A neologism (//; from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is the name for a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language. Neologisms are often directly attributable to a specific person, publication, period, or event. In the process of language formation, neologisms are more mature than protologisms.
History and meaningEdit
The term neologism is first attested in English in 1772, borrowed from French néologisme (1734). A proponent of a new word or doctrine may be called a neologist. Neologists might study cultural and ethnic vernacular.
The term neologism has a broader meaning that includes not only "an entirely new lexical item" but also an existing word whose meaning has been altered. Sometimes, the latter process is called semantic shifting, or semantic extension. Neologisms are distinct from a person's idiolect, one's unique patterns of vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation.
Neologisms are usually introduced when an individual or individuals find that a specific notion is lacking a term in a language, or when the existing vocabulary is insufficiently detailed. The law, governmental bodies, and technology have a relatively high frequency of acquiring neologisms.
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Neologisms may come from a word used in the narrative of a book. Examples are "grok" from Stranger in a Strange Land by Robert A. Heinlein; "McJob" from Generation X: Tales for an Accelerated Culture by Douglas Coupland; "cyberspace" from Neuromancer by William Gibson and quark from James Joyce's Finnegans Wake.
The title of a book may become a neologism, for instance, Catch-22 (from the title of Joseph Heller's novel). Alternatively, the author's name may give rise to the neologism, although the term is sometimes based on only one work of that author. This includes such words as "Orwellian" (from George Orwell, referring to his novel Nineteen Eighty-Four) and "Kafkaesque" (from Franz Kafka).
Names of famous characters are another source of literary neologisms, e.g. quixotic (referring to the title character in Don Quixote de la Mancha by Cervantes), scrooge (from the main character in Dickens's A Christmas Carol) and pollyanna (from Eleanor H. Porter's book of the same name).
In these instances, words are used in small communities then spread through the use of social media. "Doggo-Lingo" specifically has spread primarily through Facebook group and Twitter account use.  The suspected origin of this way of referring to dogs stems from a Facebook group created in 2008 and gaining popularity in 2014 in Australia. The Facebook group called DogSpotting posts pictures of dogs that members have seen with amusing captions, often using Doggo-Lingo. In Australian English it is common to use diminutives, often ending in –o, which could be where doggo-lingo was first used.  The term has grown so that Merriam-Webster has acknowledged its use but notes the term needs to be found in published, edited work for a longer period of time before it can be deemed a new word making it the perfect example of a neologism. 
The use and over-use of brand names is another example of neologism creation. The terms "coke" or "cola" may be used in reference to any Coca-Cola like beverage regardless of brand. Kleenex is used in reference to any facial tissue. Xerox or xerox-ing is used in reference to any Photocopier or action of photocopying. 
Because neologisms originate in one language, translations between languages can be difficult.
In the scientific community, where English is the predominate language for published research and studies, like-sounding translations (referred to as 'naturalization') are sometimes used.  Alternatively, the English word is used along with a brief explanation of meaning.
When translating from English to other languages, the naturalization method is most often used.  The most common way that professional translators translate neologisms is through the Think aloud protocol (TAP), wherein translators find the most appropriate and natural sounding new word through speech.  This way, translators are able to use potential translated neologisms in sentences and test them with different structures and syntax. Correct translations from English for specific purposes into other languages is crucial in various industries and legal systems.  Inaccurate translations can lead to 'translation asymmetry' or conceptual misunderstandings which can lead to miscommunication. Many technical glossaries of English translations exist to combat this issue in the medical, judicial, and technological fields.
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This process [of lexicalization] does not seem to be coincidental because neologisms themselves are prone to go through certain stages of transformation. They begin as unstable creations (otherwise called protologisms), that is, they are extremely new, being proposed, or being used only by a small subculture
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- Ole Nedergaard Thomsen Competing models of linguistic change: evolution and beyond 2006 – p. 68 "Extensions, by contrast, are applications of extant means in new usage. Note that since individual speakers differ in their command of their shared tradition of speaking, one person's Extension may be experienced by another as a Neologism"
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|Look up neologism or protologism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- Neologisms in Journalistic Text
- Interpretation of the Formation of Internet Neologisms
- Fowler, H.W., "The King's English", Chapter I. Vocabulary, Neologism
- Algeo, John. Fifty Years among the New Words: A Dictionary of Neologisms, 1941–1991 ISBN 0-521-41377-X
- Rice University Neologisms Database
- Neologisms from the Internet – with Esther Dyson, Jimmy Wales and more...