Demographics of Canada

Statistics Canada conducts a country-wide census that collects demographic data every five years on the first and sixth year of each decade. The 2021 Canadian Census enumerated a total population of 36,991,981, an increase of around 5.2 percent over the 2016 figure.[4] Between 2011 and May 2016, Canada's population grew by 1.7 million people, with immigrants accounting for two-thirds of the increase.[5] Between 1990 and 2008, the population increased by 5.6 million, equivalent to 20.4 percent overall growth.[6] The main driver of population growth is immigration and, to a lesser extent, natural growth.[7]

Demographics of Canada
Canada 2022 Population Pyramid.svg
Population38,232,593 (2022)
Growth rate0.75% (2022 est.)
Birth rate10.17 births/1,000 population (2022 est.)
Death rate8.12 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.)
Life expectancy83.8 years
 • male81.52 years
 • female86.21 years (2022 est.)
Fertility rate1.57 children born/woman (2022 est.)
Infant mortality rate4.38 deaths/1,000 live births
Net migration rate5.46 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.)
Age structure
0–14 years15.99%
65 and over18.98%
Sex ratio
Total0.98 male(s)/female (2022 est.)
At birth1.05 male(s)/female
Under 151.06 male(s)/female
65 and over0.75 male(s)/female
Nationality
NationalityCanadian
Major ethnicWhite (69.8%)[1][2]
Minor ethnicSouth Asian (7.1%)[2]
Chinese (4.7%)[2]
Indigenous (5%)[3]
Black (4.3%)[2]
Arab (1.9%)[2]
Latin American (1.6%)[2]
Southeast Asian (1.1%)[2]
West Asian (1%)[2]
Korean (0.6%)[2]
Japanese (0.3%)[2]
Multiracial/Other (3.2%)[2]
Language
OfficialEnglish (55.97%)
French (20.61%)
SpokenMandarin (1.7%)
Cantonese (1.63%)
Punjabi (1.44%)
Spanish (1.32%)
Tagalog (1.24%)
Arabic (1.21%)
German (1.1%)
Italian (1.08%)
Others (12.7%)
Language figures are from the 2016 Canadian census and based on total number of first language speakers (mother tongue), and not total number of individuals who may speak the language as a second (L2), third (L3), or more language. See knowledge of languages for this information.
Historical population of Canada

Canada has one of the highest per-capita immigration rates in the world,[8] driven mainly by economic policy and, to a lesser extent, family reunification.[9][10] In 2019, a total of 341,180 immigrants were admitted to Canada, mainly from Asia.[11] New immigrants settle mostly in major urban areas such as Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver.[12] Canada also accepts large numbers of refugees,[13] accounting for over 10 percent of annual global refugee resettlements.[14][15]

PopulationEdit

 
Population density of Canadian provinces and territories
  >25 people/km2
  15-24.9 people/km2
  10-14.9 people/km2
  5-9.9 people/km2
  1-4.9 people/km2
  <1 people/km2

The Canada 2021 Census had a total population count of 36,991,981 individuals, making up approximately 0.5% of the world's total population.[4][16] A population estimate for 2022 put the total number of people in Canada at 38,232,593.[17]

Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review in 2022.[18]

  • One birth every 1 minutes
  • One death every 2 minutes
  • One net migrant every 2 minutes
  • Net gain of one person every 1 minute

Death rate

8.12 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 81

Net migration rate

5.46 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 21st

Urbanization

urban population: 81.8% of total population (2022)
rate of urbanization: 0.95% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

[19]

Provinces and territoriesEdit

Population Name[20] Population,
2021 Census
Growth,
2016–21
Land area
(km2)
Population
density
(per km2
House of
Commons
seats
Senate seats
Total Proportion Total Proportion Total Proportion
1 Ontario 14,223,942 38.45% 5.8% 908,699.33 15.2 121 35.8% 24 22.86%
2 Quebec 8,501,833 22.98% 4.1% 1,356,625.27 6.5 78 23.1% 24 22.86%
3 British Columbia 5,000,879 13.52% 7.6% 922,503.01 5.4 42 12.4% 6 5.71%
4 Alberta 4,262,635 11.52% 4.8% 640,330.46 6.7 34 10.1% 6 5.71%
5 Manitoba 1,342,153 3.63% 5.8% 552,370.99 2.3 14 4.1% 6 5.71%
6 Saskatchewan 1,132,505 3.06% 3.4% 588,243.54 2.0 14 4.1% 6 5.71%
7 Nova Scotia 969,383 2.62% 5.0% 52,942.27 18.4 11 3.3% 10 9.52%
8 New Brunswick 775,610 2.09% 3.8% 71,388.81 10.9 10 3.0% 10 9.52%
9 Newfoundland and Labrador 510,550 1.38% -1.8% 370,514.08 1.4 7 2.1% 6 5.71%
10 Prince Edward Island 154,331 0.42% 8.0% 5,686.03 27.2 4 1.2% 4 3.81%
11 Northwest Territories 41,070 0.11% -1.7% 1,143,793.86 0.04 1 0.3% 1 0.95%
12 Yukon 40,232 0.11% 12.1% 474,712.68 0.08 1 0.3% 1 0.95%
13 Nunavut 36,858 0.10% 2.5% 1,877,778.53 0.02 1 0.3% 1 0.95%
Total Totals 36,991,981 100% 5.2% 8,965,588.85 4.2 338 100% 105 100%

Population distributionEdit

The vast majority of Canadians are positioned in a discontinuous band within approximately 300 km of the southern border with the United States; the most populated province is Ontario, followed by Quebec and British Columbia.

Sources: Statistics Canada[21][22][20]

CitiesEdit

 
 
Largest cities or towns in Canada
Rank Name Province Pop. Rank Name Province Pop.
1 Toronto Ontario 2,794,356 11 Surrey British Columbia 568,322
2 Montreal Quebec 1,762,949 12 Quebec City Quebec 549,459
3 Calgary Alberta 1,306,784 13 Halifax Nova Scotia 439,819
4 Ottawa Ontario 1,017,449 14 Laval Quebec 438,366
5 Edmonton Alberta 1,010,899 15 London Ontario 422,324
6 Winnipeg Manitoba 749,607 16 Markham Ontario 338,503
7 Mississauga Ontario 717,961 17 Vaughan Ontario 323,103
8 Vancouver British Columbia 662,248 18 Gatineau Quebec 291,041
9 Brampton Ontario 656,480 19 Saskatoon Saskatchewan 266,141
10 Hamilton Ontario 569,353 20 Kitchener Ontario 256,885

Census metropolitan areasEdit

 
Largest metropolitan areas in Canada
Rank Name Province Pop. Rank Name Province Pop.
1 Toronto Ontario 6,202,225 11 London Ontario 543,551
2 Montreal Quebec 4,291,732 12 Halifax Nova Scotia 465,703
3 Vancouver British Columbia 2,642,825 13 St. Catharines–Niagara Ontario 433,604
4 Ottawa–Gatineau Ontario–Quebec 1,488,307 14 Windsor Ontario 422,630
5 Calgary Alberta 1,481,806 15 Oshawa Ontario 415,311
6 Edmonton Alberta 1,418,118 16 Victoria British Columbia 397,237
7 Quebec City Quebec 839,311 17 Saskatoon Saskatchewan 317,480
8 Winnipeg Manitoba 834,678 18 Regina Saskatchewan 249,217
9 Hamilton Ontario 785,184 19 Sherbrooke Quebec 227,398
10 Kitchener–Cambridge–Waterloo Ontario 575,847 20 Kelowna British Columbia 222,162

Fertility rateEdit

 
Total fertility rate of Canada from 1861 to 2016

The total fertility rate is the number of children born in a specific year cohort to the total number of women who can give birth in the country.

In 1971, the birth rate for the first time tipped below replacement[24][25] and since then has not rebounded.[24]

The current fertility rate of Canada is 1.57 children per woman.[17] The total birth rate is 10.17 births/1,000 population in 2022.[17]

Total fertility rate Years[26]
1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869 1870
5.72 5.63 5.54 5.44 5.35 5.26 5.17 5.07 4.98 4.89
1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880
4.83 4.77 4.75 4.72 4.7 4.68 4.65 4.63 4.6 4.53
1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1899 1890
4.56 4.52 4.49 4.45 4.42 4.38 4.35 4.31 4.27 4.24
1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900
4.2 4.19 4.17 4.15 4.13 4.11 4.1 4.08 4.06 4.04
1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910
4.02 4.03 4.03 4.03 4.03 4.04 4.04 4.04 4.04 4.05
1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920
4.05 4 3.95 3.89 3.84 3.79 3.74 3.68 3.63 3.58
1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930
3.53 3.4 3.23 3.22 3.13 3.35 3.32 3.29 3.22 3.28
1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940
3.19 3.08 2.86 2.8 2.75 2.69 2.64 2.7 2.65 2.76
1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950
2.82 2.96 3.04 3 3.01 3.37 3.59 3.44 3.45 3.45
1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2006 2011 2016 - -
3.81 2.11 1.65 1.67 1.52 1.6 1.63 1.58 - -

Mother's mean age at first birthEdit

In 2019, the average age of which a woman in Canada gives birth is 29.4 years.

Average age of childbirth at first birth[25] Year
1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955
25.2 25.1 24.9 24.7 24.6 24.5 24.3 24.2 24.2 24.1 24.1
1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966
24 23.9 23.8 23.7 23.7 23.6 23.6 23.6 23.6 23.5 23.5
1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977
23.6 23.6 23.7 23.7 23.9 24 24.1 24.3 24.3 24.4 24.5
1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988
24.7 24.8 24.9 25 25.1 25.3 25.4 25.5 25.6 25.7 25.8
1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
25.8 25.9 25.9 26.1 26.3 26.2 26.3 26.5 26.7 26.8 27
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
27.1 27.3 27.5 27.8 27.9 28 28 28.1 28.1 28.2 28.4
2011
28.5

Family sizeEdit

The average family size in Canada has shifted more towards either childless couples or couples who have either 1 to 2 children at a maximum.

Population projectionEdit

 
Map of Canadian provinces and territories by population growth rate (2016–2021).
  < 4.0%
   4.0%–7.0%
   7.0%–10.0%
  > 10.0%
  population decline

According to Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)/World Bank, the population in Canada increased from 1990 to 2008 with 5.6 million and 20.4% growth in population, compared to 21.7% growth in the United States and 31.2% growth in Mexico. According to the OECD/World Bank population statistics, for the same period the world population growth was 27%, a total of 1,423 million people.[27] However, over the same period, the population of France grew by 8.0%. And from 1991 to 2011, the population of the UK increased by 10.0%.

The current population growth rate for Canada in 2022 was 0.75%.[17]

Life expectancyEdit

 
Life expectancy in Canada

Life expectancy in Canada has consistently risen since the country's formation.

Life expectancy Year[32]
1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891 1901 1911
39.0 40.3 41.0 41.6 42.6 44.7 45.2 48.6 52.5
1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929
57.0 57.0 56.9 58.8 59.2 57.2 58.6 58.4 57.9
1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939
58.9 60.3 61.4 62.3 62.7 62.4 62.7 61.3 63.3 63.7
1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949
64.0 63.7 64.6 64.6 65.3 66.3 66.5 66.7 67.3 67.6
1950 1950 - 55 1955 - 60 1960 - 65 1965 - 70 1970 - 75 1975 - 80 1980 - 85 1985 - 90
68.2 69.1 70.3 71.3 72.2 73.0 74.3 75.9 76.8
1990 - 95 1995 - 2000 2000 - 2005 2005 - 2010 2010 - 2015 2015 - 2020
77.8 78.6 79.7 80.8 81.8 83.7

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 16 years
male: 16 years
female: 17 years (2016)

Infant mortality rate

total: 4.5 deaths/1,000 live births. Country comparison to the world: 180th
male: 4.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
 
Population pyramid of Canada overtime from 1950 to 2020

Age characteristicsEdit

Population by age and gender in the 2011 census[33]
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0 to 4 years 973,030 925,760 1,898,790 5.4%
5 to 9 years 1,034,685 983,445 2,018,130 5.7%
10 to 14 years 985,200 937,445 1,922,645 5.5%
15 to 19 years 1,039,215 986,940 2,026,160 5.8%
20 to 24 years 1,144,495 1,098,200 2,242,690 6.4%
25 to 29 years 1,144,470 1,141,515 2,285,990 6.5%
30 to 34 years 1,148,290 1,181,110 2,329,395 6.6%
35 to 39 years 1,118,635 1,169,730 2,288,365 6.5%
40 to 44 years 1,104,440 1,150,695 2,255,135 6.4%
45 to 49 years 1,157,760 1,202,210 2,359,965 6.7%
50 to 54 years 1,318,755 1,359,320 2,678,075 7.6%
55 to 59 years 1,285,190 1,335,055 2,620,240 7.5%
60 to 64 years 1,114,885 1,175,630 2,290,510 6.5%
65 to 69 years 953,075 1,019,405 1,972,480 5.6%
70 to 74 years 677,975 742,900 1,420,875 4%
75 to 79 years 469,550 552,300 1,021,850 2.9%
80 to 84 years 325,765 423,880 749,650 2.1%
85 years and over 268,790 501,990 770,780 2.2%
Total 16,414,225 17,062,460 33,476,685 100%
0 to 14 years 2,992,920 2,846,645 5,839,565 16.6%
15 to 64 years 11,576,130 11,800,400 23,376,530 66.5%
65 years and over 2,695,150 3,240,485 5,935,630 16.9%

Age structure[17]

0-14 years: 15.99% (male 3,094,008/female 2,931,953)
15-24 years: 11.14% (male 2,167,013/female 2,032,064)
25-54 years: 39.81% (male 7,527,554/female 7,478,737)
55-64 years: 14.08% (male 2,624,474/female 2,682,858)
65 years and over: 18.98% (male 3,274,298/female 3,881,126) (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 41.8 years. Country comparison to the world: 40th
male: 40.6 years
female: 42.9 years (2020 est.)
total: 40.6 years
male: 39.6 years
female: 41.5 years (2011)
Median age by province and territory in 2011[34]
  1. Newfoundland and Labrador: 44.0
  2. Nova Scotia: 43.7
  3. New Brunswick:43.7
  4. Prince Edward Island: 42.8
  5. Quebec: 41.9
  6. British Columbia: 41.9
  7. Ontario: 40.4
  8. Yukon: 39.1
  9. Manitoba: 38.4
  10. Saskatchewan: 38.2
  11. Alberta: 36.5
  12. Northwest Territories: 32.3
  13. Nunavut: 24.1

Sex ratioEdit

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2022 est.

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 47.3
youth dependency ratio: 23.5
elderly dependency ratio: 23.8
potential support ratio: 4.2 (2015 est.)

Vital statisticsEdit

[35][36][37] Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Birth rate (per 1,000) Death rate (per 1,000) Natural change (per 1,000) Total Fertility Rate[a][24][17]
1900 5,500,000 150,000 89,000 61,000 27.2 16.2 11.0
1901 5,600,000 175,000 79,000 96,000 31.2 14.1 17.1
1902 5,760,000 180,000 77,000 103,000 31.3 13.4 17.9 4.8
1903 5,930,000 186,000 78,000 108,000 31.3 13.2 18.1
1904 6,100,000 192,000 82,000 110,000 31.4 13.5 17.9
1905 6,280,000 195,000 82,000 113,000 31.0 13.0 18.0
1906 6,460,000 193,000 85,000 108,000 29.9 13.2 16.7
1907 6,650,000 196,000 85,000 111,000 29.5 12.8 16.7 4.74
1908 6,850,000 208,000 86,000 122,000 30.3 12.6 17.7
1909 7,040,000 213,000 90,000 123,000 30.2 12.8 17.4
1910 7,250,000 220,000 95,000 125,000 30.4 13.1 17.3
1911 7,460,000 225,000 100,000 125,000 30.1 13.4 16.7 4.7
1912 7,610,000 238,000 99,000 139,000 31.3 13.0 19.3 4.62
1913 7,760,000 246,000 102,000 144,000 31.7 13.1 19.6
1914 7,910,000 252,000 100,000 152,000 31.9 12.6 19.3
1915 8,060,000 257,000 101,000 156,000 31.9 12.5 19.4
1916 8,220,000 252,000 107,000 145,000 30.7 13.0 17.7
1917 8,380,000 244,000 106,000 138,000 29.1 12.7 16.4 4.26
1918 8,450,000 243,000 134,000 109,000 28.8 15.9 12.9
1919 8,710,000 241,000 119,000 122,000 27.7 13.7 14.0
1920 8,880,000 259,000 118,000 141,000 29.2 13.3 15.9
1921 9,060,000 265,000 105,000 160,000 29.3 11.6 17.7 3.98
1922 9,230,000 261,000 107,000 154,000 28.3 11.6 16.7 3.86
1923 9,400,000 251,000 111,000 140,000 26.7 11.8 14.9
1924 9,560,000 255,000 104,000 151,000 26.7 10.9 15.8
1925 9,730,000 254,000 104,000 150,000 26.1 10.7 15.4
1926 9,890,000 244,000 113,000 131,000 24.7 11.4 13.3
1927 10,040,000 244,000 110,000 134,000 24.3 11.0 13.3 3.32
1928 10,190,000 246,000 114,000 132,000 24.1 11.2 12.9
1929 10,350,000 243,000 118,000 125,000 23.5 11.4 12.1 3.22
1930 10,498,000 251,000 113,000 138,000 23.9 10.8 13.1 3.28
1931 10,630,000 247,000 108,000 139,000 23.2 10.2 13.0 3.2
1932 10,794,000 243,000 108,000 135,000 22.5 10.0 12.5 3.08
1933 10,919,000 229,000 106,000 123,000 21.0 9.7 11.3 2.86
1934 11,029,000 228,296 105,277 123,019 20.7 9.5 11.2 2.8
1935 11,135,000 228,396 109,724 118,672 20.5 9.9 10.6 2.76
1936 11,242,000 227,980 111,111 116,869 20.3 9.9 10.4 2.70
1937 11,339,000 227,878 118,019 109,859 20.1 10.4 9.7 2.65
1938 11,448,000 237,091 110,647 126,444 20.7 9.7 11.0 2.70
1939 11,565,000 237,991 112,729 125,262 20.6 9.7 10.9 2.65
1940 11,682,000 252,577 114,717 137,860 21.6 9.8 11.8 2.77
1941 11,810,000 263,993 118,797 145,196 22.4 10.1 12.3 2.83
1942 11,962,000 281,569 117,110 164,459 23.5 9.8 13.7 2.96
1943 12,125,000 292,943 122,640 170,303 24.2 10.1 14.1 3.04
1944 12,291,000 283,967 120,393 163,574 24.0 9.8 14.2 3.01
1945 12,441,000 300,570 117,319 183,251 24.3 9.5 14.8 3.02
1946 12,316,000 331,471 115,358 216,113 26.9 9.4 17.5 3.37
1947 12,576,000 359,943 118,157 241,786 28.6 9.4 19.2 3.60
1948 12,852,000 348,226 119,866 228,360 27.1 9.3 17.8 3.44
1949 13,475,000 367,092 124,567 242,525 27.2 9.2 18.0 3.46
1950 13,737,000 372,009 124,220 247,789 27.1 9.0 18.0 3.46
1951 14,050,000 381,092 125,823 255,269 27.1 9.0 18.2 3.50
1952 14,496,000 403,559 126,385 277,174 27.8 8.7 19.1 3.64
1953 14,886,000 417,884 127,791 290,093 28.1 8.6 19.5 3.72
1954 15,330,000 436,198 124,855 311,343 28.5 8.1 20.3 3.83
1955 15,736,000 442,937 128,476 314,461 28.1 8.2 20.0 3.83
1956 16,123,000 450,739 131,961 318,778 28.0 8.2 19.8 3.86
1957 16,677,000 469,093 136,579 332,514 28.1 8.2 19.9 3.93
1958 17,120,000 470,118 135,201 334,917 27.5 7.9 19.6 3.88
1959 17,522,000 479,275 139,913 339,362 27.4 8.0 19.4 3.94
1960 17,909,000 478,551 139,693 338,858 26.7 7.8 18.9 3.895
1961 18,271,000 475,700 140,985 334,715 26.0 7.7 18.3 3.840
1962 18,614,000 469,693 143,699 325,994 25.2 7.7 17.5 3.767
1963 18,964,000 465,767 147,367 318,400 24.6 7.8 16.8 3.694
1964 19,325,000 452,915 145,850 307,065 23.4 7.5 15.9 3.449
1965 19,678,000 418,595 148,939 269,656 21.3 7.6 13.7 3.192
1966 20,048,000 387,710 149,863 237,847 19.3 7.5 11.9 2.749
1967 20,412,000 370,894 150,283 220,611 18.2 7.4 10.8 2.528
1968 20,729,000 364,310 153,196 211,114 17.6 7.4 10.2 2.386
1969 21,028,000 369,647 154,477 215,170 17.6 7.3 10.2 2.334
1970 21,324,000 371,988 155,961 216,027 17.4 7.3 10.1 2.258
1971 21,962,032 362,187 157,272 204,915 16.5 7.2 9.3 2.141
1972 22,218,463 347,319 162,413 184,906 15.6 7.3 8.3 1.98
1973 22,491,777 343,373 164,039 179,334 15.3 7.3 8.0 1.89
1974 22,807,969 350,650 166,794 183,856 15.4 7.3 8.1 1.837
1975 23,143,275 359,323 167,176 192,147 15.5 7.2 8.3 1.824
1976 23,449,808 359,987 167,009 192,978 15.4 7.1 8.2 1.796
1977 23,725,843 361,400 167,498 193,902 15.2 7.1 8.2 1.782
1978 23,963,203 358,852 168,179 190,673 15.0 7.0 8.0 1.768
1979 24,201,544 366,064 168,183 197,881 15.1 6.9 8.2 1.754
1980 24,515,667 370,709 171,473 199,236 15.1 7.0 8.1 1.74
1981 24,819,915 371,346 171,029 200,317 15.0 6.9 8.1 1.7
1982 25,116,942 373,082 174,413 198,669 14.9 6.9 7.9 1.69
1983 25,366,451 373,689 174,484 199,205 14.7 6.9 7.9 1.68
1984 25,607,053 377,031 175,727 201,304 14.7 6.9 7.9 1.65
1985 25,842,116 375,727 181,323 194,404 14.5 7.0 7.5 1.67
1986 26,100,278 372,913 184,224 188,689 14.3 7.1 7.2 1.675
1987 26,446,601 369,742 184,953 184,789 14.0 7.0 7.0 1.68
1988 26,791,747 376,795 190,011 186,784 14.1 7.1 7.0 1.68
1989 27,276,781 392,661 190,965 201,696 14.4 7.0 7.4 1.77
1990 27,691,138 405,486 191,973 213,513 14.6 6.9 7.7 1.83
1991 28,037,420 403,816 195,569 208,247 14.4 7.0 7.4 1.72
1992 28,371,264 399,109 196,535 202,574 14.1 6.9 7.1 1.71
1993 28,684,764 389,037 204,912 184,125 13.5 7.1 6.4 1.68
1994 29,000,663 386,243 207,077 179,166 13.3 7.1 6.1 1.69
1995 29,302,311 378,685 210,733 167,952 12.9 7.2 5.7 1.67
1996 29,610,218 366,833 212,880 153,953 12.4 7.2 5.2 1.63
1997 29,905,948 349,543 215,669 133,874 11.7 7.2 4.4 1.57
1998 30,155,173 342,966 218,091 124,875 11.4 7.2 4.1 1.56
1999 30,401,286 337,821 219,530 118,291 11.1 7.2 3.9 1.54
2000 30,685,730 328,596 218,062 110,534 10.7 7.1 3.6 1.51
2001 31,020,902 334,615 219,538 115,077 10.8 7.1 3.7 1.54
2002 31,360,079 329,894 223,603 106,291 10.5 7.1 3.4 1.51
2003 31,644,028 336,352 226,169 110,183 10.6 7.1 3.4 1.54
2004 31,940,655 339,012 226,584 112,428 10.6 7.1 3.5 1.55
2005 32,243,753 345,365 230,132 115,233 10.6 7.1 3.5 1.57
2006 32,571,174 357,921 228,079 129,842 10.9 7.0 3.9 1.61
2007 32,889,025 370,369 235,217 135,152 11.2 7.2 4.0 1.66
2008 33,247,118 381,860 238,617 143,243 11.4 7.2 4.2 1.69
2009 33,628,895 384,651 238,418 146,233 11.3 7.1 4.2 1.68
2010 34,004,889 379,191 240,075 139,116 11.1 7.1 4.0 1.64
2011 34,339,328 379,244 243,511 135,733 11.0 7.1 3.9 1.62
2012 34,714,222 383,101 246,596 136,505 11.0 7.1 3.9 1.62
2013 35,082,954 381,054 252,338 128,716 10.8 7.2 3.6 1.60
2014 35,437,435 384,577 258,821 125,756 10.8 7.3 3.5 1.61
2015 35,702,908 382,979 264,333 118,646 10.7 7.4 3.3 1.60
2016 36,109,487 384,023 267,213 116,810 10.6 7.4 3.2 1.59
2017 36,545,236 377,627 278,298 99,329 10.3 7.6 2.7 1.54
2018 37,065,084 374,617 285,675 88,942 10.1 7.7 2.4 1.50
2019 37,601,230 372,978 285,270 87,708 9.9 7.6 2.3 1.47
2020 38,037,204 360,552 307,205 53,347 9.4 8.1 1.3 1.41
2021 38,232,593 367,684 311,942 55,742 9.5 8.0 1.5 1.43

(c) = Census results

Current vital statisticsEdit

[38]

Period Live births Deaths Natural increase
January - June 2021 181,235 154,524 +26,711
January - June 2022 180,306 165,803 +14,503
Difference   -929 (-0.51%)   +11,279 (+7.30%)   -12,208

Employment and incomeEdit

Unemployment, youth ages 15–24

total: 20.2%
male: 20.9%
female: 19.4% (2020 est.)

Ethnicity and visible minoritiesEdit

Canadians as ethnic group by provinceEdit

All citizens of Canada are classified as "Canadians" as defined by Canada's nationality laws. "Canadian" as an ethnic group has since 1996 been added to census questionnaires for possible ancestral origin or descent. "Canadian" was included as an example on the English questionnaire and "Canadien" as an example on the French questionnaire.[39] "The majority of respondents to this selection are from the eastern part of the country that was first settled. Respondents generally are visibly European (Anglophones and Francophones) and no longer self-identify with their ethnic ancestral origins. This response is attributed to a multitude or generational distance from ancestral lineage.[40][41]

Province / Territory Percent Canadians Total Canadians
Alberta 22.7% 902,310
British Columbia 19.0% 866,530
Manitoba 18.2% 232,660
New Brunswick 57.8% 415,810
Newfoundland and Labrador 43.4% 271,345
Nova Scotia 42.6% 387,360
Ontario 23.5% 3,109,770
Prince Edward Island 45.0% 60,000
Quebec 60.1% 4,474,115
Saskatchewan 25.0% 274,580
Canada total 32.3% 11,136,134

Ethnic originEdit

 
Canada visible minority, aboriginal and White (assumed for 1981 to 2016) population as a percentage of the total population over time
 
Visible minorities over time including projections
 
Visible minorities as a population pyramid in total in 2016

According to the 2021 Canadian census, over 450 "ethnic or cultural origins" were self-reported by Canadians.[42] The major panethnic groups chosen were; European (52.5%), North American (22.9%), Asian (19.3%), North American Indigenous (6.1%), African (3.8%), Latin, Central and South American (2.5%), Caribbean (2.1%), Oceanian (0.3%), and Other (6%).[42][43] Statistics Canada reports that 35.5% of the population reported multiple ethnic origins, thus the overall total is greater than 100%.[42][b]

The country's ten largest self-reported specific ethnic or cultural origins in 2021 were Canadian[c] (accounting for 15.6 percent of the population), followed by English (14.7 percent), Irish (12.1 percent), Scottish (12.1 percent), French (11.0 percent), German (8.1 percent), Chinese (4.7 percent), Italian (4.3 percent), Indian (3.7 percent), and Ukrainian (3.5 percent).[48]

Of the 36.3 million people enumerated in 2021 approximately 25.4 million reported being "white", representing 69.8 percent of the population.[49][2] The indigenous population representing 5 percent or 1.8 million individuals, grew by 9.4 percent compared to the non-Indigenous population, which grew by 5.3 percent from 2016 to 2021.[50] One out of every four Canadians or 26.5 percent of the population belonged to a non-White and non-Indigenous visible minority,[2][d] the largest of which in 2021 were South Asian (2.6 million people; 7.1 percent), Chinese (1.7 million; 4.7 percent) and Black (1.5 million; 4.3 percent).[49]

As data is completely self-reported, and reporting individuals may have varying definitions of "Ethnic origin" (or may not know their ethnic origin), these figures should not be considered an exact record of the relative prevalence of different ethno-cultural ancestries but rather how Canadians self-identify.

Data from this section from Statistics Canada, 2021.[52]

Ethnic origin[53] % Population
Canadian[c] 15.6% 5,677,205
English 14.7% 5,322,830
Irish 12.1% 4,413,120
Scottish 12.1% 4,392,200
French 11.0% 3,985,945
German 8.1% 2,955,695
Chinese 4.7% 1,713,870
Italian 4.3% 1,546,390
Indian 3.7% 1,347,715
Ukrainian 3.5% 1,258,635
Dutch 2.7% 988,585
Polish 2.7% 982,820
Québécois 2.7% 981,635
British Isles, n.o.s. 2.6% 981,635
Filipino 2.5% 925,490
French Canadian 2.5% 906,315
Caucasian (White), n.o.s. 1.9% 691,260
First Nations, n.o.s. 1.7% 632,340
Métis 1.5% 560,335
European, n.o.s. 1.5% 551,910

The most common ethnic origins per province are as follows in 2006[54] (total responses; only percentages 10% or higher shown; ordered by percentage of "Canadian"):

  • Quebec (7,723,525): Canadian (59.1%), French (29.1%)
  • New Brunswick (735,835): Canadian (50.3%), French (27.2%), English (25.9%), Irish (21.6%), Scottish (19.9%)
  • Newfoundland and Labrador (507,265): Canadian (49.0%), English (43.4%), Irish (21.8%)
  • Nova Scotia (906,170): Canadian (39.1%), Scottish (31.2%), English (30.8%), Irish (22.3%), French (17.0%), German (10.8%)
  • Prince Edward Island (137,375): Scottish (39.3%), Canadian (36.8%), English (31.1%), Irish (30.4%), French (21.1%)
  • Ontario (12,651,795): Canadian (23.3%), English (23.1%), Scottish (16.4%), Irish (16.4%), French (10.8%)
  • Alberta (3,567,980): English (24.9%), Canadian (21.8%), German (19.2%), Scottish (18.8%), Irish (15.8%), French (11.1%)
  • Manitoba (1,174,345): English (21.8%), German (18.6%), Canadian (18.5%), Scottish (18.0%), Ukrainian (14.9%), Irish (13.2%), French (12.6%), North American Indian (10.6%)
  • Saskatchewan (1,008,760): German (28.6%), English (24.9%), Scottish (18.9%), Canadian (18.8%), Irish (15.5%), Ukrainian (13.5%), French (12.2%), North American Indian (12.1%)
  • British Columbia (4,324,455): English (27.7%), Scottish (19.3%), Canadian (19.1%), German (13.1%), Chinese (10.7%)
  • Yukon (33,320): English (28.5%), Scottish (25.0%), Irish (22.0%), North American Indian (21.8%), Canadian (21.8%), German (15.6%), French (13.1%)
  • Northwest Territories (40,800): North American Indian (37.0%), Scottish (13.9%), English (13.7%), Canadian (12.8%), Irish (11.9%), Inuit (11.7%)
  • Nunavut (31,700): Inuit (85.4%)

Italics indicates either that this response is dominant within this province, or that this province has the highest ratio (percentage) of this response among provinces.

Visible minority populationEdit

Visible and non-visible minority populations by group, 1981–1996
Group 1981 census
[55][56][57]: 64 
1986 census
[56][57]: 66 [58]: 6 
1991 census
[56][59]: 11 [58]: 6 
1996 census[60][61]
Total % Total % Total % Total %
Visible minority 1,131,825 4.7% 1,577,710 6.3% 2,525,480 9.4% 3,197,480 11.2%
South Asian 223,235 0.9% 300,545 1.2% 505,515 1.9% 670,590 2.4%
Chinese (East Asian) 299,915 1.2% 390,590 1.6% 626,435 0% 860,150 3%
Black 239,455 1% 355,385 1.4% 504,290 1.9% 573,860 2%
Filipino 75,485 0.3% 102,360 0.4% 169,150 0.6% 234,195 0.8%
Latin American 50,230 0.2% 60,975 0.2% 134,535 0.5% 176,970 0.6%
Arab/West Asian 112,435 0.5% 149,665 0.6% 289,755 1.1% 244,665 0.9%
Southeast Asian
(except Filipino)
53,910 0.2% 86,945 0.3% 132,415 0.5% 172,765 0.6%
Korean (East Asian) 22,570 0.1% 29,205 0.1% 45,535 0.2% 64,835 0.2%
Japanese (East Asian) 46,060 0.2% 52,880 0.2% 63,860 0.2% 68,135 0.2%
Multiple visible minorities 40,500 0.2% 48,545 0.2% 61,575 0.2%
Visible minority, n.i.e. 5,440 0% 69,745 0.2%
Other 8,530 0% 8,660 0%
Not a visible minority 22,951,670 95.3% 23,444,300 93.7% 24,468,560 90.6% 25,330,645 88.8%
Indigenous
(see breakdown below)
491,465 2% 711,725 2.8% 1,016,340 3.8% 799,005 2.8%
Non-Indigenous &
Non-Visible Minority
(European/White)[62]
22,460,205 93.3% 22,732,575 90.9% 23,452,220 86.9% 24,531,640 86%
Total population in
private households
24,083,495 100% 25,022,010 100% 26,994,040 100% 28,528,125 100%

Note: Indigenous population decline between 1991 and 1996 censuses attributed to change in criteria in census count; "the 1996 Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples used a more restrictive definition of Aboriginal".[63]

Visible and non-visible minority populations by group, 2001–2021
Group 2001 census[64] 2006 census[65] 2011 survey[66] 2016 census[67] 2021 census[68][2][42]
Total % Total % Total % Total % Total %
Visible minority 3,983,845 13.4% 5,068,095 16.2% 6,264,750 19.1% 7,674,580 22.3% 9,639,205 26.5%
South Asian 917,075 3.1% 1,262,865 4% 1,567,400 4.8% 1,924,635 5.6% 2,571,400 7.1%
Chinese (East Asian) 1,029,395 3.5% 1,216,565 3.9% 1,324,750 4% 1,577,060 4.6% 1,715,770 4.7%
Black 662,215 2.2% 783,795 2.5% 945,665 2.9% 1,198,540 3.5% 1,574,870 4.3%
Filipino 308,575 1% 410,695 1.3% 619,310 1.9% 780,125 2.3% 957,355 2.6%
Arab 194,685 0.7% 265,550 0.9% 380,620 1.2% 523,235 1.5% 694,015 1.9%
Latin American 216,980 0.7% 304,245 1% 381,280 1.2% 447,325 1.3% 580,235 1.6%
Southeast Asian
(except Filipino)
198,880 0.7% 239,935 0.8% 312,075 0.9% 313,260 0.9% 390,340 1.1%
West Asian 109,285 0.4% 156,700 0.5% 206,840 0.6% 264,305 0.8% 360,495 1%
Korean (East Asian) 100,660 0.3% 141,890 0.5% 161,130 0.5% 188,710 0.5% 218,140 0.6%
Japanese (East Asian) 73,315 0.2% 81,300 0.3% 87,270 0.3% 92,920 0.3% 98,890 0.3%
Multiple visible minorities 73,875 0.2% 133,120 0.4% 171,935 0.5% 232,375 0.7% 331,805 0.9%
Visible minority, n.i.e. 98,915 0.3% 71,420 0.2% 106,475 0.3% 132,090 0.4% 172,885 0.5%
Not a visible minority 25,655,185 86.6% 26,172,935 83.8% 26,587,575 80.9% 26,785,480 77.7% 26,689,275 73.5%
Indigenous
(see breakdown below)
976,305 3.3% 1,172,785 3.8% 1,400,685 4.3% 1,673,785 4.9% 1,807,250 5%
Non-Indigenous &
Non-Visible Minority
(European/White)[62]
24,678,880 83.3% 25,000,150 80% 25,186,890 76.7% 25,111,695 72.9% 25,364,140 69.8%
Total population in
private households
29,639,030 100% 31,241,030 100% 32,852,320 100% 34,460,065 100% 36,328,480 100%

Indigenous populationEdit

Indigenous population in Canada, 1996–2021 censuses
Group 1996[60] 2001[64] 2006[65] 2011[66] 2016[69] 2021[3]
% Total % Total % Total % Total % Total % Total
Total Indigenous 2.8% 799,005 3.3% 976,305 3.8% 1,172,785 4.3% 1,400,685 4.9% 1,673,780 5% 1,807,250
First Nations 1.8% 529,040 2.1% 608,850 2.2% 698,025 2.6% 851,560 2.8% 977,230 2.9% 1,048,405
Métis 0.7% 204,115 1.0% 292,305 1.2% 389,780 1.4% 451,795 1.7% 587,545 1.7% 624,220
Inuit 0.14% 40,220 0.16% 50,485 0.2% 59,445 0.2% 65,025 0.2% 70,540

Note: Other Indigenous and mixed Indigenous groups are not listed as their own, but they are all accounted for in total Indigenous

Future projectionsEdit

 
White/European Canadians from 2001 to 2016

Statistics Canada projects that visible minorities will make up between 38.2% and 43.0% of the total Canadian population by 2041,[70][71] compared with 26.5% in 2021.[72][2] Among the working-age population (15 to 64 years), meanwhile, visible minorities are projected to represent between 42.1% and 47.3% of Canada's total population,[70][71] compared to 28.5% in 2021.[72][2]

Pan−ethnic Origin Projections (2031−2041)
2031[71][73] 2036[71][73] 2041[71][73]
Population % Population % Population %
European[62]
26,085,000 59.79% 25,749,000 56.25% 25,296,000 53.07%
South Asian
4,283,000 9.82% 5,010,000 10.94% 5,658,000 11.87%
East Asian
3,120,000 7.15% 3,445,000 7.53% 3,740,000 7.85%
Chinese
2,591,000 5.94% 2,850,000 6.23% 3,082,000 6.47%
Korean
381,000 0.87% 433,000 0.95% 484,000 1.02%
Japanese
148,000 0.34% 162,000 0.35% 174,000 0.37%
African
2,381,000 5.46% 2,762,000 6.03% 3,134,000 6.57%
Indigenous
2,484,000 5.69% 2,673,000 5.84% 2,848,000 5.97%
First Nations
1,430,000 3.28% 1,535,000 3.35% 1,633,000 3.43%
Metis
911,000 2.09% 986,000 2.15% 1,054,000 2.21%
Inuit
84,000 0.19% 90,000 0.2% 96,000 0.2%
Other
Indigenous
59,000 0.14% 62,000 0.14% 65,000 0.14%
Southeast Asian
2,009,000 4.6% 2,324,000 5.08% 2,640,000 5.54%
Filipino
1,524,000 3.49% 1,789,000 3.91% 2,059,000 4.32%
Other
Southeast Asian
485,000 1.11% 535,000 1.17% 581,000 1.22%
Middle Eastern
1,801,000 4.13% 2,141,000 4.68% 2,475,000 5.19%
Arab
1,182,000 2.71% 1,403,000 3.06% 1,625,000 3.41%
West Asian
619,000 1.42% 738,000 1.61% 850,000 1.78%
Latin American
821,000 1.88% 931,000 2.03% 1,036,000 2.17%
Other
644,000 1.48% 742,000 1.62% 841,000 1.76%
  Projected
Canadian
Population
43,629,000 100% 45,776,000 100% 47,668,000 100%

LanguagesEdit

Languages in Canada (Mother Tongue)
2016 Census
Language Percent
English
55.97%
French
20.61%
Non-official
21.06%
English and French
0.48%

Mother tongueEdit

Languages of Canada
First language 2016 2011 2006
Population % of total population Population % of total population Population % of total population Notes
Single language responses 33,947,610 97.64% 32,481,635 98.07% 30,848,270 98.74%
Official languages 26,627,545 76.59% 25,913,955 78.24% 24,700,425 79.06%
English 19,460,855 55.97% 18,858,980 56.94% 17,882,775 57.24%
French 7,166,700 20.61% 7,054,975 21.3% 6,817,650 21.82%
Non-official languages 7,321,070 21.06% 6,567,680 19.83% 6,147,840 19.68%
Combined Chinese Responses 1,227,680 3.53% n/a n/a n/a n/a Combined responses of Mandarin, Cantonese, Chinese n.o.s. and Min Nan
Mandarin (Standard Chinese) 592,035 1.7% 248,705 0.75% 170,950 0.55%
Cantonese 565,275 1.63% 372,460 1.12% 361,450 1.16%
Punjabi 501,680 1.44% 430,705 1.3% 367,505 1.18%
Spanish 458,850 1.32% 410,670 1.24% 345,345 1.11%
Tagalog (Filipino) 431,385 1.24% 327,445 0.99% 235,615 0.75%
Arabic 419,895 1.21% 327,870 0.99% 261,640 0.84%
German 384,040 1.1% 409,200 1.24% 450,570 1.44%
Italian 375,645 1.08% 407,485 1.23% 455,040 1.46%
Hindustani 321,465 0.92% 263,345 0.8% 224,045 0.72% Combined responses of Hindi and Urdu
Portuguese 221,535 0.64% 211,335 0.64% 219,275 0.7%
Persian (Farsi) 214,200 0.62% 170,045 0.51% 134,080 0.43%
Urdu 210,820 0.61% 172,800 0.52% 145,805 0.47%
Dravidian languages 189,405 0.54% n/a n/a n/a n/a Combined responses of Tamil, Malayalam, Telugu and Kannada.
Russian 188,255 0.54% 164,330 0.5% 133,580 0.43%
Polish 181,705 0.52% 191,645 0.58% 211,175 0.68%
Vietnamese 156,430 0.45% 144,880 0.44% 141,625 0.45%
Korean 153,425 0.44% 137,925 0.42% 125,570 0.4%
Tamil 140,720 0.4% 131,265 0.4% 115,880 0.37% Most of the Canadian Tamils live in Toronto.
Hindi 110,645 0.32% 90,545 0.27% 78,240 0.25%
Gujarati 108,775 0.31% 91,450 0.28% 81,465 0.26%
Greek 106,520 0.31% 108,925 0.33% 117,285 0.38%
Ukrainian 102,485 0.29% 111,540 0.34% 134,500 0.43%
Dutch 99,015 0.28% 110,490 0.33% 128,900 0.41%
Romanian 96,660 0.28% 90,300 0.27% 78,495 0.25%
Bengali 73,125 0.21% 59,370 0.18% 45,685 0.15%
Creoles 72,130 0.21% 61,725 0.19% 53,515 0.17%
Cree, n.o.s.[nb 1] 64,045 0.18% 77,900 0.24% 78,855 0.25% In the 2006 Census, this language was referred to simply as 'Cree'.
Hungarian 61,235 0.18% 67,920 0.21% 73,335 0.23% The majority of Hungarian speakers in Canada live in Ontario. A community of Hungarian speakers is found within a part of Windsor, Ontario.
Berber languages (Kabyle) n/a n/a 57,855 0.17% 25,578 0.08%
Serbian 57,345 0.16% 56,420 0.17% 51,665 0.17%
Croatian 48,200 0.14% 49,730 0.15% 55,330 0.18%
Japanese 43,640 0.13% 39,985 0.12% 40,200 0.13%
Chinese, n.o.s.[nb 1] 38,575 0.11% 425,210 1.28% 456,705 1.46%
Somali 36,760 0.11% 31,380 0.09% 27,320 0.09%
Inuktitut 35,215 0.1% 33,500 0.1% 32,015 0.1% In the 2006 Census, this language was referred to as 'Inuktitut, n.i.e.'.[nb 2]
Armenian 33,455 0.1% 29,795 0.09% 30,130 0.1%
Turkish 32,815 0.09% 29,640 0.09% 24,745 0.08%
Min Nan (Chaochow, Teochow, Fukien, Taiwanese) 31,795 0.09% n/a n/a n/a n/a
Malayalam 28,570 0.08% 16,080 0.05% 11,925 0.04%
Albanian 26,895 0.08% 23,820 0.07% n/a n/a
Ilocano 26,345 0.08% 17,915 0.05% 13,450 0.04%
Amharic 22,465 0.06% 18,020 0.05% 14,555 0.05%
Czech 22,295 0.06% 23,585 0.07% 24,450 0.08%
Khmer (Cambodian) 20,130 0.06% 19,440 0.06% 19,105 0.06%
Bulgarian 20,020 0.06% 19,050 0.06% 16,790 0.05%
Hebrew 19,530 0.06% 18,450 0.06% 17,635 0.06%
Niger–Congo languages, n.i.e.[nb 1] 19,140 0.06% 14,075 0.04% n/a n/a
Nepali 18,275 0.05% 8,480 0.03% n/a n/a
Ojibway 17,885 0.05% 17,625 0.05% 24,190 0.08%
Slovak 17,585 0.05% 17,580 0.05% 18,820 0.06%
Pashto 16,910 0.05% 12,465 0.04% 9,025 0.03%
Macedonian 16,770 0.05% 17,245 0.05% 18,435 0.06%
Tigrigna 16,650 0.05% 10,220 0.03% 7,105 0.02%
Sinhala 16,335 0.05% 14,185 0.04% 10,180 0.03%
Bisayan languages n/a n/a 16,240 0.05% 11,240 0.04%
Telugu 15,655 0.05% 9,315 0.03% 6,625 0.02%
Finnish 15,295 0.04% 17,415 0.05% 21,030 0.07%
Yiddish 13,555 0.04% 15,205 0.05% 16,295 0.05%
Akan (Twi) 13,460 0.04% 12,680 0.04% 12,780 0.04%
Swahili 13,375 0.04% 10,090 0.03% 7,935 0.03%
Wu (Shanghainese) 12,920 0.04% n/a n/a n/a n/a
Oji-Cree 12,855 0.04% 9,835 0.03% 11,690 0.04%
Lao 12,670 0.04% 12,970 0.04% 13,940 0.04%
Danish 12,630 0.04% 14,145 0.04% 18,735 0.06%
Malay 12,275 0.04% 10,910 0.03% 9,490 0.03%
Bosnian 12,210 0.04% 11,685 0.04% 12,790 0.04%
Sindhi 11,860 0.03% 11,330 0.03% 10,355 0.03%
Kurdish 11,705 0.03% 9,805 0.03% 7,660 0.02%
Hakka 10,910 0.03% 5,115 0.02% n/a n/a
Dene 10,700 0.03% 11,215 0.03% 9,745 0.03%
Afrikaans 10,260 0.03% 8,770 0.03% n/a n/a
Montagnais (Innu) 10,230 0.03% 10,785 0.03% 10,975 0.04% In the 2006 Census, this language was referred to as 'Montagnais-Naskapi'.
Slovenian 9,785 0.03% 10,775 0.03% 13,135 0.04%
Taiwanese n/a n/a 9,635 0.03% 9,620 0.03%
Serbo-Croatian 9,555 0.03% 10,155 0.03% 12,510 0.04%
African languages, n.i.e.[nb 2] n/a n/a 9,125 0.03% n/a n/a
Thai 9,255 0.03% 7,935 0.02% n/a n/a
Marathi 8,295 0.02% 5,830 0.02% n/a n/a
Bantu languages, n.i.e.[nb 2] n/a n/a 7,150 0.02% n/a n/a
Lithuanian 7,075 0.02% 7,245 0.02% 8,335 0.03%
Swedish 6,840 0.02% 7,350 0.02% 8,220 0.03%
Mi'kmaq 6,690 0.02% 7,635 0.02% 7,365 0.02%
Tibetan 6,165 0.02% n/a n/a n/a n/a
Atikamekw 6,150 0.02% 5,820 0.02% 5,250 0.02%
Canadian Gaelic n/a n/a 6,015 0.02% 6,015 0.02%
Fukien (Fuzhou dialect) n/a n/a 5,925 0.02% n/a n/a
Rundi (Kirundi) 5,845 0.02% 3,975 0.01% n/a n/a
Maltese 5,565 0.02% 6,220 0.02% 6,405 0.02%
Estonian 5,445 0.02% 6,385 0.02% 8,240 0.03%
Latvian 5,455 0.02% 6,200 0.02% 7,000 0.02%
Kinyarwanda (Rwanda) 5,250 0.02% 3,895 0.01% n/a n/a
Indo-Iranian languages, n.i.e.[nb 2] 5,180 0.01% 5,255 0.02% n/a n/a
Oromo 4,960 0.01% 11,140 0.03% n/a n/a
Norwegian 4,615 0.01% 5,800 0.02% 7,225 0.02%
Tibetan languages n/a n/a 4,640 0.01% n/a n/a
Sino-Tibetan languages, n.i.e.[nb 2] n/a n/a 4,360 0.01% n/a n/a
Sign languages, n.i.e.[nb 2] 4,125 0.01% 3,815 0.01% n/a n/a
Vlaams (Flemish) 3,895 0.01% 4,690 0.01% 5,660 0.02%
Lingala 3,810 0.01% 3,085 0.01% n/a n/a
Burmese 3,585 0.01% 2,985 0.01% n/a n/a
Stoney 3,025 0.01% 3,050 0.01% n/a n/a
Shanghainese n/a n/a 2,920 0.01% n/a n/a
Blackfoot 2,815 <0.01% n/a n/a 3,085 0.01%
Slavic languages, n.i.e.[nb 2] 2,420 0.01% 3,630 0.01% n/a n/a
Semitic languages, n.i.e.[nb 2] 2,155 0.01% 16,970 0.05% n/a n/a
Frisian 2,095 <0.01% n/a n/a 2,890 0.01%
Dogrib (Tlicho) 1,645 <0.01% n/a n/a 2,020 0.01%
Tibeto-Burman languages, n.i.e.[nb 2] 1,405 <0.01% n/a n/a n/a n/a
Siouan languages (Dakota/Sioux) 1,265 <0.01% n/a n/a 5,585 0.02%
Algonquin 1,260 <0.01% n/a n/a 1,920 0.01%
Scottish Gaelic 1,095 <0.01% n/a n/a n/a n/a
Welsh 1,075 <0.01% n/a n/a n/a n/a
Carrier 1,030 <0.01% n/a n/a 1,560 <0.01%
Inuinnaqtun (Inuvialuktun) 1,020 <0.01% n/a n/a 365 <0.01%
Mohawk 985 <0.01% n/a n/a 290 <0.01%
South Slavey 950 <0.01% n/a n/a 1,605 0.01%
Gitxsan (Gitksan) 880 <0.01% n/a n/a 1,180 <0.01%
North Slave (Hare) 765 <0.01% n/a n/a 1,065 <0.01%
Chilcotin 655 <0.01% n/a n/a 1,070 <0.01%
Celtic languages, n.i.e.[nb 2] 530 <0.01% n/a n/a n/a n/a
Chipewyan n/a n/a n/a n/a 525 <0.01%
Michif 465 <0.01% n/a n/a n/a n/a
Shuswap (Secwepemctsin) 445 <0.01% n/a n/a 935 <0.01%
Nisga'a 400 <0.01% n/a n/a 680 <0.01%
Malecite 300 <0.01% n/a n/a 535 <0.01%
Kutchin-Gwich’in (Loucheux) 260 <0.01% n/a n/a 360 <0.01%
Tlingit 95 <0.01% n/a n/a 80 <0.01%
Other languages n/a n/a 77,890 0.2% 172,650 0.55%
Multiple language responses 818,640 2.35% 639,540 1.9% 392,760 1.26%
English and French 165,335 0.48% 144,685 0.4% 98,630 0.32%
English and a non-official language 533,260 1.53% 396,330 1.2% 240,005 0.77%
French and a non-official language 86,145 0.25% 74,430 0.2% 43,335 0.14%
English, French, and a non-official language 33,900 0.1% 24,095 0.07% 10,790 0.03%
Total[74][75][76] 34,767,250 100% 33,121,175 100% 31,241,030 100%
  1. ^ a b c n.o.s. – not otherwise specified
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j n.i.e. – not included elsewhere

Knowledge of languageEdit

Top ten spoken languages in Canada
2021 census[e]
Language Percent
English
87.06%
French
29.08%
Chinese[f]
4.21%
Hindustani[g]
3.24%
Spanish
3.22%
Punjabi
2.59%
Arabic
2.31%
Tagalog
2.03%
Italian
1.51%
German
1.15%

The question on knowledge of languages allows for multiple responses, and first appeared on the 1991 Canadian census.[h] The following figures are from the 1991 Canadian census, 2001 Canadian census, 2011 Canadian census, and the 2021 Canadian census.

Knowledge of Languages in Canada
Language Population
(2021)[78]
%
(2021)
Population
(2011)[79]
%
(2011)
Population
(2001)[77][80]
%
(2001)
Population
(1991)[81]
%
(1991)
English 31,628,570 87.06% 28,360,235[82] 85.63% 25,246,220[83] 85.18% 22,505,415 83.37%
French 10,563,235 29.08% 9,960,585[82] 30.07% 9,178,100[83] 30.97% 8,508,960 31.52%
Chinese[f] 1,528,860 4.21% 1,297,505 3.92% 1,028,445 3.47% 557,305 2.06%
Hindustani[g] 1,176,295 3.24% 576,165 1.74% 366,740 1.24% 163,930 0.61%
Spanish 1,171,450 3.22% 873,395 2.64% 610,580 2.06% 402,430 1.49%
Punjabi 942,170 2.59% 545,730 1.65% 338,720 1.14% 167,925 0.62%
Arabic 838,045 2.31% 470,965 1.42% 290,280 0.98% 164,380 0.61%
Tagalog 737,565 2.03% 491,075 1.48% 244,690 0.83% 136,975 0.51%
Italian 547,655 1.51% 595,600 1.8% 680,970 2.3% 701,910 2.6%
German 419,195 1.15% 525,480 1.59% 635,520 2.14% 684,955 2.54%
Portuguese 336,865 0.93% 266,950 0.81% 264,990 0.89% 254,465 0.94%
Persian[i] 330,725 0.91% 196,110 0.59% 111,700 0.38% 49,380 0.18%
Russian 309,235 0.85% 230,755 0.7% 157,455 0.53% 84,050 0.31%
Tamil 237,890 0.65% 179,465 0.54% 111,580 0.38% 37,330 0.14%
Vietnamese 232,800 0.64% 192,070 0.58% 165,645 0.56% 113,115 0.42%
Gujarati 209,410 0.58% 118,950 0.36% 80,835 0.27% 54,210 0.2%
Polish 204,460 0.56% 217,735 0.66% 249,695 0.84% 239,575 0.89%
Korean 203,885 0.56% 149,035 0.45% 91,610 0.31% 40,230 0.15%
Serbo-Croatian[j] 155,775 0.43% 154,700 0.47% 153,085 0.52% 100,541 0.37%
Greek 145,060 0.4% 150,620 0.45% 158,800 0.54% 161,320 0.6%
Haitian Creole 134,895 0.37% 128,555 0.39% 76,140 0.26% 49,970 0.19%
Ukrainian 131,655 0.36% 144,260 0.44% 200,520 0.68% 249,535 0.92%
Bengali 120,605 0.33% 69,490 0.21% 34,650 0.12% N/A <0.1%
Romanian 116,520 0.32% 97,180 0.29% 60,520 0.2% 30,520 0.11%
Dutch 107,985 0.3% 135,085 0.41% 157,875 0.53% 173,290 0.64%
Cree[k] 105,850 0.29% 96,690 0.29% 97,200 0.33% 93,825 0.35%
Japanese 98,070 0.27% 74,690 0.23% 65,030 0.22% 45,370 0.17%
Hebrew 83,205 0.23% 70,695 0.21% 63,675 0.21% 52,450 0.19%
Turkish 78,500 0.22% 44,080 0.13% 32,520 0.11% N/A <0.1%
Malayalam 77,910 0.21% 22,125 0.07% 9,185 0.03% N/A <0.1%
Hungarian 64,625 0.18% 73,695 0.22% 89,230 0.3% 97,410 0.36%
Ilocano 61,680 0.17% 21,880 0.07% N/A <0.03% N/A <0.1%
Somali 59,005 0.16% 37,115 0.11% N/A <0.03% N/A <0.1%
Swahili 57,295 0.16% 31,690 0.1% 25,300 0.09% N/A <0.1%
Telugu 54,685 0.15% 12,645 0.04% N/A <0.03% N/A <0.1%
  1. ^ a b n.o.s. – not otherwise specified
  2. ^ a b n.i.e. – not included elsewhere

WorkEdit

Language used most often at work
Language % of total population (2016)[84] % of total population (2006)[85]
English 76.49% 76.36%
French 19.17% 20.22%
Non-official 1.38% 1.49%
English and French 2.07% 1.37%
English and non-official 0.77% 0.47%
Other[l] 0.12% 0.09%

HomeEdit

Language used most often at home
Language % of total population (2016)[86] % of total population (2006)[87]
English 63.75% 65.89%
French 19.97% 21.15%
Non-official 11.5% 11.11%
English and non-official 3.7% 1.3%
English and French 0.46% 0.3%
Other[m] 0.63% 0.24%

ImmigrationEdit

According to the 2021 Canadian census, immigrants in Canada number 8.3 million persons and make up approximately 23 percent of Canada's total population.[72] This represents the eighth-largest immigrant population in the world, while the proportion represents one of the highest ratios for industrialized Western countries.[88]

Since confederation in 1867 through to the contemporary era, decadal and demi-decadal census reports have detailed immigration statistics. During this period, the highest annual immigration rate in Canada occurred in 1913, when 400,900 new immigrants accounted for 5.3 percent of the total population,[89][90] while the greatest number of foreign-born individuals admitted to Canada in single year occurred in 2021, with 405,330 new immigrants accounting for 1.1% of the total population.

Statistics Canada projects that immigrants will represent between 29.1% and 34.0% of Canada's population in 2041, compared with 23.0% in 2021,[91] while the Canadian population with at least one foreign born parent (first and second generation persons) could rise to between 49.8% and 54.3%, up from 44.0% in 2021.[2][70][71]

ReligionEdit

Statistics Canada (StatCan) grouped responses to the 2011 National Household Survey (NHS) question on religion into nine core religious categories – Buddhist, Christian, Hindu, Jewish, Muslim, Sikh, Traditional (Aboriginal) Spirituality, other religions and no religious affiliation.[92] Among these, 67% of Canadians were self-identified as Christians in 2011.[93] The second, third, and fourth-largest categories were of Canadians with no religious affiliation at 24%, Canadian Muslims at 3%, and Canadian Hindus at 2%.[93]

Within the 2011 NHS results, StatCan further subcategorized Christianity in nine groups of its own – Anglican, Baptist, Catholic, Christian Orthodox, Lutheran, Pentecostal, Presbyterian, United Church and Other Christian.[92] Among these, 39% of Canadians were self-identified as Catholic in 2011.[93] The second and third-largest ungrouped subcategories of Christian Canadians were United at 6% and Anglican at 5%, while 9% of Christians were grouped into the Other Christian subcategory comprising numerous denominations.[93]

Of the 3,036,785 or 5% of Canadians identified as Other Christians:[93]

Religion status of the Canadian Population in 2011[93]
Religion Total Percent
Buddhist 366,830 1%
Christian 22,102,745 67%
   Baptist 635,840 2%
   Roman Catholic 12,810,705 39%
   Christian Orthodox 550,690 2%
   Anglican 1,631,845 5%
   United Church 2,007,610 6%
   Pentecostal 478,705 1%
   Presbyterian 472,385 1%
   Lutheran 478,185 1%
   Other Christian 3,036,785 9%
Hindu 497,960 2%
Jewish 329,500 1%
Muslim 1,053,945 3%
Sikh 454,965 1%
Traditional (Aboriginal) Spirituality 64,940 0.2%
Other religions 130,835 0.4%
No religious affiliation 7,850,605 24%

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ In fertility rates, 2.1 and above is a stable population and has been marked blue, 2 and below leads to an aging population and the result is that the population decreases.
  2. ^ The 2021 census on ethnic or cultural origins, Statistics Canada states: "Given the fluid nature of this concept and the changes made to this question, 2021 Census data on ethnic or cultural origins are not comparable to data from previous censuses and should not be used to measure the growth or decline of the various groups associated with these origins".[42]
  3. ^ a b All citizens of Canada are classified as "Canadians" as defined by Canada's nationality laws. "Canadian" as an ethnic group has since 1996 been added to census questionnaires for possible ancestral origin or descent. "Canadian" was included as an example on the English questionnaire and "Canadien" as an example on the French questionnaire.[39] "The majority of respondents to this selection are from the eastern part of the country that was first settled. Respondents generally are visibly European (Anglophones and Francophones) and no longer self-identify with their ethnic ancestral origins. This response is attributed to a multitude or generational distance from ancestral lineage."[44][45][46][47]
  4. ^ Indigenous peoples are not considered a visible minority in Statistics Canada calculations. Visible minorities are defined by Statistics Canada as "persons, other than aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour".[51]
  5. ^ The question on knowledge of languages allows for multiple responses. The following figures are from the 2021 Canadian Census.
  6. ^ a b 2021 census: Combined responses of the Chinese languages, including Mandarin (987,300), Cantonese (724,925), Min Nan, Hakka, Wu (Shanghainese), Min Dong, Chinese, n.o.s.,[nb 1] and Chinese languages, n.i.e.[nb 2]
  7. ^ a b 2021 census: Combined responses of Hindi (761,425) and Urdu (414,870) as they form mutually intelligible registers of the Hindustani language.
  8. ^ The 1991 Census was the first to ask Canadians whether they could conduct a conversation in a language other than English or French[77]: 50 
  9. ^ 2021 census: Combined responses of Iranian Persian (222,160), Dari, and Persian (Farsi), n.o.s.,[nb 1] as they form mutually intelligible registers of the Persian language, and as they were all categorized under "Persian" in previous censuses.
  10. ^ Including Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, and Serbo-Croatian, n.i.e.[nb 2]
  11. ^ 2021 census: Total number of speakers of the Cree-Innu languages, previously categorized under "Cree" in past censuses.
  12. ^ French and non-official language OR
    English, French and non-official language
  13. ^ French and non-official language OR
    English, French and non-official language

ReferencesEdit

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  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (2022-10-26). "Visible minority and population group by generation status: Canada, provinces and territories, census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations with parts". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 2022-11-06.
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