Immigration to Canada

Immigration to Canada is the process by which people migrate to Canada for the purpose of residing there—and where a majority go on to become Canadian citizens.[2] As of 2019, Canada has the eighth largest immigrant population in the world, while foreign-born people make up about one-fifth (21% in 2019) of Canada’s population—one of the highest ratios for industrialized Western countries.[3]

In current Canadian law, immigrants are distinguished by four categories:[4]

  1. Family: persons closely related to one or more Canadian residents who live in Canada.[i]
  2. Economic: skilled workers, caregivers, or business persons.
  3. Protected person or Refugee: persons who are escaping persecution, torture, and/or cruel and unusual punishment.[ii]
  4. Humanitarian or other: persons accepted as immigrants for humanitarian or compassionate reasons.

Following Canada's confederation in 1867, immigration played an integral role in helping develop vast tracts of land.[5] During this era, the Canadian Government would sponsor information campaigns and recruiters to encourage settlement in rural areas; however, this would primarily be only towards those of European and Christian backgrounds, while others—particularly Buddhist, Shinto, Sikh, Muslim, and Jewish immigrants—as well as the poor, ill, and disabled, would be less than welcome.[5][6] Following 1947, in the post-World War II period, Canadian domestic immigration law and policy went through significant changes, most notably with the Immigration Act, 1976, and the current Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (IRPA) from 2002.[6]

History of immigrationEdit

A collection of four maps showing the distribution of the Canadian population for 1851 (Newfoundland 1857), 1871 (Newfoundland 1869), 1901 and 1921 by historical region.
Come to Stay, printed in 1880 in the Canadian Illustrated News, which refers to immigration to the "Dominion".

Following initial British and French colonization, what is now Canada has seen four major waves (or peaks) of immigration and settlement of non-Aboriginal Peoples take place over a span of nearly two centuries. Canada is currently undergoing its fifth wave.

Periods of low immigration in Canada have also occurred: international movement was very difficult during the world wars, and there was a lack of jobs "pulling" workers to Canada during the Great Depression in Canada. Statistics Canada has tabulated the effect of immigration on population growth in Canada from 1851 to 2001.[7]

First wave, pre-1815Edit

The first significant wave of non-Aboriginal immigration to Canada occurred over almost two centuries with slow, but progressive, French settlement in Quebec and Acadia, along with smaller numbers of American and European entrepreneurs in addition to British military personnel. This wave culminated with the influx of 46–50,000 British Loyalists fleeing the American Revolution, chiefly from the Mid-Atlantic States, mostly into what are now Southern Ontario, the Eastern Townships of Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia.[8] 36,000 of these migrants went to the Maritimes, and some would later make their way to Ontario.

Another wave of 30,000 Americans settled in Ontario and the Eastern Townships between the late 1780s and 1812 with promises of land. From forcibly having cleared land in Scotland, several thousands of Gaelic-speaking Scottish Highlanders migrated to Cape Breton, Nova Scotia and parts of Eastern Ontario during this period, marking a new age for Canada and its people.

Second wave (The Great Migration), 1815–50Edit

The second wave of immigrants, known as the Great Migration of Canada, saw the arrival of at least 800,000 people between 1815 and 1850, 60% of whom were British (English and Scottish), while the remainder was mostly Irish.

The Great Migration encouraged immigrants to settle in Canada after the War of 1812, including British army regulars who had served in that war. In 1815, 80% of the 250,000 English-speaking people in Canada were either American colonists or their descendants. By 1851, the percentage of Americans had dropped to 30%. Worried about another American attempt at invasion—and to counter the French-speaking influence of Quebec—colonial governors of Canada rushed to promote settlement in backcountry areas along newly constructed plank roads within organized land tracts, mostly in Upper Canada (present-day Ontario). Much of the settlements were organized by large companies to promote clearing, and thus farming of land lots.

With this wave, Irish immigration to Canada had increased in small numbers to organize land settlements and, mostly, to work on canals, timber, railroads. Irish immigration would peak from 1846 to 1849 due to the Great Famine of Ireland, which resulted in hundreds of thousands more Irish migrants arriving on Canada's shores, with a portion migrating to the United States, either in the short-term or over the subsequent decades.

This movement of people boosted Canada's population from approximately 500,000 in 1812 to 2.5 million by 1851. The Francophones would make up roughly 300,000 of the population in 1812, increasing to approx. 700,000 by the 1851 census, however, demographically Canada had swung to a majority Anglophone country. Canada's 1851 population by region would look as follows:


The Dominion Lands Act of 1872 copied the American system by offering ownership of 160 acres of land free (with a small registration fee) to any man over the age of 18, or any woman heading a household. They did not need to be citizens but had to live on the plot and improve it.

Also during this period, Canada became a port of entry for many Europeans seeking to gain entry into the United States. Canadian transportation companies advertised Canadian ports as a hassle-free way to enter the US, especially as the States began barring entry to certain ethnicities. Both the US and Canada mitigated this situation in 1894 with the Canadian Agreement which allowed for U.S. immigration officials to inspect ships landing at Canadian ports for immigrants excluded from the US. If found, the transporting companies were responsible for shipping the persons back.[9]

Clifford Sifton, Ottawa's Minister of the Interior (1896–1905), argued that the free western lands were ideal for growing wheat and would attract large numbers of hard-working farmers. He removed obstacles that included control of the lands by companies or organizations that did little to encourage settlement. Land companies, the Hudson's Bay Company, and school lands all accounted for large tracts of excellent property. The railways kept closed even larger tracts because they were reluctant to take legal title to the even-numbered lands they were due, thus blocking the sale of odd-numbered tracts. With the goal of maximizing immigration from Britain, eastern Canada and the US, Sifton broke the legal log jam, and set up aggressive advertising campaigns in the U.S. and Europe, with a host of agents promoting the Canadian West. He would also broker deals with ethnic groups who wanted large tracts for homogeneous settlement.[10]

Third wave, 1890–1920Edit

Canada's third wave of immigration came mostly from continental Europe, and peaked prior to World War I between 1911 to 1913, with over 400,000 migrants in 1912—many of whom were from Eastern or Southern Europe.

Chinese immigrationEdit

Exclusionist cartoon in Saturday Sunset magazine by N. H. Hawkins, Vancouver (24 August 1907).

Prior to 1885, restrictions on immigration were imposed mostly in response to large waves of migrants rather than planned policy decisions. Such restrictions, at least as official policy, would not explicitly target any specific group or ethnicity of people until 1885, with the passing of the first Chinese Head Tax legislation by the MacDonald government in response to a growing number of Chinese migrants working on the Canadian Pacific Railway.

Subsequent increases in the head tax in 1900 and 1903 limited Chinese entrants to Canada, followed in 1907 by major riots against 'Oriental' people (i.e. Asians) taking place in Vancouver, BC. In 1923, the government passed the Chinese Immigration Act which excluded Chinese people from entering Canada altogether between 1923 and 1947.[11] In recognizing Canada's historical discrimination against Chinese immigrants, an official government apology and compensations were announced on 22 June 2006.[12]

Fourth wave, 1940s–60sEdit

Punjabi Sikh settlers at a lumber camp in British Columbia, circa 1914

The fourth wave came from Europe following the Second World War, and peaked at 282,000 in 1957. With many of these migrants coming from Italy and Portugal, Pier 21 in Halifax, Nova Scotia proved to be an influential port for European immigration. From 1928 until ceasing operations in 1971, the Pier would receive 471,940 Italians, becoming the third-largest ethnic group to immigrate to Canada during that time period.[13]

Immigrants from Britain, however, were still given the highest priority,[14] and 'Canadianization' would become of great importance for new arrivals who lacked a British cultural background.[15] There would be no such effort to attract Francophone immigrants.

The government promoted cheap wheat lands in the Prairies. 1898

In regard to economic opportunity, Canada was most attractive to farmers headed to the Prairies, who typically came from Eastern and Central Europe, as immigrants from Britain preferred urban life.[16] As such, the Church of England took up the role of introducing British values to farmers newly arrived in the Prairie provinces, although, in practice, they clung to their traditional religious affiliations.[17] Nonetheless, around the 1960s, Indo-Canadians would establish themselves in Canada's exurban and rural agriculture and become a dominant feature in British Columbia’s farming sector, having already primarily been established in the provincial forestry industry since the turn of the 20th century.[18] Hispanic immigrants would follow similar lines, particularly in regions that were linked with strong farming settlements immediately south of the border.[6]

With the economy still expanding, Canadians did not always demonstrate sufficient mobility to fill the hiring needs of some regions, nor to fill some economic niches (particularly “entry-level jobs”). Due to these circumstances, in 1967, the Canadian Government would introduce a points-based system, under which applicants were given preference if they knew either French, English, or both; were non-dependent adults (i.e., not too old to work); already had prospective employment lined up in Canada; had relatives in the country (who could support them if necessary); were interested in settling in the parts of Canada with the greatest need for workers; and were trained or educated in fields that were in demand. The new legislation would prove to be an integral element in attracting large numbers of immigrants from sources that were considered “non-traditional.”[6]

From then on, Canada would start to become a more multi-ethnic country with substantial non-British or non-French European elements. Ukrainian Canadians, for instance, accounted for the largest Ukrainian population outside of Ukraine and Russia. Also in the 1960s, young American men and women fled to Canada in order to avoid the U.S. draft for the Vietnam War. Especially large numbers were established in BC’s Kootenays, Gulf Islands, and Sunshine Coast, followed by others, including counterculture, back-to-the-land advocates who were more drawn to Canada.

Contemporary immigration, 1970s–presentEdit

Fifth-wave Canadian children celebrating Canada Day in Vancouver, 1 July 1999

Immigration in Canada since the 1970s, or the fifth wave, has overwhelmingly been of visible minorities from the developing world. This was largely influenced in 1976 when the Immigration Act was revised and was maintained as official government policy. The regulations introduced in 1967 consisted of 9 categories: education, occupation, professional skills, age, arranged employment, knowledge of English and/or French, relatives in Canada and “personal characteristics.” To qualify for immigration 50 points out of 100 were necessary in 1967.[19]

On 20 February 1978, Canada and Quebec sign an immigration agreement allowing Quebec decision-making power in independently choosing its immigrants, who would then still have to be approved by Ottawa.[20]

During the Mulroney administration, immigration levels were increased. From the late 1980s, the 'fifth wave' of immigration has since maintained, with slight fluctuations (225,000–275,000 annually). Today,[needs update] political parties remain cautious in criticizing high levels of immigration, because in the early 1990s, as noted by The Globe and Mail, Canada's Reform Party "was branded 'racist' for suggesting that immigration levels be lowered from 250,000 to 150,000".[21][22] However, the Coalition Avenir Quebec who were elected in the 2018 Quebec election advocated for a reduction to the number of immigrants, to 40,000.[23]

In 2008, Stephen Harper gave then-parliamentary secretary and Minister of Multiculturalism and Citizenship Jason Kenney, established a mandate to integrate immigrants, while improving relationship between the government to communities to gain votes.[24] In November 2017, Immigration Minister Ahmed Hussen announced that Canada would admit nearly 1 million permanent residents over the following three years, rising from 0.7% to 1% of its population by 2020.[25] This increase was motivated by the economic needs of the country caused by an aging population.[25]

In 2008, Citizenship and Immigration Canada (now Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) ) made changes to immigration policy, such as reducing professional categories for skilled immigration and eliminating caps for immigrants in various categories.[26] Likewise, in 2015, Canada introduced the 'Express Entry' system, providing a streamlined application process for many economic immigrants.[27]

Sikhs celebrating the Sikh new year in Toronto

From 2013–2014, most of the Canadian public, as well as the country's major political parties, supported either sustaining or increasing the current level of immigration.[28][29] A sociological study conducted in 2014 concluded that "Australia and Canada are the most receptive to immigration among western nations."[30] In 2017, an Angus Reid poll indicated that a majority of respondents believed that Canada should accept fewer immigrants and refugees.[31]

According to 2016 Census data via Statistics Canada, over one in five Canadians were born abroad, while 22.3% of the Canadian population belonged to visible minorities, of whom three in ten were born in Canada.[32] Moreover, 21.9% of the Canadian population reported themselves as being or having been a landed immigrant or permanent resident in Canada—close to the 1921 Census record of 22.3%, the highest level Canada has seen since Confederation in 1867.[32]

In 2019, Canada admitted 341,180 permanent residents, compared to 321,055 the previous year.[33] Among those admitted, 58% were economic immigrants and their accompanying immediate families; 27% were family class; 15% were either resettled refugees or protected persons or were in the humanitarian and other category.[33]

Immigration rateEdit

In 2001, 250,640 people immigrated to Canada, relative to a total population of 30,007,094 people per the 2001 Census. Since 2001, immigration has ranged between 221,352 and 262,236 immigrants per annum.[34] In 2017, the Liberal government announced Canada will welcome nearly one million immigrants over the next three years. The number of migrants would climb to 310,000 in 2018, up from 300,000 in 2017. That number was projected to rise to 330,000 in 2019, then 340,000 in 2020.[35][36][37] Accordingly, between 2017 and 2018, net immigration accounted for 80% of Canada’s population increase.[38]

The three main official reasons given for the level of immigration were:

  • The social component – Canada facilitates family reunification.
  • The humanitarian component – Relating to refugees.
  • The economic component – Attracting immigrants who will contribute economically and fill labour market needs.

Canada's level of immigration peaked in 1993 in the last year of the Progressive Conservative government and was maintained by the Liberal Party of Canada. Ambitious targets of an annual 1% per capita immigration rate were hampered by financial constraints. The Liberals committed to raising actual immigration levels further in 2005.

As Canadian political parties have been cautious about criticizing high levels of immigration, immigration levels to Canada (approx. 0.7% per year) are considerably higher per capita than to the United States (approx. 0.3% per year).

Furthermore, much of the immigration to the US is from Latin America and relatively less from Asia, though admitting about twice as many immigrants from Asian countries (e.g. China, India, the Philippines, and Pakistan) as Canada. As such, the Hispanic/Latin American population makes up the largest minority group in the United States, whereas such is true for the Asian population in Canada.

Immigrant population growth is concentrated in or around large cities (particularly Vancouver, Toronto, and Montreal). These cities have experienced increased service demands that accompany strong population growth, causing concern about the capability of the infrastructure to handle influxes in such places. For example, as noted in a Toronto Star article from 14 July 2006, 43% of Canada's immigrants move to the Greater Toronto Area and that, "unless Canada cuts immigrant numbers, our major cities will not be able to maintain their social and physical infrastructures."[39] Most of the provinces that do not have one of those destination cities have implemented strategies to try to boost their share of immigration. While cities are a popular destination for new immigrants, some small towns have seen an influx of immigration due to economic reasons and local schools districts are working to adjust to the change.[40]

According to Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada, under the Canada–Quebec Accord of 1991, Quebec has sole responsibility for selecting most immigrants destined to the province. However, once immigrants are granted permanent residency or citizenship they are free to move between and reside in any provinces under Section 6 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

Immigrant settlement patterns and public transit in Toronto, 2016

Within cities, immigrants are more likely to settle in areas with better public transit service compared to non-immigrants, and are more likely to use public transit for travelling to work, partly because of costs and barriers to car ownership[41]

Irregular migrationEdit

A Royal Canadian Mounted Police at the Quebec-New York border in Lacolle directs a man entering Canada outside of a port of entry to a nearby tent for processing.

Estimates of undocumented immigrants in Canada range between 35,000 and 120,000.[42] James Bissett, a former head of the Canadian Immigration Service, has suggested that the lack of any credible refugee screening process, combined with a high likelihood of ignoring any deportation orders, has resulted in tens of thousands of outstanding warrants for the arrest of rejected refugee claimants, with little attempt at enforcement.[43] A 2008 report by the Auditor General Sheila Fraser stated that Canada has lost track of as many as 41,000 illegal immigrants.[44][45]

In August 2017, the border between Quebec and New York, most notably the former Roxham Road port of entry, saw an influx of up to 500 crossings each day outside of official ports of entry by people seeking asylum in Canada.[46] Entering Canada outside of a port of entry is not an offence under either the Criminal Code or Immigration and Refugee Protection Act, and regulations under the IRPA only require that a person seeking to enter Canada outside a point of entry to "appear without delay" at the nearest port of entry.[47] While entering Canada outside of a port of entry may represent an unlawful act, section 133 of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act requires that charges related to any offences associated with entering Canada are stayed while an entrant's claim is being processed in accordance with the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees.[48]

As result, Canada increased border patrol and immigration staffing in the area, reiterating that crossing the border outside ports of entry (referred to as 'irregular migration') had no effect on one's asylum status.[49][50] It is reported that over 38,000 'irregular migrants' arrived in Canada since early 2017.

For the same reason, both Ontario and Quebec requested the Government of Canada to provide CA$200 million or more to cover their cost of burden to house and provide services to asylum seekers. Related to asylum seekers, Canada joined 164 countries in signing the UN Global Compact for Migration in 2018. The 2017 government claims it is for following careful measures and to meet international obligations in accommodating irregular migrants.[51]

Settlement workersEdit

Settlement workers help immigrants into Canada understand their rights and responsibilities and find the programs and services they need to integrate with the new culture and the prospects of a livelihood. They motivate organizations to hire immigrants and support immigration through recruiting new members/ employees. They work with government agencies, school boards, libraries and other community organizations with networks of resources.[52] These working relationships also help to provide families with the tools necessary to manage the changing identities of new immigrant families to Canada.[40]

Dual intent migration: International studentsEdit

Canada is an education haven for international students desirous to gain a North American education. According to Project Atlas, Canada is the world’s fourth most popular destination for foreign students. The government by opening its gates to international students across the country has given an economic boom to the education sector. In 2019 alone, it is estimated that a revenue of $21 billion was gained from tuition alone.[53][54] In a given year it is estimated that around 600,000 international students reside in the country as temporary residents.[55]

In 2019 it was reported that there is a new trend in exploiting Canadian visa process, where immigrant consultants/lawyers with food franchises, motels, gas stations, and family run business' collect substantial cash from students and foreign nationals for supporting them with LMIA and in their permanent resident applications.[56][57] In 2019 a qualitative survey among international students reported that they feel "international students should receive permanent residence status at the time of their arrival in Canada" and "migrant students should have the same rights, and that means full labour rights, the same fees, and permanent resident status from day one and that's just fair for the money they spend in Canada."[58] Part of what the international student bodies across the provinces are saying is to disregard the immigration system Canada has in place or manipulate them in ways that give international students special rights, equalize their tuition fees to the subsidized fees of domestic students, and being a full-time worker is more important to them and education is only a secondary objective. In 2020 too international student bodies across Canada has pleaded for the same rights to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic.[59]

Attitudes towards immigrationEdit

The vast majority of the Canadian public as well as the major political parties support immigration.[28]


In October 2016, the Angus Reid Institute partnered with the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) to conduct a study of 'Canadian values.'[60] Survey results would indicate that about 68% of those polled said that they wanted minorities to do more to fit into the mainstream. However, the same number also said that they were nonetheless happy with how immigrants have integrated themselves into the community. Moreover, 79% of Canadians believe immigration policy should be based on the country's economic and labour needs, rather than on the needs of foreigners to escape crises in their home countries.

Canada's finance minister Bill Morneau established the Advisory Council on Economic Growth, which called for a gradual increase in permanent immigration to Canada to 450,000 people a year.[61][62]

In an analysis of the survey, Angus Reid, himself, wrote that Canadians' commitment to multiculturalism is not increasing and that Canadian attitudes have been affected by the wake of North American and European nationalist movements, due to which certain provinces have even begun to develop colorist preferences. Reid also expressed his discomfort in the effect that an increase in illiterate refugees may have on Canadian society. Nonetheless, he found that the majority of newcomers and refugees feel that they are treated fairly and welcomed as a "Canadian."[63]


According to a 2017 poll, 32% of Canadians—up from 30% in 2016—believed that too many refugees were coming to Canada. The poll also asked respondents about their comfortability with surface-level diversity (e.g. around people of a different race), to which 89% said they were comfortable—a number that dropped from 94% in 2005–06.[64]

In 2018, an Angus Reid poll found that two-thirds (67%) of Canadians agreed that the situation of illegal immigration to Canada constitutes a "crisis" and that Canada's "ability to handle the situation is at a limit." Among respondents who voted in the 2015 election, 56% of those who voted Liberal and 55% of those who voted NDP agreed that the matter had reached a crisis level—agreed upon with 87% of respondents who voted Conservative in the 2015 election. Six out of ten respondents also told the pollster that Canada is "too generous" towards would-be refugees, a spike of five percentage points since the question was asked the previous year.[65][66]


EKOS Research Associates, in a 2019 poll, found that about 40% of Canadians feel that there are too many non-white immigrants coming to the country.[67] EKOS expressed this number as demonstrating an increase from those who opposed immigration in previous years, and as an evidence for resurgence of colonial depictions that can lead to racialization of new non-white immigrants.[68][69]

In a 2019 poll by Léger Marketing, 63% of respondents wanted limits to be set on immigration, while 37% said immigration should be expanded. The results would show a split along party lines, as Green and Conservative Party supporters favoured a reduction, while Liberal and NDP supporters favoured the opposite. Minister of Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Hussen felt that the poll results may be indicative of the concerns of some Canadians about housing shortages and the ability of communities to absorb more people.[70]


In a 2020 poll conducted by Nanos Research Group, 17 percent of respondents said an increase to the number of immigrants accepted into the country (compared to 2019) was acceptable, 36 percent said there should be no change, and 40 percent wanted a reduction.[71] Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) data in 2020 shows that there were 12,122 deportations and out of them 1,657 were administrative removals.[72]

History of citizenship and emigrationEdit


The word 'Canadian' as a term of nationalism or citizenship was first used under the Immigration Act, 1910, to designate those British subjects who were domiciled in Canada, whereas all other British subjects required permission to land. A separate status of "Canadian national" was created under the Canadian Nationals Act, 1921, which would broaden the definition of 'Canadian' to include such citizen's wife and children (fathered by the citizen) who had not yet landed in Canada. After the passage of the Statute of Westminster in 1931, the monarchy ceased to be an exclusively British institution. Thus, Canadians—as well as all others living among what is known today as the Commonwealth realms—were regarded as subjects of the Crown. However, in legal documents, the term 'British subject' continued to be used, hence 'Canadians' were still, officially, British subjects born or regularly domiciled in Canada.[citation needed]

In 1946, Canada would be the first nation in the then-British Commonwealth to establish its own nationality law, with the enactment of the Canadian Citizenship Act, 1946, taking effect on 1 January 1947. In order to be deemed a Canadian citizen, one generally had to be a British subject on the date that the Act took effect, or had been admitted to Canada as landed immigrants before that date. First Nations people were later included by amendment in 1956. The phrase 'British subject' referred generally to anyone from the United Kingdom, its colonies at the time, or a Commonwealth country. Acquisition and loss of British-subject status before 1947 was determined by British law.[citation needed]

Many of the provisions to acquire or lose Canadian citizenship that existed under the 1946 legislation were repealed, whereby Canadian citizens generally would no longer be subject to involuntary loss of citizenship, barring revocation on the grounds of immigration fraud. On 15 February 1977, Canada removed restrictions on dual citizenship.


Canada offers Canadian citizenship through naturalization. In 2006, the Canadian government reduced the landing fee per immigrant by 50%.[73] In June 2017, the implementation of the first of a series of important reforms to the Citizenship Act took effect. These reforms restored many of the previous requirements that were in place for over 3 decades in Canada before they were removed and replaced with more stringent criteria by the former Conservative government in 2015. The most important of these changes include:[74][75]

  • The requirement of permanent residence for 3 out of 5 years during the period immediately prior to filing the application.
  • Removal of a physical presence rule.
  • Persons aged 14 to 54 years must pass a Canadian knowledge test and demonstrate a basic ability in either of English or French, Canada's official languages.
  • Revocation of citizenship must follow a more formal and balanced process.


While emigration from Canada to the United States has historically exceeded immigration, there have been short periods in which the reverse was true, such as:

Canada would also see mass emigration during periods of political turmoil or war, such as the Vietnam War. There are over 1 million Americans living in Canada, and over 1 million Canadians living in the US, with many millions more who are descendants of Canadian immigrants to the US—New England alone is 20–25% of Canadian descent.

Immigration has always been offset by emigration: at times this was of great concerns of governments intent on filling up the country, particularly the western provinces. The United States was overall the primary destination followed by reverse migration. As a result, the population of Canada at Confederation (1867) was 3.75 million, or 10% of the US population, an average that maintained from about 1830 to 1870. This number would drop to 6% by 1900 due to large emigration to the US, despite large-scale immigration to Canada. Emigration to the US was only 370,000 in the 1870s; averaged a million a decade from 1880 to 1910; almost 750,000 from 1911 to 1920 and 1.25 million from 1921 to 1930. They consisted of both native-born Canadians and recent immigrants from various, mostly European nations. Between 1945 and 1965, emigration to the US averaged 40–45,000 annually. It was not until 1960 that the population of Canada reached the 10% mark again, or 18 million.

As of 2017, with over 35 million people, Canada has 10.8% of the population of its southern neighbour. In times of economic difficulty, Canadian governments frequently resorted to deportation and coerced "voluntary" deportation to thin out ranks of unemployed workers. However, by the time of the administration of Mackenzie King, it was realized that this was an improvident short-term solution that would result in future labor shortages (that immigration was initially intended to overcome).[76]

Immigration categoriesEdit

In Canadian law, (legal) permanent immigrants are categorized by IRCC as either of the following:[4][38]

  1. Family: persons closely related to one or more Canadian residents who live in Canada.
  2. Economic: skilled workers, caregivers, or business persons.
  3. Protected person or Refugee: persons who are escaping persecution, torture, and/or cruel and unusual punishment.
  4. Humanitarian or other: persons accepted as immigrants for humanitarian or compassionate reasons.

In March 2019, the Canadian Government announced its Francophone Immigration Strategy as an initiative to increase immigration outside of Quebec for French-speaking individuals in all admission categories.[38]

In 2010, Canada accepted 280,681 immigrants (permanent and temporary) of which 186,913 (67%) were Economic immigrants; 60,220 (22%) were Family class; 24,696 (9%) were Refugees; and 8,845 (2%) were others through working holidays, internships, and studies.[77][78] In 2019, with 341,180 admissions, Canada achieved its highest level of permanent resident admissions in recent history.[38]

Economic immigrantsEdit

The Economic Immigration Class is the largest source of permanent resident admissions in Canada.[38] In 2019, 196,658 individuals were admitted to Canada under the Economic Class, making up approximately 58% of all admissions that year, and a 5.5% increase from 2018. This represents a record-high number of admissions under this category.[38]

Year 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Number of economic immigrants permitted[38] 170,390 156,028 159,289 186,366 196,658

IRCC uses seven sub-categories of economic immigrants, including skilled workers, under the following classes:[4]

The business immigration programs that offer permanent admission to Canada include:

Individuals with a certain net worth can also apply for permanent residence via certain programs.[81] For business owners and investor immigrants who do not fit into the Start-Up business class or Quebec Provincial programs, there is a Federal Owner Operator LMIA pathway that if executed correctly can lead to permanent admission to Canada.[82]

The high-profile Skilled worker principal applicants group comprised 19.8% of all immigration in 2005. Canada has also created a VIP Business Immigration Program which allows immigrants with sufficient business experience or management experience to receive the Permanent Residency in a shorter period than other types of immigration.

As of May 1, 2014, the Federal Skilled Worker Class opened once again accepting 25,000 applicants with intake caps at 1,000 per category. A New Economic Action Plan 2015 took effect in January 2015 in which the skilled worker program will be more of an employer based program. The current list of accepted occupations for 2014 includes many occupations such as senior managers, accountants, physicians and medical professionals, professionals in marketing and advertising, real estate professionals and many more.[83]

A candidate's eligibility for Federal Skilled Worker category is assessed based on six selection factor points and scored on a scale of 100. The current pass mark is 67 points.[84][85]

Six Selection Factor Points:

  • Language skills points
  • Education points
  • Work experience points
  • Age points
  • Arranged employment in Canada points
  • Adaptability points

The changes in 2015 moved permanent residency in Canada away from the "first come, first served" model, and towards a new structure that took on permanent residents based on Canada's economic need. The system is called "Express Entry".[86] Alberta's Immigrant Nominee Program (AINP),[87] in particular, allows skilled workers, along with their families, to make application for permanent residency, and several large Alberta employers with operations in rural areas actively recruit employees from abroad and support them and their families in seeking permanent residency.[40]

Canada announced a new immigration quota of 1.2 million for 2021-2023, with targets of 401,000 new permanent residents in year 2021, 411,000 in 2022 and 421,000 in 2023.[88]

In an effort to meet the 2021 target, on April 14, 2021 Canada created a new immigration pathway to permanent residency for essential workers and international graduates already in Canada. Temporary workers with at least one year of Canadian work experience in a health-care profession or another pre-approved essential occupation, and international students who graduated from a Canadian institution in 2017 or later are eligible. The maximum numbers of immigrants under this program are 20,000 temporary workers in health care, 30,000 temporary workers in other selected essential occupations, and 40,000 international students.[89][90]

Family classEdit

Both citizens and permanent residents may sponsor family members to immigrate to Canada as permanent residents, under the requirement that the sponsor is able to accept financial responsibility for the individual for a given period of time.[38]

In 2019, 91,311 individuals were admitted under the Family Reunification category, which is a 7.2% increase from 2018 and a record high. Also that year, 80% of parent and grandparent applications were processed within 19 months, an improvement from 72 months in 2017.[38]

Year 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 Projected
2021 2022 2023
Spouse, partners and children 49,997 60,955 61,973 67,140 69,298
Parent and grandparent 15,489 17,043 20,495 18,030 22,011
Total family reunification[38] 65,485 77,998 82,468 85,170 91,311 76,000–105,000 74,000–105,000 74,000–106,000

Humanitarian and compassionate immigrationEdit

Canada also grants permanent residency based on humanitarian and compassionate grounds on a case-by-case basis, or certain public policy considerations under exceptional circumstances. In 2019, there were 4,681 permanent residents admitted through these streams.[38]

Year 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
People admitted under humanitarian and compassionate grounds[38] 4,315 3,792 3,631 4,026 4,681

Refugees and protected personsEdit

Each year, IRCC facilitates the admission of a targeted number of permanent residents under the refugee resettlement category. Under Canadian nationality law, an immigrant can apply for citizenship after living in Canada for 1095 days (3 years) in any five-year period provided that they lived in Canada as a permanent resident for at least two of those years.[91] Opposition parties have advocated for providing one-year free residency permits for refugees as an opportunity to increase their living standards until they are ready to migrate back to their home countries, rather than uprooting them from their heritage and culture in forms of relief.[92][93]

The CBSA is responsible for administering persons who enter Canada through its designated ports of entry (POE); the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) are responsible for those who enter Canada unlawfully, i.e., enter between designated POEs.[94]

A person who is seeking asylum in Canada must be first considered eligible by the Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (IRB).[95] The IRB classifies eligible refugees into two separate categories:[95]

  • Convention Refugees: Someone who is outside and unable to return to their home country due to a fear of persecution based on several factors including race, religion, and political opinion. (This is outlined by the United Nations' multilateral treaty, Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees.)
  • Protected Persons: Claims for asylum under this category are usually made at a point of entry into Canada. Those claiming to be a person in need of protection must be unable to return to their home country safely because they would be subjected to a danger of torture, risk for their life, or risk of cruel and unusual treatment.
Refugee statistics, by sponsorship[38]
Year 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Blended Sponsorship Refugee 811 4,435 1,285 1,149 993
Government-Assisted Refugee 9,488 23,628 8,638 8,093 9,951
Privately Sponsored Refugee 9,747 18,642 16,699 18,568 19,143
Total 20,046 46,705 26,622 27,810 30,087

Claiming asylum in CanadaEdit

Tents set up on the Canadian side of border between Quebec and New York in 2017 to process asylum applicants entering Canada irregularly.

Individuals can make an asylum claim in Canada at a port of entry, at a CBSA inland office or an IRCC inland office. CBSA or IRCC officials will then determine if an individual is eligible to make an asylum claim.[94]

After entry, an interview for eligibility is conducted to deem whether the asylum seeker is allowed or declined admission into Canada. Those who are admitted submit their reasons for admissibility, in writing. The IRB hears their case after 60 days; in favorable terms, the claimants are accepted as refugees.[96] If the claims are not deemed appropriate by the interviewer, the asylum seeker may be deported.

There are many instances in which claims have been deemed ineligible for referral to the IRB, notably those by migrants who seek entry into Canada through the United States, where the Safe Third Country Agreement (STCA) is applied.[95] The STCA dictates persons seeking asylum must make their claim in the first country in which they arrive—either the US or Canada—unless they qualify for an exception. Therefore, if an asylum seeker were to enter the US (as a non-U.S. citizen), make their way to the Canada–U.S. land border, and then attempt to enter Canada with a claim for asylum, they would be denied entry under the STCA. The Agreement is responsible for limiting refugee eligibility to enter Canada and the rejection of several hundred claims a year since its implementation.[97] The CBSA reported that 6,000–14,000 claims were made before the implementation of the STCA, and dropped to an average of 4,000 claims per year after its implementation.[98]

Asylum claimants have been subjected to "indirect refoulment", a consequence of a persons claim in Canada being refused under the STCA, subjecting them to deportation to the destination in which the person was originally seeking asylum from, due to more conservative immigration and refugee policies in the U.S.[99]

Protected personsEdit

The IRCC provides support for protected persons and their dependants, whereby protected persons are defined as asylum claimants who are granted protected status by Canada. In 2019, 18,443 individuals obtained permanent residence under the protected persons in Canada and dependents abroad category.[38]

Year 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
People admitted as protected persons and dependents[38] 12,068 12,209 14,499 17,683 18,443

Refugees in detentionEdit

As part of the passing of Bill C-31 in December 2012, asylum seekers arriving at a point of entry on the Canada–United States border have been subject to incarceration and detention.[100] Claimants are subject to detention for failing to provide sufficient identification documents, which is in violation with the United Nations Refugee Convention, to which Canada is a signatory.[100] In 2010–2011, Canada detained 8,838 people, of which 4,151 of them were asylum seekers or rejected refugee claimants.[101] There is a requirement to the maximum time limit spent in detention upon being released, a situation which has been subject to criticism held in contrast to areas in Europe: Ireland (30 days), France (32 days), Spain (40 days), and Italy (60 days).[101]

Refugees programsEdit

The IRCC funds several programs that provide supports and services to resettled refugees.[94]

The Private Sponsorship of Refugees Program is an initiative whereby refugees may resettle in Canada with support and funding from private or joint government-private sponsorship.[102] Established under Operation Lifeline in 1978,[103] the program has since resettled and provided support for over 200,000 refugees[104] under various initiatives and with fluctuating annual intakes.[105]

Pre-departure services backed by IRCC include Canadian Orientation Abroad training and coverage for certain medical services received prior to arriving in Canada. All resettled refugees in Canada receive temporary health care coverage; the IRCC, along with civil-society and sponsorship organizations, also provide:[94]

  • income support
  • immediate and essential supports and services upon arrival (e.g., housing)
    • assistance in securing housing
  • settlement services, including language training
  • Other refugee-support programs

Asylum statisticsEdit

Individuals can make an asylum claim in Canada at a port of entry, at a CBSA inland office or an IRCC inland office. CBSA or IRCC officials will then determine if an individual is eligible to make an asylum claim.[94]

Asylum Claimants processed by the IRCC and CBSA, Jan–Nov 2020[94]
Province / Territory CBSA ports of entry CBSA inland office CBSA total IRCC total CBSA and IRCC total
Alberta 85 [a] 85 760 845
British Columbia 225 140 365 1,705 2,070
Manitoba 30 30 135 165
New Brunswick 5 0 5 30 35
Newfoundland and Labrador 0 5 5
Nunavut 0 0 0 0 0
Northwest Territories 0 0 0 0 0
Nova Scotia 55 55
Ontario 2,070 95 2165 7,875 10,040
Prince Edward Island 0 0 0 10 10
Quebec 4,730 80 4810 4,575 9,385
Saskatchewan 5 5 30 35
Yukon 0 0 0 0
Total 7,150 315 7,465 15,180 22,645
  1. ^ All values between 0 and 5 are shown as “—” in order to prevent individuals from being identified when data is compiled and compared to other publicly available statistics. All other values are rounded to the closest multiple of 5 for the same reason; as a result of rounding, data may not sum to the totals indicated.
RCMP interceptions, Jan–Nov 2020[94]
Province / Territory Total
Alberta 0
British Columbia 76
Manitoba 26
New Brunswick 0
Newfoundland and Labrador 1
Nunavut 0
Northwest Territories 0
Nova Scotia 0
Ontario 0
Prince Edward Island 0
Quebec 3,163
Saskatchewan 0
Yukon 0
Total 3,266

Francophone Immigration StrategyEdit

In March 2019, the Canadian Government announced its Francophone Immigration Strategy purposed to achieve a target of 4.4% of French-speaking immigrants of all admissions, outside of Quebec, by 2023.[38]

The strategy's Welcoming Francophone Communities Initiative provides $12.6 million to 14 selected communities (2020 to 2023) for projects to support and welcome French-speaking newcomers. In 2019, IRCC’s Settlement Program launched new official-language training services for French-speaking newcomers who settle in Francophone communities outside of Quebec. Seven organizations were selected to receive up to $7.6 million over 4 years.[38]

French-speaking permanent residents admitted outside Quebec in 2019[38]
Immigration categories Total Percentage
Economic class 5,523 65%
Family-sponsored 1,420 17%
Resettled refugees and protected persons[iii] 1,445 17%
Other immigrants 81 1%
Total 8,469 100%

Sources of immigrationEdit

Canada receives its immigrant population from almost 200 countries. Statistics Canada projects that, by 2031, almost one-half of the population could have at least one foreign-born parent.[106] The number of visible ethno-cultural composition of population will double and make up the minority of the population of cities in Canada.[107]

Total immigrant population by country of birth, 2017
Immigrant refers to all those who hold or have ever held permanent resident status in Canada, including naturalized citizens.[108]
Rank Country of birth Population Portion of immigrants in Canada Portion of Canadian population Notes
N/A   Canada 37,815,446 N/A 78.55%
1   India 668,565 8.87% 1.9%
2   China 649,260 8.61% 1.85% Officially the People's Republic of China.

Excludes Hong Kong and Macau (included in this table below).

3   Philippines 588,305 7.8% 1.67%
4   United Kingdom 499,120 6.62% 1.42% Officially the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Includes Scotland, Wales, England and Northern Ireland. Excludes Isle of Man, the Channel Islands, and British Overseas Territories.

5   United States 253,715 3.36% 0.72% Officially the United States of America.
6   Italy 236,635 3.14% 0.67%
7   Hong Kong 208,935 2.77% 0.59% Officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China.
8   Pakistan 202,255 2.68% 0.58%
9   Vietnam 169,250 2.24% 0.48% Many from the former Republic of Vietnam
10   Iran 154,420 2.05% 0.44% Officially the Islamic Republic of Iran.
11   Poland 146,470 1.94% 0.42%
12   Germany 145,840 1.93% 0.41%
13   Portugal 139,450 1.85% 0.4%
14   Jamaica 138,345 1.83% 0.39%
15   Sri Lanka 131,995 1.75% 0.38%
16   Korea, South 123,305 1.64% 0.35% Officially the Republic of Korea.
17   France 105,570 1.4% 0.3%
18   Haiti 93,485 1.24% 0.27%
19   Romania 90,310 1.2% 0.26%
20   Lebanon 88,740 1.18% 0.25%
21   Netherlands 88,475 1.17% 0.25%
22   Guyana 87,680 1.16% 0.25%
23   Mexico 80,590 1.07% 0.23%
24   Russia 78,685 1.04% 0.22%
25   Ukraine 73,030 0.97% 0.21%
26   Colombia 70,040 0.93% 0.2%
27   Morocco 69,655 0.92% 0.2%
28   Iraq 68,490 0.91% 0.19%
29   Trinidad and Tobago 65,035 0.86% 0.19%
30   Algeria 64,625 0.86% 0.18%
31   Egypt 64,620 0.86% 0.18%
32   Taiwan 63,770 0.85% 0.18%
33   Greece 62,715 0.83% 0.18%
34   Bangladesh 58,735 0.78% 0.17%
35   Syria 52,955 0.7% 0.15% Officially the Syrian Arab Republic.
36   Afghanistan 51,960 0.69% 0.15%
37   El Salvador 48,075 0.64% 0.14%
38   South Africa 44,660 0.59% 0.13%
39   Nigeria 42,430 0.56% 0.12%
40   Croatia 40,040 0.53% 0.11%
41   Hungary 36,825 0.49% 0.1%
42   Bosnia and Herzegovina 36,135 0.48% 0.1%
43   Serbia 33,320 0.44% 0.09% Excludes Kosovo.
44   Ethiopia 32,790 0.43% 0.09%
45   Peru 29,615 0.39% 0.08%
46   Brazil 29,315 0.39% 0.08%
47   Ireland 28,320 0.38% 0.08% Also known as the Republic of Ireland
48   Japan 27,245 0.36% 0.08%
49   Somalia 27,230 0.36% 0.08%
50   Kenya 27,150 0.36% 0.08%
51   Israel 26,735 0.35% 0.08%
52   Turkey 26,710 0.35% 0.08%
53   Chile 26,705 0.35% 0.08%
54   Congo, Democratic Republic of the 25,655 0.34% 0.07%
55   Fiji 24,660 0.33% 0.07%
56   Malaysia 23,785 0.32% 0.07%
57   Cambodia 23,320 0.31% 0.07%
58   Ghana 22,910 0.3% 0.07%
59   Australia 21,115 0.28% 0.06% Includes Norfolk Island.
60   Czech Republic 21,065 0.28% 0.06%
61   United Arab Emirates 20,990 0.28% 0.06%
62   Venezuela 20,775 0.28% 0.06% Officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela.
63   Tanzania 20,600 0.27% 0.06% Officially the United Republic of Tanzania.
64   Saudi Arabia 20,080 0.27% 0.06%
65   Argentina 19,430 0.26% 0.06%
66    Switzerland 19,040 0.25% 0.05%
67   Belgium 18,935 0.25% 0.05%
68   Bulgaria 18,635 0.25% 0.05%
69   Cameroon 18,570 0.25% 0.05%
70   Cuba 17,850 0.24% 0.05%
71   Moldova 17,605 0.23% 0.05% Officially the Republic of Moldova.
72   Tunisia 17,435 0.23% 0.05%
73   Guatemala 17,275 0.23% 0.05%
74   Mauritius 15,900 0.21% 0.05%
75   Austria 15,845 0.21% 0.05%
76   Albania 15,365 0.2% 0.04%
77   Kuwait 15,235 0.2% 0.04%
78   Thailand 15,075 0.2% 0.04%
79   Eritrea 15,010 0.2% 0.04%
80   Ecuador 14,965 0.2% 0.04%
81   Laos 14,475 0.19% 0.04% Officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic.
82   Slovakia 14,410 0.19% 0.04%
83     Nepal 14,390 0.19% 0.04%
84   Indonesia 14,280 0.19% 0.04%
85   Barbados 14,095 0.19% 0.04%
86   Jordan 13,295 0.18% 0.04%
87   Uganda 13,210 0.18% 0.04%
88   St. Vincent and the Grenadines 12,945 0.17% 0.04%
89   Denmark 12,515 0.17% 0.04%
90   Kazakhstan 12,450 0.17% 0.04%
91   Singapore 11,820 0.16% 0.03%
92   Ivory Coast 11,325 0.15% 0.03% Also known as Côte d'Ivoire.
93   Belarus 11,190 0.15% 0.03%
94   Sudan 10,820 0.14% 0.03% Officially the Republic of the Sudan.
95   Spain 10,700 0.14% 0.03%
96   Dominican Republic 10,605 0.14% 0.03%
97   Zimbabwe 10,495 0.14% 0.03%
98   Macedonia 10,300 0.14% 0.03% Officially the Republic of Macedonia.

Also known as the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia by the United Nations and other international bodies.

99   Grenada 10,265 0.14% 0.03%
100   New Zealand 9,880 0.13% 0.03% Includes Niue and Tokelau.
101   Nicaragua 9,865 0.13% 0.03%
102   Finland 9,525 0.13% 0.03%
103   Burundi 8,470 0.11% 0.02%
104   Myanmar 8,215 0.11% 0.02% Also known as Burma.
105   Slovenia 8,210 0.11% 0.02%
106   Palestine, West Bank and Gaza Strip 8,210 0.11% 0.02% Recorded as "West Bank and Gaza Strip (Palestine)", since "Palestine" refers to pre-1948 British mandate Palestine.

West Bank and Gaza Strip are the territories referred to in the Oslo I Accord, signed by Israel and the PLO in 1993.

107   Honduras 7,790 0.1% 0.02%
108   Kosovo 7,610 0.1% 0.02% Officially the Republic of Kosovo.
109   Senegal 7,515 0.1% 0.02%
110   Malta 7,465 0.1% 0.02%
111   Paraguay 7,305 0.1% 0.02%
112   Sweden 6,630 0.09% 0.02%
113   Uruguay 6,535 0.09% 0.02%
114   Uzbekistan 6,385 0.08% 0.02%
115   Libya 6,300 0.08% 0.02%
116   Rwanda 6,105 0.08% 0.02%
117   St. Lucia 6,100 0.08% 0.02%
118   Latvia 5,875 0.08% 0.02%
119   Macau 5,750 0.08% 0.02% Officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of China.
120   South Sudan 5,540 0.07% 0.02%
121   Guinea 5,190 0.07% 0.01%
122   Lithuania 4,980 0.07% 0.01%
123   Brunei 4,485 0.06% 0.01%
124   Bolivia 4,400 0.06% 0.01% Officially the Plurinational State of Bolivia.
125   Bhutan 4,250 0.06% 0.01%
126   Armenia 4,165 0.06% 0.01%
127   Cyprus 4,020 0.05% 0.01%
128   Costa Rica 3,950 0.05% 0.01%
129   Norway 3,885 0.05% 0.01%
130   Azerbaijan 3,845 0.05% 0.01%
131   Zambia 3,715 0.05% 0.01%
132   Madagascar 3,555 0.05% 0.01%
133   Togo 3,350 0.04% 0.01%
134   Estonia 3,200 0.04% 0.01%
135   Angola 3,120 0.04% 0.01%
136   Sierra Leone 3,040 0.04% 0.01%
137   Kyrgyzstan 2,980 0.04% 0.01%
138   Yemen 2,960 0.04% 0.01%
139   Dominica 2,775 0.04% 0.01%
140   Benin 2,760 0.04% 0.01%
141   Panama 2,620 0.03% 0.01%
142   Georgia 2,570 0.03% 0.01%
143   Qatar 2,485 0.03% 0.01%
144   Liberia 2,480 0.03% 0.01%
145   Congo, Republic of the 2,460 0.03% 0.01%
146   Bahrain 2,390 0.03% 0.01%
147   Antigua and Barbuda 2,310 0.03% 0.01%
148   Djibouti 2,235 0.03% 0.01%
149   St. Kitts and Nevis 2,105 0.03% 0.01%
150   Mali 2,095 0.03% 0.01%
151   Belize 1,995 0.03% 0.01%
152   Burkina Faso 1,980 0.03% 0.01%
153   Montenegro 1,865 0.02% 0.01%
154   Bermuda 1,845 0.02% 0.01%
155   Bahamas 1,635 0.02% 0%
156   Chad 1,595 0.02% 0%
157   Oman 1,540 0.02% 0%
158   Mongolia 1,420 0.02% 0%
159   Tajikistan 1,310 0.02% 0%
160   Mozambique 1,255 0.02% 0%
161   Gabon 1,080 0.01% 0%
162   Central African Republic 1,055 0.01% 0%
163   Suriname 1,050 0.01% 0%
164   Namibia 1,035 0.01% 0%
164 Others 1,035 0.01% 0% Includes a small number of immigrants who were born in Canada, as well as other places of birth not included elsewhere (e.g. 'born at sea').
164   Seychelles 1,035 0.01% 0%
167   Niger 1,030 0.01% 0%
168   Mauritania 905 0.01% 0%
169   Botswana 850 0.01% 0%
170   Korea, North 780 0.01% 0% Officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.
171   Luxembourg 675 0.01% 0%
172   Malawi 670 0.01% 0%
173   Gambia 665 0.01% 0%
174   Martinique 640 0.01% 0%
175   Montserrat 610 0.01% 0%
176   Iceland 590 0.01% 0%
177   Aruba 580 0.01% 0%
178   Guadeloupe 515 0.01% 0%
179   Puerto Rico 505 0.01% 0%
180   Turkmenistan 500 0.01% 0%
181   Curaçao 470 0.01% 0%
182   Isle of Man 415 0.01% 0%
183   Eswatini 400 0.01% 0%
184   Jersey 360 0% 0%
185   Réunion 295 0% 0%
186   St. Pierre and Miquelon 290 0% 0%
187   French Guiana 280 0% 0%
188   Cayman Islands 270 0% 0%
189   Papua New Guinea 235 0% 0%
190   New Caledonia 220 0% 0%
191   Guernsey 195 0% 0%
192   French Polynesia 185 0% 0%
192   Sint Maarten 185 0% 0% Part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
194   Cape Verde 170 0% 0%
195   Gibraltar 160 0% 0%
196   Samoa 155 0% 0%
197   Comoros 140 0% 0%
197   Tonga 140 0% 0%
199   Northern Mariana Islands 120 0% 0%
200   Guinea-Bissau 110 0% 0%
200   Monaco 110 0% 0%
202   Lesotho 105 0% 0%
203   Virgin Islands, United States 90 0% 0%
204   Virgin Islands, British 85 0% 0%
205   Liechtenstein 65 0% 0%
206   Anguilla 60 0% 0%
206   Equatorial Guinea 60 0% 0%
206   Turks and Caicos Islands 60 0% 0%
209   Greenland 55 0% 0%
210   Maldives 50 0% 0%
211   Solomon Islands 40 0% 0%
212   Faroe Islands 35 0% 0%
213   Guam 30 0% 0%
213   Palau 30 0% 0%
213   Vanuatu 30 0% 0%
216   Bonaire 25 0% 0%
216   Nauru 25 0% 0%
216   São Tomé and Príncipe 25 0% 0%
216   East Timor 25 0% 0% Also known as Timor-Leste.
220   Andorra 20 0% 0%
220   Kiribati 20 0% 0%
220   Marshall Islands 20 0% 0%
223   Falkland Islands 10 0% 0%
223   Micronesia, Federated States of 10 0% 0%
223   Saint Barthélemy 10 0% 0%
223   St. Helena 10 0% 0% Officially Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha.
223   Wallis and Futuna 10 0% 0%
223   Åland Islands 10 0% 0%
Total immigrants 7,540,830 100% 21.45%


Permanent Residents admitted in 2020, by top 10 source countries[109]
Rank Country Number Percentage
1   India 42,875 23.3
2   China[I] 16,550 9.0
3   Philippines 10,970 5.9
4   United States 6,380 3.5
5   Nigeria 6,345 3.4
6   Pakistan 6,215 3.4
7   Syria 4,835 2.6
8   France 4,600 2.5
9   Iran 3,805 2.1
10   Brazil 3,695 2.0
Top 10 Total 106,270 57.6
Other 78,100 42.4
Total 184,370 100


Permanent Residents admitted in 2019, by top 10 source countries[110][111]
Rank Country Number Percentage
1   India 85,585 25.1
2   China[I] 30,260 8.9
3   Philippines 27,815 8.2
4   Nigeria 12,595 3.7
5   United States 10,800 3.2
6   Pakistan 10,790 3.2
7   Syria 10,120 3.0
8   Eritrea 7,025 2.1
9   South Korea 6,110 1.8
10   Iran 6,055 1.8
Top 10 Total 207,155 60.7
Other 134,025 39.3
Total 341,180 100


Permanent Residents admitted in 2017, by top 10 source countries[112]
Rank Country Number Percentage
1   India 51,651 18
2   Philippines 40,857 14.3
3   China[I] 30,279 10.6
4   Syria 12,044 4.2
5   United States 9,100 3.2
6   Pakistan 7,656 2.7
7   France 6,600 2.3
8   Nigeria 5,459 1.9
9   United Kingdom (incl. Overseas Territories)[II] 5,293 1.8
10   Iraq 4,740 1.7
Top 10 Total 173,679 60.6
Other 112,800 39.4
Total 286,479 100


Permanent Residents admitted in 2016, by top 10 source countries[113]
Rank Country Number Percentage
1   Philippines 41,791 14.1
2   India 39,789 13.4
3   Syria 34,925 11.7
4   China[I] 26,852 9.1
5   Pakistan 11,337 3.8
6   United States 8,409 2.8
7   Iran 6,483 2.2
8   France 6,348 2.1
9   United Kingdom and Colonies 5,812 2.0
10   Eritrea 4,629 1.6
Top 10 Total 186,375 62.9
Other 109,971 37.1
Total 296,346 100


Permanent Residents Admitted in 2015, by Top 10 Source Countries[114]
Rank Country Number Percentage
1   Philippines 50,846 18.7
2   India 39,530 14.5
3   China[I] 19,532 7.2
4   Iran 11,669 4.3
5   Pakistan 11,329 4.2
6   Syria 9,853 3.6
7   United States 7,522 3.0
8   France 5,807 2.0
9   United Kingdom 5,451 2.0
10   Nigeria 4,133 2.0
Top 10 Total 165,672 61.5
Other 106,173 38.5
Total 271,845 100


Permanent Residents admitted in 2011, by top 10 source countries[115]
Rank Country Number Percentage
1   Philippines 34,991 14.1%
2   China[I] 28,696 11.5%
3   India 24,965 10%
4   United States 8,829 3.5%
5   Iran 6,840 2.7%
6   United Kingdom 6,550 2.6%
7   Haiti 6,208 2.5%
8   Pakistan 6,073 2.4%
9   France 5,867 2.4%
10   United Arab Emirates 5,223 2.1%
Top 10 Total 134,242 54%
Remaining Total 114,506 46%
Total 248,748 100%
  1. ^ a b c d e f Officially, the People's Republic of China. Excludes Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan (listed separately).
  2. ^ Officially, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Includes: Scotland, Wales, England, Northern Ireland, and British Overseas Territories.



In 2011 and 2012, several families were denied immigration to Canada because members of their family have an autism spectrum diagnosis and Citizenship and Immigration Canada (now IRCC) felt the potential cost of care for those family members would place an excessive demand on health or social services.[116][117] People with autism disorders can be accepted if they are able to depend on themselves.[117]

Job market and educationEdit

The federal government was asked by businesses to expand programs for professional immigrants to get Canadian qualifications in their fields. In response, the Multiculturalism Act of 1988 was passed, and Canadian Council on Learning was created by the federal government to promote best practices in workplace learning. Additionally, the credentials of immigrant workers are assessed through Canadian agencies by the IRCC for immigration.[118] Ideally, this credential equalization assessment reduces the gap between education and suitable jobs. However, strains of discrimination (i.e. statistical discrimination) lead to a systemic process of rejecting and discouraging immigrants, which is an antithesis for an anti-oppressive culture.[119][120][121][122]

Across Canada, businesses have proposed to allow unpaid or basic-pay internships as part of a rewards system, which were considered illegal (both in government and private) in many provinces at the time, posing as a major obstacle to integrate immigrants into the job market. The lack of policy leadership in this sector has resulted in a "catch-22” situation in which employers want job experience, but potential employees cannot get Canadian experience without first working Canadian jobs/internships. The Ontario Human Rights Commission has acknowledged the racist effects of Canadian work experience requirement for jobs and has declared that Canadian work experience as "prima facie discrimination", and as an inadmissible criterion for exclusion of applicants. However, this has not translated into a nationwide inclusive policy.[123]


In 2017, the Province of Quebec stated that they will prohibit offering or receiving public services for individuals who cover their face, such as those who wear chadors, niqabs or burqas. The reasoning behind the bill was to ensure protection of Quebecois, but the discriminatory strain of the political ideology was reported to be aimed at articles of certain religious faiths. The bill would come under question of in regards to Canadian policy on religious tolerance and accommodation.[124][125][126] A qualitative study found that taste-based discrimination is more prevalent in cities than semi-urban areas, as major factors that contribute to less hostility seem to be regional differences in industrial composition and attendant labour demand.[127][128] There have been demands for the province to charge additional fees from immigrants before landing in Quebec. Quebecois have also urged the province to impose French language training in order for newcomers to become better integrated with the language and culture of their communities. As a result the government initiated a subsidized linguistic integration program in 2019.[129]

Recently, the province saw a 20% gap in earnings between immigrants and Canadian-born individuals in Quebec, largely due to the discrepancy between their respective literacy rates.[citation needed] In 2008, the Canadian Council on Learning reported that almost half of Canadian adults fall below the internationally-accepted literacy standard for coping in a modern society.[130]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ The "family" category can be subdivided into (a) spouse, partner, and children; (b) parents and grandparents; and (c) other (includes "orphaned – brother, sister, nephew, niece and grandchild, and other relatives"). (Hussen 2017).
  2. ^ The "Protected Persons and Refugees" category can be subdivided into: (a) Protected Persons in Canada and Dependants Abroad; (b) Government-Assisted Refugees (GARs); (c) Blended Visa Office-Referred Refugees; and (d) Privately Sponsored Refugees. (Hussen 2017).
  3. ^ Resettled refugees and protected persons in-Canada and dependants abroad


  1. ^ "International Migration Database". Retrieved 2021-10-24.
  2. ^ "How to immigrate to Canada and become a Canadian citizen", Swagatham Canada, retrieved 2021-11-10
  3. ^ Pison, Gilles. 2019 February. "The number and proportion of immigrants in the population: International comparisons." Population & Societies 563. France: Institut National D'études Démographiques.
  4. ^ a b c "2019 Annual Report to Parliament on Immigration" (PDF). Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada. Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
  5. ^ a b Cheatham, Amelia. 2020 August 3. "What Is Canada’s Immigration Policy?" Council on Foreign Relations.
  6. ^ a b c d Belshaw, John Douglas. 2016. "Post-War Immigration." Ch. 5 §11 in Canadian History: Post-Confederation. BC Open Textbook Project. ISBN 978-1-989623-12-1.
  7. ^ Statistics Canada Archived 2008-01-08 at the Wayback Machine – immigration from 1851 to 2001
  8. ^ Troper, Harold. [2013 April 22] 2017 September 19. "Immigration in Canada." The Canadian Encyclopedia. Ottawa: Historica Canada.
  9. ^ Smith, Marina L. 2000. "The Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) at the U.S.–Canadian Border, 1893–1993: An Overview of Issues and Topics." Michigan Historical Review 26(2):127–47.
  10. ^ Hall, "Clifford Sifton: Immigration and Settlement Policy, 1896–1905."
  11. ^ Canada, Library and Archives (2012-04-13). "Chinese". Retrieved 2020-07-19.
  12. ^ Canada, Employment and Social Development (2006-06-22). "Prime Minister Harper Offers Full Apology for the Chinese Head Tax". gcnws. Retrieved 2020-07-19.
  13. ^ Smith, Carrie-Ann. "Italian Immigration at Pier 21" (PDF). Canadian Museum of Immigration at Pier 21. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-08-16. Retrieved 2018-04-17.
  14. ^ Janice Cavell, "The Imperial Race and the Immigration Sieve: The Canadian Debate on Assisted British Migration and Empire Settlement, 1900–30", Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 34#3 (2006): pp. 345–67.
  15. ^ Fedorowich, Kent. 2016. "Restocking the British World: Empire Migration and Anglo-Canadian Relations, 1919–30." Britain and the World 9(2):236–69. doi:10.3366/brw.2016.0239 (open access).
  16. ^ Korneski, Kurt. 2007. "Britishness, Canadianness, Class, and Race: Winnipeg and the British World, 1880s–1910s." Journal of Canadian Studies 41(2):161–84.
  17. ^ Smith, David. 1981. "Instilling British Values in the Prairie Provinces." Prairie Forum 6(2):129–41.
  18. ^ "Country Brief – Canada" (Archive). Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs. p. 4/7. Retrieved on October 21, 2014. "Emigrants from India today enjoy success in all fields within the economy while there are some concentration in British Columbia in agriculture and forestry."
  19. ^ Gogia, N., and Slade, B. (2011), About Canada: Immigration, Fernwood Pub, Halifax, NS
  20. ^, Zone Politique -. "Il y a 50 ans, le Québec se dotait d'un ministère de l'Immigration". (in French). Retrieved 2018-11-04.
  21. ^ Elspeth Cameron (2004). Multiculturalism and Immigration in Canada: An Introductory Reader. Canadian Scholars’ Press. p. 118. ISBN 978-1-55130-249-2.
  22. ^ "Is the current model of immigration the best one for Canada?", The Globe and Mail, Canada, December 12, 2005, retrieved August 16, 2006
  23. ^ Shingler, Benjamin (October 1, 2018). "Here are the priorities of Quebec's new CAQ government". CBC News. Retrieved November 25, 2019.
  24. ^ "The inside story of Jason Kenney's campaign to win over ethnic votes". Maclean's. Retrieved 2019-11-16.
  25. ^ a b Bascaramurty, Dakshana (1 November 2017). "Canada aims for immigration boost to buttress economy as population ages". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 23 June 2018.
  26. ^ Grant, Tavia (28 September 2016). "320,000 newcomers came to Canada in past year, highest number since 1971". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 13 October 2016.
  27. ^ IRCC (3 March 2016). "Express Entry Year-End Report 2015 –". Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada. Government of Canada. Retrieved 2018-10-10.
  28. ^ a b James Hollifield; Philip Martin; Pia Orrenius (2014). Controlling Immigration: A Global Perspective, Third Edition. Stanford University Press. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-8047-8627-0.
  29. ^ Freeman, Gary P.; Randall Hansen; David L. Leal (2013). Immigration and Public Opinion in Liberal Democracies. Routledge. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-136-21161-4.
  30. ^ Markus, Andrew. 2014. "Attitudes to immigration and cultural diversity in Australia." Journal of Sociology 50(1):10–22.
  31. ^ Holliday, Ian (research associate). "Spirituality in a changing world: Half say faith is 'important' to how they consider society's problems" (PDF). Angus Reid Institute (public opinion poll). p. 15. Retrieved 4 May 2020.
  32. ^ a b Statistics Canada (1 November 2017). "Immigration and ethnocultural diversity: Key results from the 2016 Census". The Daily, StatCan. Government of Canada. Retrieved 23 June 2018.
  33. ^ a b "Canada - Admissions of permanent resident by province/territory of intended destination and immigration category". Open Government. May 31, 2020.
  34. ^ a b IRCC. 2019. "Statistics and Open Data." Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada. Ottawa: Government of Canada. Archived 2010-09-04 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  35. ^ "Canada to admit nearly 1 million immigrants over next 3 years". CBC News. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  36. ^ "Canada to take 1 million immigrants by 2020". Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  37. ^ "Canada to Admit Almost a Million Immigrants Over Next Three Years". 2 November 2017. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  38. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r IRCC. 2020 October 30. "2020 Annual Report to Parliament on Immigration." Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada. ISSN 1706-3329.
  39. ^ When immigration goes awry Archived 2013-01-16 at the Wayback Machine, Toronto Star, 14 July 2006. Retrieved 5 August 2006.
  40. ^ a b c Tweedie, Gregory; Dressler, Anja; Schmidt, Cora-Leah (2018-11-12). "Supporting Reconnecting Immigrant Families with English Language Learners in Rural Schools: An Exploratory Study of Filipino Arrivals to Alberta". Retrieved 17 November 2018.
  41. ^ Allen, Jeff; Farber, Steven; Greaves, Stephen; Clifton, Geoffrey; Wu, Hao; Sarkar, Somwrita; Levinson, David M. (2021-10-01). "Immigrant settlement patterns, transit accessibility, and transit use". Journal of Transport Geography. 96: 103187. doi:10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2021.103187. ISSN 0966-6923.
  42. ^ "Canadians want illegal immigrants deported: poll". Ottawa Citizen. Postmedia. 20 October 2007. Archived from the original on 20 October 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-18 – via
  43. ^ "James Bissett: Stop bogus refugees before they get in". National Post. Postmedia. 27 September 2007. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 2015-09-04.
  44. ^ CTV News Staff (2008-05-06). "Canada has lost track of 41,000 illegals: Fraser". CTV News. Bell Media. Retrieved 2018-01-31.
  45. ^ "Detention and Removal of Individuals—Canada Border Services Agency". 2008 May Report of the Auditor General of Canada. Office of the Auditor General of Canada. May 2008. Retrieved 2018-05-02.
  46. ^ "Number Of Asylum Seekers At Quebec Border Nearly Quadrupled In July: Officials". HuffPost Canada. 2017-08-17. Retrieved 2018-03-16.
  47. ^ Grant, Tavia (11 September 2018). "Are asylum seekers crossing into Canada illegally? A look at facts behind the controversy". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
  48. ^ "Illegal or irregular? What's the proper term for Canada's border crossers?". CTV News. 28 August 2018. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
  49. ^ Woods, Allan (2017-08-23). "Canada is not a safe haven for asylum seekers, Trudeau warns". The Toronto Star. ISSN 0319-0781. Retrieved 2017-10-16.
  50. ^ "Trudeau says steps to tackle spike in asylum-seekers yielding 'positive results'". CBC News. Retrieved 2017-10-16.
  51. ^[bare URL]
  52. ^ "Settlement Worker – Alternative Jobs".
  53. ^
  54. ^
  55. ^[bare URL]
  56. ^[bare URL]
  57. ^
  58. ^[bare URL]
  59. ^
  60. ^ Kurl, Shachi (exec. director) (3 October 2016). "What makes us Canadian? A study of values, beliefs, priorities and identity". Angus Reid (public opinion poll). The Angus Reid Institute and Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 2016-11-09.
  61. ^ "Influential Liberal advisers want Canadian population to triple by 2100". Global News. October 23, 2016.
  62. ^ Galbraith, Nora. "Population Projections for Canada (2018 to 2068), Provinces and Territories (2018 to 2043): Technical Report on Methodology and Assumptions". Statistics Canada.
  63. ^ Reid, Angus (4 October 2016). "Canadians aren't as accepting as we think — and we can't ignore it, writes Angus Reid". CBC News. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.
  64. ^ The Canadian Press (7 November 2017). "Canadian attitudes towards immigration hardening, poll suggests". Toronto Star. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  65. ^ Maloney, Ryan (3 August 2018). "Most Canadians Say Irregular Border Crossings Are A 'Crisis,' Poll Suggests". HuffPost Canada. Retrieved 2019-10-23.
  66. ^ Grenier, Éric. 3 August 2018. "Justin Trudeau is losing the argument on border crossings, poll suggests." CBC News. Toronto: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.
  67. ^ EKOS Politics (15 October 2019). "Increased Polarization on Attitudes to Immigration Reshaping the Political Landscape in Canada". EKOS Politics. Ottawa: EKOS Research Associates. Retrieved 2019-12-18.
  68. ^ Maloney, Ryan (16 April 2019). "Survey Shows 'Clear' Racial Discrimination On Immigration Issue: Pollster". HuffPost Canada. Retrieved 2019-10-23.
  69. ^ Sakamoto, I., Jeyapal, D., Bhuyan, R., Ku, J., Fang, L., Zhang, H., and Genovese, F., “An overview of discourses of skilled immigrants and ‘Canadian experience’: An English-language print media analysis”, Toronto, ON: CERIS – The Ontario Metropolis Centre.
  70. ^ Wright, Thersea (16 Jun 2019). "Poll suggests majority of Canadians favour limiting immigration levels". CBC News. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.
  71. ^ Bolongaro, Kait; Hagan, Shelly (6 November 2020). "Trudeau's plan to ramp up immigration falls flat with Canadians". BNN Bloomberg. Retrieved 2 March 2021.
  72. ^ "Canada deported thousands of people in 2020 even as pandemic raged, data show".
  73. ^ Promoting opportunity for new Canadians – Prime Minister of Canada Archived 2006-09-14 at the Wayback Machine. (2006-05-12). Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
  74. ^ Colin Singer (June 15, 2015). "Canada: Canada Citizenship Reform: A Comparative Analysis". CCIRC (Canadian Citizenship & Immigration Resource Center). Retrieved December 26, 2015.
  75. ^ "Canadian Citizenship: Second Wave Of Changes Take Effect October 11, 2017 (Includes Audio) – Immigration – Canada". Retrieved 2018-02-14.
  76. ^ Cook, Tim. "Mackenzie King and the War Effort". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2018-02-14.
  77. ^ CIC. "Facts and figures 2010 – Immigration overview: Permanent and temporary residents." Citizenship & Immigration Canada. Ottawa: Government of Canada. Archived from the "original" 2011-11-22. Retrieved 17 November 2011.
  78. ^ Moving2Canada Working Holiday Visa in Canada guide retrieved March 24, 2016
  79. ^ Canada, IRCC (31 March 2007). "Immigrate as a Quebec-selected skilled worker –". Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada. [Government of Canada. Retrieved 2018-03-19.
  80. ^ IRCC (17 September 2008). "Who can apply – Canadian Experience Class (Express Entry)". Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada. Government of Canada. Retrieved 2018-03-19.
  81. ^ IRCC (December 2017). "Immigrant Investor Venture Capital Pilot Program". Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada. Government of Canada. Retrieved 2018-03-19.
  82. ^ McKinsley, Sean. "OWNER OPERATOR INVESTMENT LMIA STREAM: OPPORTUNITIES FOR BUSINESSES & ENTREPRENEURS". Canada Immigration & Visa Services. Retrieved 17 May 2019.
  83. ^ Offering "Express Entry" to Qualified Economic Immigrants – Actively Recruiting Talented Newcomers For the Benefit of Canada's Economy. (Archived) Government of Canada, April 8, 2014.
  84. ^ Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (31 March 2007). "Six selection factors – Federal Skilled Worker Program (Express Entry)". Retrieved 2020-10-08.
  85. ^ "Selection Factor Points Calculator". Retrieved 2020-10-08.
  86. ^ "Immigrate to Canada with Express Entry". Retrieved 2020-10-08.
  87. ^ "Alberta Immigrant Nominee Program (AINP)".
  88. ^ "Canada to target over 400,000 immigrants per year | Canada Immigration News". 30 October 2020.
  89. ^ Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (2021-04-14). "Temporary public policy to facilitate the granting of permanent residence for foreign nationals in Canada, outside of Quebec, with a recent credential from a Canadian post-secondary institution". aem. Retrieved 2021-05-17.
  90. ^ Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (2021-04-14). "New pathway to permanent residency for over 90,000 essential temporary workers and international graduates". gcnws. Retrieved 2021-05-17.
  91. ^ CIC (2010). "Residence Calculator". Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Archived from the original on 2012-01-03. Retrieved 2011-11-19.
  92. ^ Markusoff, Jason (10 Jan 2018). "Canada's failing refugee system is leaving thousands in limbo". Maclean's. Retrieved 24 July 2018.
  93. ^ Harris, Kathleen (21 January 2018). "Less than half the people deported from Canada in 2017 paid their own way home". CBC News. CBC/Radio-Canada. Retrieved 24 July 2018.
  94. ^ a b c d e f g "Asylum claims by year – 2020." Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada. 2020 December 21.
  95. ^ a b c IRCC (31 March 2007). "Find out if you're eligible – Refugee status from inside Canada". Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada. Government of Canada. Retrieved 2018-04-04.
  96. ^ Bellemare, Andrea (25 August 2017). "How asylum seekers make refugee claims, and why they take so long". CBC News.
  97. ^ Arbel, Efrat (2013-03-01). "Shifting Borders and the Boundaries of Rights: Examining the Safe Third Country Agreement between Canada and the United States". International Journal of Refugee Law. 25 (1): 65–86. doi:10.1093/ijrl/eet002. ISSN 0953-8186.
  98. ^ Marwah, Sonal; Ball, Michelle (Autumn 2017). "Is the Safe Third Country Agreement putting refugee claimants at risk?". Ploughshares Monitor. 38 (3): 5–9.
  99. ^ Foster, Michelle (Fall 2008). "Responsibility Sharing or Shifting? "Safe" Third Countries and International Law". Refuge. 25 (2): 64–78. doi:10.25071/1920-7336.26032.
  100. ^ a b Dawson, Carrie (2014). "Refugee Hotels: The Discourse of Hospitality and the Rise of Immigration Detention in Canada". University of Toronto Quarterly. 83 (4): 826–846. doi:10.3138/utq.83.4.826. S2CID 161756804.
  101. ^ a b Silverman, Stephanie J.; Molnar, Petra (2016-03-01). "Everyday Injustices: Barriers to Access to Justice for Immigration Detainees in Canada". Refugee Survey Quarterly. 35 (1): 109–127. doi:10.1093/rsq/hdv016. ISSN 1020-4067.
  102. ^ IRCC (November 2003). "Guide to the Private Sponsorship of Refugees Program". Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada. Government of Canada. Retrieved 2018-03-30.
  103. ^ Zifi, J. (2016). "Syrian refugee resettlement in Canada: an auto-ethnographic account of sponsorship." Canadian Association for Refugee and Forced Migration Studies. University of Toronto. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
  104. ^ "About refugees and Canada's response". Canadian Council for Refugees. Retrieved 2018-03-30.
  105. ^ Labman, Shauna (2016). "Private Sponsorship: Complementary or Conflicting Interests?". Refuge. 32 (2): 67–80. doi:10.25071/1920-7336.40266.
  106. ^ "Projections of the Diversity of the Canadian Population". Statistics Canada. March 9, 2010. Retrieved 2010-03-15.
  107. ^ "Parties prepare to battle for Immigrant votes". CTV News. Bell Media. 14 March 2010. Archived from the original on 2010-03-16. Retrieved 2010-03-15.
  108. ^ Statistics Canada (25 October 2017). "Immigrant population by place of birth, period of immigration, 2016 counts, both sexes, age (total), Canada, 2016 Census – 25% Sample data | Immigration and Ethnocultural Diversity Highlight Tables". Statistics Canada. Government of Canada. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  109. ^ "Permanent Residents – Monthly IRCC Updates". Statistics Canada. Retrieved April 2, 2021.
  110. ^ Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada. "Table 2: Permanent Residents Admitted in 2019 by Top 10 Source Countries", 2020 Annual Report to Parliament on Immigration. ISSN 1706-3329.
  111. ^ Anderson, Stuart (2020). "Immigrants Flock To Canada, While U.S. Declines". Forbes. Retrieved April 16, 2020.
  112. ^ IRCC (2018). "2017 Annual Report to Parliament on Immigration". Immigration, Refugee and Citizenship Canada. Government of Canada. Retrieved Dec 22, 2018.
  113. ^ IRCC (2017). "2017 Annual Report to Parliament on Immigration". Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada. Government of Canada. Table 3: Permanent Residents Admitted in 2016, by Top 10 Source Countries. Retrieved Jul 21, 2018.
  114. ^ IRCC (2016). "Annual Report to Parliament on Immigration, 2016". Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada. Government of Canada. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  115. ^ CIC. "Facts and figures 2011 – Immigration overview: Permanent and temporary residents". Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Government of Canada. Archived from the original on 2012-12-30. Retrieved 2013-01-10.
  116. ^ Merti, Steve (31 March 2012). "American UVic prof forced to leave Canada after immigration rules son's autism too big a taxpayer burden". Daily Brew – via Yahoo News.
  117. ^ a b Wallace, Kenyon (9 June 2011). "Family faces deportation over son's autism". Toronto Star.
  118. ^ CIC (30 January 2020) [2012]. "Where can I get an Educational Credential Assessment (ECA)?". Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Government of Canada.
  119. ^ Hendry, Leah. 25 September 2018. "'I didn't come here to live this kind of life': Skilled immigrants on desperate hunt for jobs in Quebec" CBC News. Montreal: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.
  120. ^ Reitz, Jeffrey G. 2007. "Immigrant Employment Success in Canada, Part I: Individual and Contextual Causes." Journal of International Migration and Integration 8:11–36. doi:10.1007/s12134-007-0001-4
  121. ^ Raza, Muhammad, Roderic Beaujot, and Gebremariam Woldemicael 2012. "Social Capital and Economic Integration of Visible Minority Immigrants in Canada." Journal of International Migration and Integration 14. doi:10.1007/s12134-012-0239-3.
  122. ^ Collie, Meghan (25 June 2019). "Canada has a discrimination problem when it comes to hiring — here's why". Global News. Corus Entertainment. Retrieved 2019-10-23.
  123. ^ Policy on Removing the "Canadian experience" barrier (PDF). Ontario Human Rights Commission. 2013.
  124. ^ Bergeron, Patrice. 24 October 2017. "Quebec to prohibit government employees from wearing Muslim chador, niqab and burka." The Canadian Press via CTV News.
  125. ^ Peritz, Ingrid. 18 October 2017. "Quebec bans face covering in public services, raising worries among Muslims". The Globe and Mail. Montreal.
  126. ^ CBC News staff. 16 August 2017. "No niqabs on public buses? Confusion reigns after surprise amendments to Quebec bill." CBC News. Montreal: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.
  127. ^ Magesan, Arvind. 25 October 2015. "New figures show just how big Canada's immigrant wage gap is." Maclean's.
  128. ^ StatCan. 25 October 2017. "Census in Brief: Linguistic integration of immigrants and official language populations in Canada" (2016 Census Program Census in Brief). Statistics Canada. Government of Canada.
  129. ^ "Apprendre le français".
  130. ^ CCIL. 2008. "Reading the Future: Planning to Meet Canada’s Future Literacy Needs." Ottawa, ON: Canadian Council on Learning.

Further readingEdit




External linksEdit