form a large proportion of the diet. Under some definitions a plant-based diet is fully vegetarian; under others it is possible to follow a plant-based diet whilst occasionally consuming meat.[152]

Other diets

  • Alkaline diet: The avoidance of relatively acidic foods – foods with low pH levels – such as alcohol, caffeine, dairy, fungi, grains, meat, and sugar. Proponents believe such a diet may have health benefits;[153] critics consider the arguments to have no scientific basis.[154]
  • Clean eating
  • Climatarian diet: A diet focused on reducing the carbon footprint of the consumed food, particularly through the consumption of locally sourced food and the avoidance of beef and lamb meat.[155] Adherents may also be "organivores" (strong proponents of certified organic foods over intensively farmed foods).[156]
  • Eat-clean diet: Focuses on eating foods without preservatives, and on mixing lean proteins with complex carbohydrates.[157]
  • Gerson therapy: A form of alternative medicine, the diet is low salt, low fat and vegetarian, and also involves taking specific supplements. It was developed by Max Gerson, who claimed the therapy could cure cancer and chronic, degenerative diseases. These claims have not been scientifically proven, and they can cause serious illness and death.[158]
  • The Graham Diet: A vegetarian diet which promotes whole-wheat flour and discourages the consumption of stimulants such as alcohol and caffeine. Developed by Sylvester Graham in the 19th century.[159]
  • Hay diet: A food-combining diet developed by William Howard Hay in the 1920s. Divides foods into separate groups, and suggests that proteins and carbohydrates should not be consumed in the same meal.[81]
  • High-protein diet: A diet in which high quantities of protein are consumed with the intention of building muscle. Not to be confused with low-carb diets, where the intention is to lose weight by restricting carbohydrates.
  • High residue diet: A diet in which high quantities of dietary fiber are consumed. High-fiber foods include certain fruits, vegetables, nuts and grains.[160]
Sharing of frozen, aged walrus meat among Inuit families
Some common macrobiotic ingredients

See also


  1. ^ "Definition for diet". Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
  2. ^ Weintraub, Eileen. "Life as a Vegetarian Tibetan Buddhist Practitioner: A personal view" Archived 3 February 2020 at the Wayback Machine. Society of Ethical and Religious Vegetarians. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
  3. ^ a b (Dasa, Shukavak N.) "Non Harming: Ahimsa" Archived 8 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Devasthanam. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
  4. ^ a b Corichi, Manolo. "Eight-in-ten Indians limit meat in their diets, and four-in-ten consider themselves vegetarian". Pew Research Center. Retrieved 1 August 2022.
  5. ^ van Popering, Ruben (2015). Jain Vegetarian Laws in the City of Palitana : Indefensible Legal Enforcement or Praiseworthy Progressive Moralism?.
  6. ^ Miller, Christopher Jain; Dickstein, Jonathan (July 2021). "Jain Veganism: Ancient Wisdom, New Opportunities". Religions. 12 (7): 512. doi:10.3390/rel12070512. ISSN 2077-1444.
  7. ^ "What do Halal, Dhabiha Halal and Haram Mean?" Archived 27 August 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
  8. ^ "Rastafarianism" Archived 5 June 2016 at the Wayback Machine. University of Dundee. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
  9. ^ "Kosher Food 101: the Basics of Which Foods Are Kosher". The Spruce. Archived from the original on 12 October 2017. Retrieved 12 October 2017.
  10. ^ "LLUMC Legacy: Daring to Care". Adventist Health Study. Loma Linda University. Archived from the original on 25 April 2016. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
  11. ^ "Adventist Health Study-2 | Adventist Health Study". Archived from the original on 7 January 2021. Retrieved 1 August 2022.
  12. ^ Doctrine and Covenants 89:10–17
  13. ^ Thomas G. Alexander, "The Word of Wisdom: From Principle to Requirement" Archived 27 August 2021 at the Wayback Machine, Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 14:3 (1981) pp. 78–88.
  14. ^ "Section 89 The Word of Wisdom", Doctrine and Covenants Student Manual (Salt Lake City, Utah: LDS Church, 2002), pp. 206–11.
  15. ^ "The Facts on Fad Diets". Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  16. ^ Mattson, MP (4 February 2014). "Fasting: molecular mechanisms and clinical applications". Cell Metabolism. 19 (1932–7420): 181–92. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2013.12.008. PMC 3946160. PMID 24440038.
  17. ^ "Body for Life Program Review: Does It Work?". Archived from the original on 11 September 2016. Retrieved 19 September 2016.
  18. ^ Schmall, Emily (17 November 2008). "Bite fight" Archived 1 January 2018 at the Wayback Machine. Forbes. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
  19. ^ "How does Nutrisystem Diet work?". Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
  20. ^ Devlin, Kate (2 September 2008). "Atkins diet and Weight Watchers 'the best ways to lose weight'". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 15 February 2012.
  21. ^ "Very low calorie diet for rapid weight loss" Archived 27 July 2017 at the Wayback Machine. Calorie Counter. 19 October 2010. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
  22. ^ "All they need is the air" Archived 11 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine. BBC News. 22 September 1999. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
  23. ^ Park, Alice (18 April 2012). "Tube Feeding: What's Wrong with the Latest Wedding Crash Diet?". Time. Archived from the original on 2 October 2018. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
  24. ^ Linn, Robert; Stuart, Sandra Lee (1977). The Last Chance Diet--when Everything Else Has Failed: Dr. Linn's Protein-sparing Fast Program. Bantam. ISBN 978-0-553-10490-5. Archived from the original on 14 November 2023. Retrieved 25 July 2022.
  25. ^ "Here's Everything About The Deadly 'Last Chance' Diet That Actually Killed People". MensXP. 28 March 2019. Archived from the original on 25 July 2022. Retrieved 25 July 2022.
  26. ^ Witchel, Alex (27 November 1996). "Refighting The Battle Of the Bulge" Archived 15 March 2017 at the Wayback Machine. The New York Times. Retrieved 29 October 2009.
  27. ^ "Scientists endorse Atkins diet" Archived 13 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine. BBC News. 17 May 2004. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
  28. ^ "Low carb diet health risk fears" Archived 11 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine. BBC News. 17 March 2006. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
  29. ^ "What is Atkins Diet?". Retrieved 12 December 2016.
  30. ^ Samuel, Henry (1 June 2011). "The four stages of the Dukan diet". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 14 February 2011.
  31. ^ "The South Beach Diet". Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
  32. ^ "How to diet". NHS. 27 April 2018. Archived from the original on 22 November 2017. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  33. ^ "Take the test: Is an 800-calorie diet right for me?". BBC Food. Archived from the original on 18 June 2022. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  34. ^ Bonet, Anna (28 November 2018). "Are crash diets ever a good idea for weight loss?". Netdoctor. Archived from the original on 7 July 2022. Retrieved 21 October 2019. 'A crash diet is typically a very low-calorie diet, where you eat a very restrictively for a short period of time,' explains Registered Dietician, Helen Bond.
  35. ^ Isner JM, Sours HE, Paris AL, Ferrans VJ, Roberts WC (December 1979). "Sudden, unexpected death in avid dieters using the liquid-protein-modified-fast diet. Observations in 17 patients and the role of the prolonged QT interval". Circulation. 60 (6): 1401–12. doi:10.1161/01.cir.60.6.1401. PMID 498466.
  36. ^ Sours HE, Frattali VP, Brand CD, Feldman RA, Forbes AL, Swanson RC, Paris AL (April 1981). "Sudden death associated with very low calorie weight reduction regimens". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 34 (4): 453–61. doi:10.1093/ajcn/34.4.453. PMID 7223697.
  37. ^ "New Beverly Hills Diet". Archived from the original on 17 January 2013. Retrieved 29 April 2012. The original Beverly Hills diet was published in 1981 and is regarded by many as being the first fad diet.
  38. ^ "Health risk of 'faddy diets'" Archived 12 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine. BBC News. 2 May 2001. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
  39. ^ "Grapefruit diet 'put leg at risk'" Archived 13 March 2020 at the Wayback Machine. BBC News. 2 April 2009. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
  40. ^ a b Kingsley, Patrick (10 March 2011). "How a sandwich franchise ousted McDonald's" Archived 11 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine. The Guardian. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
  41. ^ "Woman left brain damaged by detox" Archived 31 July 2017 at the Wayback Machine. BBC News. 23 July 2008. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
  42. ^ ""The Dubious Practice of Detox" Harvard Health. 1 May 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2023". Archived from the original on 13 September 2018. Retrieved 1 July 2023.
  43. ^ ""The Great "Detox" Deception" Nature. 10 July 2012. Retrieved 30 June 2023". Archived from the original on 1 July 2023. Retrieved 1 July 2023.
  44. ^ Moores, Susan. "Experts warn of detox diet dangers" Archived 6 August 2020 at the Wayback Machine. NBC News. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
  45. ^ "Your guide to lowering your blood pressure with DASH" Archived 29 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine. US Department of Health and Human Services. April 2006. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
  46. ^ Defeudis, G.; Khazrai, Y.M.; Pozzilli, P. (2014). "Effect if diet on type 2 diabetes mellitus: a review" (PDF). Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews. 30: 24–33. doi:10.1002/dmrr.2515. PMID 24352832. S2CID 37628378. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 January 2023. Retrieved 13 January 2023.
  47. ^ "Elemental diet" Archived 6 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Food Hospital. Channel 4. Retrieved 14 February 2012.
  48. ^ "The elimination diet" Archived 9 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine. National Health Service. 12 January 2010. Retrieved 14 February 2012.
  49. ^ Ludvigsson JF, Leffler DA, Bai JC, Biagi F, Fasano A, Green PH, Hadjivassiliou M, Kaukinen K, Kelly CP, Leonard JN, Lundin KE, Murray JA, Sanders DS, Walker MM, Zingone F, Ciacci C (January 2013). "The Oslo definitions for coeliac disease and related terms". Gut. 62 (1): 43–52. doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2011-301346. PMC 3440559. PMID 22345659.
  50. ^ Volta U, Caio G, De Giorgio R, Henriksen C, Skodje G, Lundin KE (June 2015). "Non-celiac gluten sensitivity: a work-in-progress entity in the spectrum of wheat-related disorders". Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 29 (3): 477–91. doi:10.1016/j.bpg.2015.04.006. PMID 26060112. After the confirmation of NCGS diagnosis, according to the previously mentioned work-up, patients are advized to start with a GFD [49]. (...) NCGS patients can experience more symptoms than CD patients following a short gluten challenge [77]. (NCGS=non-celiac gluten sensitivity; CD=coeliac disease; GFD=gluten-free diet)
  51. ^ Mulder CJ, van Wanrooij RL, Bakker SF, Wierdsma N, Bouma G (2013). "Gluten-free diet in gluten-related disorders". Dig. Dis. (Review). 31 (1): 57–62. doi:10.1159/000347180. PMID 23797124. S2CID 14124370. The only treatment for CD, dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) and gluten ataxia is lifelong adherence to a GFD.
  52. ^ Hischenhuber C, Crevel R, Jarry B, Mäki M, Moneret-Vautrin DA, Romano A, Troncone R, Ward R (1 March 2006). "Review article: safe amounts of gluten for patients with wheat allergy or coeliac disease". Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 23 (5): 559–75. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2006.02768.x. PMID 16480395. S2CID 9970042. For both wheat allergy and coeliac disease the dietary avoidance of wheat and other gluten-containing cereals is the only effective treatment.
  53. ^ Lange, Klaus W.; Hauser, Joachim; Reissmann, Andreas (November 2015). "Gluten-free and casein-free diets in the therapy of autism". Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care. 18 (6): 572–575. doi:10.1097/MCO.0000000000000228. PMID 26418822. S2CID 271720.
  54. ^ a b "Nutrition". 14 October 2014. Archived from the original on 28 June 2014. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
  55. ^ "Dialysis Diet". Archived from the original on 26 May 2016. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  56. ^ "Kidney-friendly eating plan". American Kidney Fund. 1 December 2021. Archived from the original on 10 June 2023. Retrieved 17 November 2023.
  57. ^ Huffman J, Kossoff EH (July 2006). "State of the ketogenic diet(s) in epilepsy" (PDF). Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 6 (4): 332–40. doi:10.1007/s11910-006-0027-6. PMID 16822355. S2CID 2563541. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 December 2006.
  58. ^ "Maradona has surgery on stomach" Archived 22 December 2006 at the Wayback Machine. BBC Sport. 6 March 2005. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
  59. ^ "India woman's 10-year fast against anti-insurgent law" Archived 17 February 2019 at the Wayback Machine. BBC News. 3 November 2010. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
  60. ^ Brown, Amy C; Roy, Minakshi (April 2010). "Does evidence exist to include dietary therapy in the treatment of Crohn's disease?". Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology. 4 (2): 191–215. doi:10.1586/egh.10.11. PMID 20350266. S2CID 207210268.
  61. ^ a b c d e f Hart, Katherine (2018). "4.6 Fad diets and fasting for weight loss in obesity.". In Hankey, Catherine (ed.). Advanced nutrition and dietetics in obesity. Wiley. pp. 177–182. ISBN 9780470670767.
  62. ^ a b c d e f Hankey, Catherine (23 November 2017). Advanced Nutrition and Dietetics in Obesity. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 179–181. ISBN 9781118857977. Archived from the original on 12 January 2023. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  63. ^ a b c "Fact Sheet—Fad diets" (PDF). British Dietetic Association. 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 August 2019. Retrieved 12 December 2015. Fad-diets can be tempting as they offer a quick-fix to a long-term problem.
  64. ^ Kraig, Bruce (2013). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 623–626. ISBN 9780199734962.
  65. ^ Zoumbaris, Sharon K.; Bijlefeld, Marjolijn (25 November 2014). Encyclopedia of diet fads : understanding science and society (2nd ed.). Greenwood. ISBN 9781610697606. Archived from the original on 5 October 2023. Retrieved 28 August 2020.
  66. ^ Williams, William F. (2 December 2013). Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience: From Alien Abductions to Zone Therapy. Routledge. pp. 107–108. ISBN 9781135955229.
  67. ^ Shick SM, Wing RR, Klem ML, McGuire MT, Hill JO, Seagle H; Wing; Klem; McGuire; Hill; Seagle (April 1998). "Persons successful at long-term weight loss and maintenance continue to consume a low-energy, low-fat diet". J Am Diet Assoc. 98 (4): 408–13. doi:10.1016/S0002-8223(98)00093-5. PMID 9550162.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  68. ^ Flynn MAT (2004). Gibney MJ (ed.). Chapter 14: Fear of Fatness and Fad Slimming Diets. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 236–246. ISBN 978-1-118-69332-2. {{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)
  69. ^ Katz DL, Meller S (2014). "Can we say what diet is best for health?". Annu Rev Public Health. 35: 83–103. doi:10.1146/annurev-publhealth-032013-182351. PMID 24641555.
  70. ^ Brown JE, Isaacs J, Krinke B, Lechtenberg E, Murtaugh M (2011). Nutrition Through the Life Cycle (4th ed.). Cengage Learning. p. 410. ISBN 978-1-133-00816-3.
  71. ^ a b "What is the Ketogenic Diet". April 2019. Archived from the original on 28 April 2021. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  72. ^ Jensen, Michael D.; Ryan, Donna H.; Apovian, Caroline M.; Ard, Jamy D.; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Donato, Karen A.; Hu, Frank B.; Hubbard, Van S.; Jakicic, John M.; Kushner, Robert F.; Loria, Catherine M.; Millen, Barbara E.; Nonas, Cathy A.; Pi-Sunyer, F. Xavier; Stevens, June; Stevens, Victor J.; Wadden, Thomas A.; Wolfe, Bruce M.; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Jordan, Harmon S.; Kendall, Karima A.; Lux, Linda J.; Mentor-Marcel, Roycelynn; Morgan, Laura C.; Trisolini, Michael G.; Wnek, Janusz; Anderson, Jeffrey L.; Halperin, Jonathan L.; Albert, Nancy M.; Bozkurt, Biykem; Brindis, Ralph G.; Curtis, Lesley H.; DeMets, David; Hochman, Judith S.; Kovacs, Richard J.; Ohman, E. Magnus; Pressler, Susan J.; Sellke, Frank W.; Shen, Win-Kuang; Smith, Sidney C.; Tomaselli, Gordon F. (24 June 2014). "2013 AHA/ACC/TOS Guideline for the Management of Overweight and Obesity in Adults". Circulation (Professional society guideline). 129 (25 Suppl 2): S102–S138. doi:10.1161/ PMC 5819889. PMID 24222017.
  73. ^ Collins, Sonya. "Alkaline Diets". WebMD. Archived from the original on 4 May 2021. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
  74. ^ Wait, Mariane. "The Baby Food Diet Review". WebMD. Archived from the original on 25 February 2021. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
  75. ^ a b "How to diet". NHS. 27 April 2018. Archived from the original on 22 November 2017. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  76. ^ a b c d Crosariol, Beppi. 9 January 2014,The Globe and Mail, "Feeling frugal after the holidays? Try these 11 affordable wines Archived 30 November 2020 at the Wayback Machine". Retrieved 3 February 2014.
  77. ^ "Carnivore diet: Definition, benefits, and risks". 29 September 2020. Archived from the original on 13 April 2021. Retrieved 4 April 2021.
  78. ^ Wilson, Bee (11 August 2017). "Why we fell for clean eating". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 8 March 2019. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  79. ^ Bix, Cynthia Overbeck. (2015). Fad Mania!: A History of American Crazes. Twenty-First Century Books. p. 43. ISBN 978-1-4677-1034-3
  80. ^ "Experts warn against the controversial 'egg and wine diet'" Archived 5 December 2019 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 5 December 2019.
  81. ^ a b "Sophisticated diets 'no advantage'" Archived 3 March 2006 at the Wayback Machine. BBC News. 6 April 2000. Retrieved 14 February 2012.
  82. ^ Davidson, Tish (2007). "Fit for Life diet". In Longe, Jacqueline L. (ed.). The Gale Encyclopedia of Diets: A Guide to Health and Nutrition. Gale, Thomson. pp. 383–385. ISBN 978-1-4144-2991-5.
  83. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Nutrition for Weight Loss: What You Need to Know About Fad Diets". August 2016. Archived from the original on 28 March 2021. Retrieved 21 December 2016.
  84. ^ Forbes, G. B. (1 January 1980). "Food Fads: Safe Feeding of Children". Pediatrics in Review. 1 (7): 207–210. doi:10.1542/pir.1-7-207. S2CID 73160797..
  85. ^ Lebwohl B, Ludvigsson JF, Green PH (October 2015). "Celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity". BMJ (Review). 351: h4347. doi:10.1136/bmj.h4347. PMC 4596973. PMID 26438584. Some population groups seem to be especially wed to the gluten-free diet, with nearly 50% of 910 athletes (including world class and Olympic medalists) adhering to a gluten-free diet, mainly because of the perceived health and energy benefits.
  86. ^ Gluten-Free, Whether You Need It or Not Archived 12 March 2021 at the Wayback Machine. The New York Times.
  87. ^ "Gluten-free diet fad: Are celiac disease rates actually rising?". CBS News. 31 July 2012. Archived from the original on 12 November 2013. Retrieved 17 April 2020. People buy gluten-free food "because they think it will help them lose weight, because they seem to feel better or because they mistakenly believe they are sensitive to gluten."
  88. ^ a b c d e Bastin, Sandra (March 2004). "Fad Diets" (PDF). University of Kentucky Extension Service. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 July 2020. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  89. ^ Addison, Heather. (2000). Hollywood, Consumer Culture, and the Rise of "Body Shaping". In David Desser, Garth Jowett. Hollywood Goes Shopping. University of Minnesota Press. p. 22. ISBN 0-8166-3512-9
  90. ^ Toyama, Michiko. Time, 17 October 2008, "Japan Goes Bananas for a New Diet" Accessed 1 July 2011.
  91. ^ Butler, Kurt; Rayner, Lynn. (1985). The Best Medicine: The Complete Health and Preventive Medicine Handbook. Harper & Row, Publishers, San Francisco. pp. 133–135. ISBN 0-06-250123-2
  92. ^ Howard, Rosanne Beatrice; Herbold, Nancie Harvey. (1978). Nutrition in Clinical Care. McGraw-Hill. p. 276. ISBN 978-0070305458
  93. ^ NHS (9 May 2008). "Caveman fad diet". Archived from the original on 25 July 2017. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  94. ^ Frassetto, L A; Schloetter, M; Mietus-Synder, M; Morris, R C; Sebastian, A (August 2009). "Metabolic and physiologic improvements from consuming a paleolithic, hunter-gatherer type diet". European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 63 (8): 947–955. doi:10.1038/ejcn.2009.4. PMID 19209185. S2CID 7434149.
  95. ^ Fad Diets: The Whole30, International Food Information Council Foundation, 25 July 2017, archived from the original on 3 October 2018, retrieved 21 October 2019
  96. ^ "Fad diets: Low Carbohydrate Diet Summaries" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 November 2020. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  97. ^ Cohen, Larry et al. Prevention Institute, San Jose State University. "The O Word: Why the Focus on Obesity is Harmful to Community Health Archived 24 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine". Retrieved 3 February 2014.
  98. ^ a b Daniels, June (December 2004). "Fad diets: Slim on good nutrition". Nursing. 34 (12): 22–23. doi:10.1097/00152193-200412000-00016. PMID 15617206.
  99. ^ "The Bulletproof Diet: simplistic, invalid and unscientific" Archived 9 March 2020 at the Wayback Machine. The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 24 November 2018.
  100. ^ Tunc, Tanfer Emin. (2018). The “Mad Men” of Nutrition: The Drinking Man’s Diet and Mid-Twentieth-Century American Masculinity Archived 15 December 2019 at the Wayback Machine. Global Food History 4 (2): 189–206.
  101. ^ a b, 22 April 2011, "Are Fad Diets Worth the Risk? Archived 21 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine". Retrieved 3 February 2014.
  102. ^ Rastogi, Shweta. (2010). Eat Right To Stay Bright: Manage Diet To Manage Disease. Popular Prakashan. p. 63. ISBN 978-81-7991-582-0
  103. ^ "Eat beet, lose pounds (and five other dietary fads)" Archived 22 December 2019 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 22 December 2019.
  104. ^ "Top 5 worst celeb diets to avoid in 2018". British Dietetic Association. 7 December 2017. Archived from the original on 29 December 2017. Retrieved 22 October 2019. The British Dietetic Association (BDA) today revealed its much-anticipated annual list of celebrity diets to avoid in 2018. The line-up this year includes Raw Vegan, Alkaline, Pioppi and Ketogenic diets as well as Katie Price's Nutritional Supplements.
  105. ^ MD, Marcelo Campos (27 July 2017). "Ketogenic diet: Is the ultimate low-carb diet good for you?". Harvard Health Blog. Archived from the original on 9 October 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  106. ^ British Dietetic Association (7 December 2017). "Top 5 worst celeb diets to avoid in 2018". British Dietetic Association. Archived from the original on 29 December 2017. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  107. ^ Stare, Fredrick John; Whelan, Elizabeth M. (1998). Protein Power by Michael R. Eades, M.D., and Mary Dan Eades, M.D. In Fad-Free Nutrition. Hunter House Inc. pp. 205–207. ISBN 0-89793-237-4
  108. ^ Harriet Hall (2 June 2015). "The Rosedale Diet: Here We Go Again". Science-Based Medicine. Archived from the original on 25 July 2020. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
  109. ^ Akis, Eric. (2017). "The original low-carb diet" Archived 21 October 2019 at the Wayback Machine. Times Colonist. Retrieved 2 December 2018.
  110. ^ Kuske, Terrence T. Quackery and Fad Diets. In Elaine B. Feldman. (1983). Nutrition in the Middle and Later Years. John Wright & Sons. p. 297. ISBN 0-7236-7046-3
  111. ^ "Study backs worth of Atkins diet" Archived 13 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine. BBC News. 7 March 2007. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
  112. ^ Tina Gianoulis, "Dieting" in the St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture Ed. Thomas Riggs. Vol. 2. 2nd ed. Detroit: St. James Press, 2013. p106-108. ISBN 978-1-55862-847-2
  113. ^ Fad Diets Archived 21 July 2020 at the Wayback Machine Sandra Bastin, Ph.D., R.D., L.D. Cooperative Extension Service. University of Kentucky – College of Agriculture. March 2004. Retrieved 28 August 2015
  114. ^ Jane E Brody for the New York Times. 3 June 1981 Personal Health: Another Entry in the Annals of Fad Diets Archived 8 June 2019 at the Wayback Machine
  115. ^ Southern Nevada Health District. 2015 Back to the 80s: Fad Diets Archived 18 June 2017 at the Wayback Machine
  116. ^ DeBruyne L, Pinna K, Whitney E (2011). Chapter 7: Nutrition in practice — fad diets (8th ed.). Cengage Learning. p. 209. ISBN 978-1-133-71550-4. 'a fad diet by any other name would still be a fad diet.' And the names are legion: the Atkins Diet, the Cheater's Diet, the South Beach Diet, the Zone Diet. Year after year, 'new and improved' diets appear ... {{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)
  117. ^ "People to watch". Nature Medicine. 12 (1): 29. January 2006. doi:10.1038/nm0106-29. S2CID 26068107. James Hill wants Americans to shed pounds. But instead of promoting any one fad diet, he embraces most--Atkins, South Beach, grapefruit-only--as relatively effective ways to lose weight.
  118. ^ Hiatt, Kurtis. 1 March 2011, U.S. News & World Report, "'The 4-Hour Body'—Does It Deliver Results? Archived 21 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine".
  119. ^ Speakman, John R. (2003). Obesity:- Part three – failed solutions and new ideas. Biologist 50 (3): 1–6.
  120. ^ Ayers, Suzan F; Sariscsany, Mary Jo. (2011). Physical Education for Lifelong Fitness: The Physical Best Teacher's Guide. National Association for Sport and Physical Education. p. 65. ISBN 978-0-7360-8116-0
  121. ^ Stare FJ, Whelan EM (1998). "Book review:The McDougall Program for Maximum Weight Loss by John A. McDougall M.D.". Fad-Free Nutrition. Hunter House. pp. 202–203. ISBN 9780897932363.
  122. ^ a b Alters S, Schiff W (22 February 2012). Chapter 10: Body Weight and Its Management (Sixth ed.). Jones & Bartlett Publishers. p. 327. ISBN 978-1-4496-3062-1. {{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)
  123. ^ Wdowik, Melissa (7 November 2017). "The long, strange history of dieting fads". The Conversation. Archived from the original on 18 October 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  124. ^ "Top 5 Worst Celebrity Diets to Avoid in 2014". 22 March 2014. Archived from the original on 22 March 2014.
  125. ^ "Ask the Expert: Fad Diets in 2019 By Toby Amidor, MS, RD, CDN Today's Dietitian Vol. 21, No. 1, P. 10". Archived from the original on 30 October 2019. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
  126. ^ Valiant M (27 May 2015). "Do Juice Cleanses Work? 10 Truths About The Fad". HuffPost. Archived from the original on 17 August 2018. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  127. ^ Barrett, Stephen; Herbert, Victor. Questionable Practices in Foods and Nutrition: Definitions and Descriptions. (2002). In Carolyn D. Berdanier. Handbook of Nutrition and Food. CRC Press. p. 1493. ISBN 0-8493-2705-9
  128. ^ a b "BDA Releases Top 5 Celeb Diets to Avoid in 2019". 7 December 2018. Retrieved 28 October 2019.
  129. ^ Maureen Callahan. "Fat Flush – Diet Fitness". Archived from the original on 18 December 2019. Retrieved 2 March 2016.
  130. ^ Elin, Abby (21 January 2009). "Flush Those Toxins! Eh, Not So Fast". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 10 August 2019. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
  131. ^ Knibbs, Kate (28 January 2016). "Gwyneth Paltrow's Goop Consults 'Fat Flush' Diet Quack About 'Cell Phone Toxicity'". Gizmodo. Archived from the original on 7 January 2020. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
  132. ^ "8 fad diets and how they work". 5 April 2019. Archived from the original on 1 October 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  133. ^ 8 January 2014, "The worst diets of 2013 – and the best for 2014 Archived 19 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine". Retrieved 3 February 2014.
  134. ^ Newman, Judith. "The Juice Cleanse: A Strange and Green Journey" (PDF). The New York Times. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 April 2018. Retrieved 6 May 2016.
  135. ^ Collins, Clare; Ashton, Lee; Williams, Rebecca (28 August 2019). "The science behind diet trends like Mono, charcoal detox, Noom and Fast800". The Conversation. Archived from the original on 27 August 2019. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  136. ^ Wheatgrass Therapy Archived 21 June 2018 at the Wayback Machine. National Council Against Health Fraud.
  137. ^ Walden, Celia (16 June 2010). "The blood-type diet: Weight loss need not be in vein". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
  138. ^ Bijlefeld, Marjolijn; Sharon K. Zoumbaris (25 November 2014). Encyclopedia of Diet Fads: Understanding Science and Society, 2nd Edition: Understanding Science and Society. ABC-CLIO. pp. 195–. ISBN 978-1-61069-760-6. Archived from the original on 17 November 2023. Retrieved 28 August 2020.
  139. ^ Neporent, Liz (21 November 2013). "Dangerous Diet Trend: The Cotton Ball Diet". ABC News. Archived from the original on 28 January 2018. Retrieved 23 November 2013.
  140. ^ Barrett, Stephen; Jarvis, William T. (1993). The Health Robbers: A Close Look at Quackery in America. Prometheus Books. pp. 151–152. ISBN 0-87975-855-4
  141. ^ The Latest Diet Fad That Involves...Werewolves? Oh, And Moons Archived 22 December 2019 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 22 December 2019.
  142. ^ a b "What is a vegetarian?" Archived 30 April 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Vegetarian Society. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
  143. ^ "Let them eat air..." Archived 4 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine. The Guardian. 28 September 1999. Retrieved 10 March 2012.
  144. ^ a b Hunter, Fiona (April 2011). "Vegetarian and vegan diets" Archived 6 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine. BBC Health. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
  145. ^ Fellowes, Jessica (14 November 2008). "The new vegetarianism: introducing the flexitarian". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 10 March 2012.
  146. ^ Mathieu, Sasha; Dorard, Géraldine (1 September 2016). "Végétarisme, végétalisme, véganisme: aspects motivationnels et psychologiques associés à l'alimentation sélective". La Presse Médicale (in French). 45 (9): 726–733. doi:10.1016/j.lpm.2016.06.031. ISSN 0755-4982. PMID 27542762. Archived from the original on 17 November 2023. Retrieved 7 September 2022. Some studies distinguish other food categories such as the pesco-vegetarian diet, which tolerates the consumption of fish and seafood, and the semi-vegetarian diet, which excludes red meat but allows the consumption of other meat products…In addition to these diets, there is flexitarianism…In general, flexitarians adopt a predominantly vegetarian or vegan diet, but may consume meat on special occasions (such as during dinner parties or dining out). In short, a flexitarian is an omnivore who has reduced his consumption of animal products.
  147. ^ Baines, Surinder; Powers, Jennifer; Brown, Wendy J (May 2007). "How does the health and well-being of young Australian vegetarian and semi-vegetarian women compare with non-vegetarians?". Public Health Nutrition. 10 (5): 436–442. doi:10.1017/S1368980007217938. PMID 17411462. Women were defined as non-vegetarians if they reported including red meat in their diet, as semi-vegetarians if they excluded red meat and as vegetarians if they excluded meat, poultry and fish from their diet.
  148. ^ Forestell, Catherine A.; Spaeth, Andrea M.; Kane, Stephanie A. (1 February 2012). "To eat or not to eat red meat. A closer look at the relationship between restrained eating and vegetarianism in college females". Appetite. 58 (1): 319–325. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2011.10.015. ISSN 0195-6663. PMID 22079892. S2CID 22041112. Archived from the original on 30 September 2018. Retrieved 7 September 2022. while vegetarians and pesco-vegetarians were more open to new experiences and less food neophobic, they were not more restrained than omnivores. Rather semi-vegetarians; those who restricted only red meat from their diet, and flexitarians; those who occasionally eat red meat, were significantly more restrained than omnivores.
  149. ^ Barone, Tayissa (9 February 2010). "Kangatarians jump the divide" Archived 17 November 2023 at the Wayback Machine. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 17 January 2012.
  150. ^ Burrows, Joel (22 November 2021). "The Truth About Australia's Kangatarian Diet". Archived from the original on 28 June 2022. Retrieved 28 June 2022.
  151. ^ Willett, Walter; Rockström, Johan; Loken, Brent; Springmann, Marco; Lang, Tim; Vermeulen, Sonja; Garnett, Tara; Tilman, David; DeClerck, Fabrice; Wood, Amanda; Jonell, Malin; Clark, Michael; Gordon, Line J; Fanzo, Jessica; Hawkes, Corinna; Zurayk, Rami; Rivera, Juan A; De Vries, Wim; Majele Sibanda, Lindiwe; Afshin, Ashkan; Chaudhary, Abhishek; Herrero, Mario; Agustina, Rina; Branca, Francesco; Lartey, Anna; Fan, Shenggen; Crona, Beatrice; Fox, Elizabeth; Bignet, Victoria; Troell, Max; Lindahl, Therese; Singh, Sudhvir; Cornell, Sarah E; Srinath Reddy, K; Narain, Sunita; Nishtar, Sania; Murray, Christopher J L (February 2019). "Food in the Anthropocene: the EAT–Lancet Commission on healthy diets from sustainable food systems" (PDF). The Lancet. 393 (10170): 447–492. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31788-4. PMID 30660336. S2CID 58657351. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 November 2023. Retrieved 23 September 2021.
  152. ^ "Plant Based Diets". U.S. News & World Report. U.S. News & World Report Health. Archived from the original on 31 July 2018. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
  153. ^ Dawson-Hughes, Bess (January 2008). "The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism" Archived 21 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Tufts University. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
  154. ^ "Types of Diets: Control Your Weight and Calories | Alkaline Diet". Archived from the original on 2 March 2021. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  155. ^ Moskin, Julia (15 December 2015). "'Hangry'? Want a Slice of 'Piecaken'? The Top New Food Words for 2015". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 14 December 2019. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  156. ^ Barnett, Michaela J.; Dripps, Weston R.; Blomquist, Kerstin K. (1 October 2016). "Organivore or organorexic? Examining the relationship between alternative food network engagement, disordered eating, and special diets". Appetite. 105: 713–720. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2016.07.008. PMID 27397727. S2CID 3029703.
  157. ^ Reno, Tosca. (2007). The Eat-Clean Diet. Robert Kennedy Publishing. ISBN 1-55210-038-3.
  158. ^ "Gerson Therapy" Archived 25 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine. American Cancer Society. Retrieved 22 April 2009.
  159. ^ "Sylvester Graham (1795–1851)" Archived 22 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine. International Vegetarian Union. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
  160. ^ "High Fiber Diet" Archived 13 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Mayo Clinic. 15 August 2009. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
  161. ^ Gill, Victoria (13 August 2010). "Scientist will live as an Inuit for one year" Archived 17 February 2019 at the Wayback Machine. BBC News. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
  162. ^ "How Jenny Craig works" Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Jenny Craig, Inc. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
  163. ^ Smith, Alisa; Mackinnon, J.B. (March 2007). The 100-Mile Diet: A Year of Local Eating. Random House Canada. ISBN 0-679-31482-2.
  164. ^ Crace, John (3 June 2009). "The wholefood revolutionary" Archived 6 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine. The Guardian. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
  165. ^ "Low-fat, Mediterranean and low-carb diets 'help heart'" Archived 17 November 2023 at the Wayback Machine. BBC News. 2 March 2010. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
  166. ^ Marcason, Wendy (October 2015). "What Are the Components to the MIND Diet?". Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. 115 (10): 1744. doi:10.1016/j.jand.2015.08.002. PMID 26407649.
  167. ^ Rhodes, Chloe (21 November 2005). "Diet another day: the Montignac diet". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
  168. ^ Snyderman, Nancy (6 May 2009). "There are no negative-calorie foods". Time. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
  169. ^ "Definition for omnivore". Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 13 March 2012.
  170. ^ Allen GJ, Albala K, eds. (2007). The business of food: encyclopedia of the food and drink industries. ABC-CLIO. p. 288. ISBN 978-0-313-33725-3.
  171. ^ "Raw food eaters thin but healthy" Archived 21 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine. BBC News. 29 March 2005. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
  172. ^ Green, Emily (31 January 2001). "Meat but no heat" Archived 12 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
  173. ^ Gorman, Christine (24 June 2001). "Sugar Busters!". Time. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
  174. ^ "Western diet risk to Asian women" Archived 11 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. BBC News. 10 July 2007. Retrieved 15 February 2012.
  175. ^ Bloomfield, Hanna E.; Kane, Robert; Koeller, Eva; Greer, Nancy; MacDonald, Roderick; Wilt, Timothy (2015). Benefits and Harms of the Mediterranean Diet Compared to Other Diets. VA Evidence-based Synthesis Program Reports. Department of Veterans Affairs. OCLC 1117878493. PMID 27559560. Archived from the original on 15 April 2023. Retrieved 20 June 2020.[page needed]
  176. ^ "USDA ERS – Charts of Note". Archived from the original on 21 June 2020. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  177. ^ "Heavily processed foods cause overeating and weight gain, study finds: Small-scale trial is the first randomized, controlled research of its kind". ScienceDaily. Archived from the original on 7 November 2020. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  178. ^ Miller, Paige E.; McKinnon, Robin A.; Krebs-Smith, Susan M.; Subar, Amy F.; Chriqui, Jamie; Kahle, Lisa; Reedy, Jill (October 2013). "Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption in the U.S.". American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 45 (4): 416–421. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2013.05.014. PMID 24050417.