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Canada /ˈkænədə/ is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west and northward into the Arctic Ocean. It is the world's second largest country by total area. Canada's common border with the United States to the south and northwest is the longest in the world.

The land that is now Canada was inhabited for millennia by various groups of Aboriginal peoples. Beginning in the late 15th century, British and French expeditions explored, and later settled, along the Atlantic coast. France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763 after the Seven Years' War. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament.

Canada is a federation that is governed as a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state. It is a bilingual nation with both English and French as official languages at the federal level. One of the world's highly developed countries, Canada has a diversified economy that is reliant upon its abundant natural resources and upon trade—particularly with the United States, with which Canada has had a long and complex relationship. It is a member of the G7, G-20, NATO, OECD, WTO, Commonwealth, Francophonie, OAS, APEC, and UN.

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Parliament of Canada The House of Commons is the lower, directly elected house of the Canadian Parliament
The Parliament of Canada is Canada's legislative branch, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, Ontario. According to Section 17 of the Constitution Act, 1867, parliament consists of three components: the sovereign, the Senate, and the House of Commons; the sovereign is normally represented by the Governor General, who appoints the 105 members of the Senate on the recommendation of the Prime Minister. The 308 members of the House of Commons are directly elected by the people, with each member representing a single electoral district, frequently called a constituency or a riding.

The lower house, the House of Commons, is the dominant branch of the Canadian parliament. The upper house, the Senate, rarely opposes the will of the other chamber, and the duties of the sovereign and Governor General are largely ceremonial, although both have reserve powers in which could refuse to grant royal assent to a bill, and could dismiss the Cabinet and call an election unprompted. The Prime Minister and Cabinet must retain the support of a majority of members of the Lower House to remain in office; they need not have the confidence of the Upper House.

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Trevor Linden (born April 11, 1970) is a retired Canadian professional ice hockey player. He played centre and right wing for the Vancouver Canucks of the National Hockey League (NHL). Since joining the league in 1988, he has played with four different teams: the Canucks (in two stints), New York Islanders, Montreal Canadiens, and Washington Capitals. Before joining the NHL, Linden captained the Medicine Hat Tigers of the Western Hockey League (WHL) to consecutive Memorial Cup championships. In addition to appearing in two NHL All-Star games, Linden was a member of the 1998 Canadian Olympic team and participated in the 1996 World Cup of Hockey.

Throughout his career, Linden has been recognized as a respected leader on and off the ice. He was named captain of the Canucks at the age of 21, making him one of the youngest captains in league history. While captaining the Canucks, Linden led the team to within a game of winning the Stanley Cup in 1994. In 1998 he was elected President of the National Hockey League Players' Association (NHLPA), a position he held for eight years. Off the ice, Linden has taken an active role in charities, and was awarded the King Clancy Memorial Trophy for leadership on the ice and humanitarian contributions off the ice in 1997, as well as the NHL Foundation Player Award in 2008. After 19 seasons in the NHL, Linden announced his retirement at a news conference in Vancouver on June 11, 2008 The official announcement came twenty years to the day of initially being drafted by Vancouver.

In the news

19 April 2019 –
A house deck collapses in Langley, British Columbia, Canada, injuring 40 people, twenty of them severely. (Global News)
18 April 2019 –
Mountain climbers Jess Roskelley, David Lama and Hansjörg Auer are suspected dead after an avalanche on Howse Peak in Canada's Banff National Park. (
2 April 2019 – SNC-Lavalin affair
Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau expels former ministers Jody Wilson-Raybould and Jane Philpott from the Liberal Party of Canada. (BBC), (Reuters)

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Viola cucullata

Viola cucullata (Hooded Blue Violet, Marsh Blue Violet or Purple Violet) is a species of the genus Viola native to eastern North America, from Newfoundland west to Ontario and Minnesota, and south to Georgia. The purple violet is the provincial flower of New Brunswick...

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