Hulu (stylized as hulu //) is an American entertainment company that provides "over-the-top media services." It is primarily oriented towards instant streaming of television series, carrying current and past episodes of many series from its owners' respective television networks and other content partners. Hulu is owned by Hulu LLC, a joint venture with The Walt Disney Company (holds 30% stake), 21st Century Fox (holds 30% stake), Comcast (via NBCUniversal; holds 30% stake),[note 1] and AT&T (via WarnerMedia; holds 10% stake). Through a proposed acquisition announced in December 2017, Disney is to acquire Fox's partial ownership, giving it a majority stake if the deal closes.
|Type of business||Joint venture|
Type of site
|Founded||October 29, 2007|
|Area served||United States|
|Key people||Randy Freer (CEO)|
|Revenue||$1 billion (2013)|
|Alexa rank||232 (June 13, 2018)|
|Users||20 million 1 million (Live TV) |
|Launched||October 29, 2007|
(Hulu Syndication Network)
(Hulu.com destination site)
Some of Hulu's competitors include Netflix and Amazon. Previously it was divided into free and paid tiers, with the free service limited in the amount of content accessible by users and accessible via PC only, and a paid service with a larger library of content and accessed via Hulu applications for various mobile and connected devices. The subscription service is, in turn, divided into advertising-supported and mostly ad-free tiers. In 2016, Hulu spun out its free content into a joint venture with Yahoo! called Yahoo! View and launched a live television streaming service on May 3, 2017.
Hulu is currently offered only to users in the United States, its territories and Japan. The CEO of the company Randy Freer announced that by the end of 2018 Hulu had around 23 million subscribers.
In Mandarin, Hulu has two interesting meanings, each highly relevant to our mission. The primary meaning interested us because it is used in an ancient Chinese proverb that describes the Hulu as the holder of precious things. It literally translates to "gourd," and in ancient times, the Hulu was hollowed out and used to hold precious things. The secondary meaning is "interactive recording". We saw both definitions as appropriate bookends and highly relevant to the mission of Hulu.
Key executives instrumental in the founding of Hulu include Bruce Campbell, Peter Chernin, JB Perrette, Michael Lang, Beth Comstock and Jason Kilar. The venture was announced in March 2006 with AOL, NBC Universal, now Comcast, Facebook, MSN, Myspace, and Yahoo! planned as "initial distribution partners". Kilar was named the CEO in June 2006.
The name Hulu was chosen in late August 2007, when the website went live, with an announcement only and no content. It invited users to leave their email addresses for the upcoming beta test. In October, Hulu began the private beta testing by invitation, and later allowed users to invite friends. Hulu launched for public access in the United States on March 12, 2008. The first product to launch was the HULU Syndication network, which was designed and developed by the NBC Universal team from New York, on October 29, 2007, followed by the Hulu.com destinations site.
Hulu began an advertising campaign during NBC's broadcast of Super Bowl XLIII with an initial ad starring Alec Baldwin titled "Alec in Huluwood". The ad intended to humorously reveal "the shocking secret behind Hulu", portraying the site as being an "evil plot to destroy the world" by suggesting that Baldwin is really an alien in disguise. Advertisements have since aired featuring Eliza Dushku, Seth MacFarlane, Denis Leary, and Will Arnett.
In July 2007, Providence Equity Partners, the owner of Newport Television, became one of the earliest "outside" investors by purchasing a 10 percent stake in the company for US$100 million equity investment, before the company was known as "Hulu". With its investment came a seat on the board of directors, where Providence was said to act as an "independent voice on the board". In October 2012, Providence sold its 10 percent stake to "Hulu's media owners" and ceased participation in the board.
Early in 2010, Hulu chief executive Jason Kilar said the service had made a profit in two quarters and that the company could top $100 million in revenue by summer 2010, more than its income for all of 2009. ComScore says monthly video streams reached 903 million in January 2010, over three times the figure for a year earlier, and second only to YouTube.
On June 21, 2011, The Wall Street Journal reported that an "unsolicited offer" caused Hulu to begin "weighing whether to sell itself." On October 13, 2011 however, Hulu and its owners announced that they would not sell the company, as none of the bidders offered an amount that was satisfactory to its owners.
It was reported that in 2011, Hulu made $420 million. The figure was $80 million short of the predicted revenue. The vacant CEO post was officially filled by former Fox Networks President Mike Hopkins on October 17, 2013.
Following the start of its service, Hulu signed deals with several new content providers making additional material available to consumers. On April 30, 2009, The Walt Disney Company announced that it would join the venture, purchasing a 27 percent stake in Hulu.
Starting August 15, 2011, viewers of content from Fox and related networks are required to authenticate paid cable or satellite service wherever Fox streams episodes, including on Hulu, to be able to watch them the morning after the first airing. Non-subscribers will see those episodes delayed a week before they are viewable.
On October 28, 2011, Hulu announced that they had inked a five-year deal with The CW, giving the streaming site access to next-day content from five of the six major networks. On September 18, 2013, Hulu announced a multi-year deal with the BBC that will deliver 2,000 episodes from 144 different titles in the first 12 months.
In 2015, Hulu began offering content from Showtime for an additional $8.99/month, which is cheaper than Showtime's own streaming service. On June 16, 2016, Hulu announced a deal with the Disney-ABC Television Group for the exclusive SVOD rights to past seasons of seven Disney Channel, Disney Junior and Disney XD series, and more than 20 Disney Channel original movies.
On September 18, 2016, all content from The CW was removed from Hulu, as The CW's own website and apps became the exclusive portals for streaming their shows during the current season, with Netflix becoming the exclusive streaming provider for The CW shows post-current season. As of January 2017[update], a limited amount of content from CBS's library is available on-demand, mostly limited to shows that are no longer producing new episodes. On January 4, 2017, it was reported that a deal was reached to bring live broadcasts of CBS and several affiliated channels to Hulu's upcoming live streaming service as well as to make more shows available on-demand.
Hulu subscription serviceEdit
At an industry conference held on October 21, 2009, News Corporation Deputy Chairman Chase Carey stated that Hulu "needs to evolve to have a meaningful subscription model as part of its business" and that it would likely start charging for at least some content by 2010. Carey's comment jibes with other News Corp. heads, including Rupert Murdoch who has expressed a desire to charge for content with a number of online units.
The Hulu monthly subscription service called Hulu Plus was launched in beta (preview) on June 29, 2010 and officially launched on November 17, 2010. Like the free version of Hulu, the content available with a Hulu subscription also contains advertising. However, it offers an expanded content library including full seasons, day-after access to current season content and more episodes of shows available through the free Hulu. A Hulu subscription also provides a wider array of viewing choices. The free-access to Hulu was only available on PCs and laptops, while a Hulu subscription allows viewers to access Hulu through all Hulu-supported devices including set-top boxes, smart TVs, gaming consoles, mobile devices and more. A little more than a year after the launch of the Hulu subscription service, the number of paying subscribers reached 1.5 million. In May 2016, Hulu reported it had reached 12 million subscribers. As of the end of 2017, Hulu reported it had reached 17 million subscribers.
On April 29, 2015, Hulu announced to the press that they would do away with the "Plus" brand name to reduce confusion between the paid and free plans.
The Wall Street Journal reported in July 2015 that Hulu was exploring an advertising-free subscription option for around $12 to $14 a month. This was confirmed as going forward as of September 2, 2015[update], with a "No Commercials" plan priced at $11.99, $4 more than the $7.99 monthly rate for a "Limited Commercials" subscription, though a few highlight network series (less than 10) would retain pre-roll and post-roll ad pods.
On August 8, 2016, Hulu announced that it would end the availability of its free streaming service through its own platform, making it oriented exclusively to subscription services. In turn, the company announced a partnership with Yahoo! to move this free content, which consists primarily of recent episodes of ABC, Fox, and NBC series, to a new website known as Yahoo! View.
Hulu with Live TVEdit
In May 2016, Hulu announced that it planned to begin offering an over-the-top IPTV service with "live programming from broadcast and cable brands" some time in 2017. In late 2016, co-owners 21st Century Fox and The Walt Disney Company agreed to supply their channels to the streaming service, joined by Time Warner, which previously reached an agreement with Hulu.
The service, marketed only as "Hulu with Live TV," which couples the live TV offerings with Hulu's existing library of television series and films, launched in beta on May 3, 2017. The $39.99-per-month service – which provides support for Xbox One, Apple TV, Chromecast, iOS and Android devices – offers live streams of more than 50 broadcast and cable-originated channels, including feeds of the five major broadcast networks – ABC, CBS, NBC, Fox and The CW – as well as cable channels owned by Hulu co-parents NBCUniversal, 21st Century Fox and The Walt Disney Company, along with CBS Corporation, Turner Broadcasting System, Scripps Networks Interactive and A+E Networks (encompassing networks such as CNN, Food Network, Disney Channel, A&E, MSNBC and ESPN), with the Showtime OTT service available as an add-on for an extra fee. Currently, live content from the major broadcast networks is limited to owned-and-operated stations and affiliates based in New York City, Los Angeles, Chicago, San Francisco and Philadelphia; Hulu representatives stated that it intends to negotiate carriage agreements with independently-owned broadcasting groups to gain distribution rights to local stations from additional markets. Features include the ability to create up of six user account profiles per a single subscription (with personalized program recommendations based on a user's favorite programs and varying simultaneous streams depending on the package), personalized sports recommendations and a cloud DVR with between 50 and 200 hours of storage depending on the level of service (the lower-tier DVR does not have ad skipping functionality).
Viewership numbers for the site are tracked by measurement firms such as ComScore, Nielsen ratings, and Quantcast. In partnership with comScore, Hulu is the first digital company to receive multi-platform measurement at an individual level that includes co-viewing for living room devices. When factoring this in, Hulu's reach among adults aged 18–49 increases 50 percent.
However, the reliability of these metrics has been drawn into question, partly due to widely divergent estimates. For example, between May and June 2010, ComScore updated its scoring methodology and its estimates for Hulu dropped from 43.5 million unique viewers to 24 million in a single month. In a comScore digital trends report in 2010, comScore's Digital Year in Review report found that Hulu was watched twice as much as viewers who watched on the websites of the five major TV networks combined.
Hulu in May 2018 announced it has surpassed 20 million subscribers in the United States. The tally, which puts the company about 36 million subscriptions behind Netflix, was disclosed at a media presentation at the newly-named Hulu Theater at Madison Square Garden in New York. Hulu said it has grown total engagement by more than 60%, with 78% of viewing taking place in the living room on connected TVs.
Hulu distributes video on its own website and syndicates its hosting to other sites, and allows users to embed Hulu clips on their websites. In addition to NBC, ABC and Fox programs and movies, Hulu carries shows from networks such as A&E, Big Ten Network, Bravo, E!, Fox Sports 2, FX, PBS, NFL Network, Oxygen, RT America, Fox Sports 1, Esquire Network, SundanceTV, Syfy, USA Network, NBCSN, and online comedy sources such as Onion News Network. Hulu retains between thirty and fifty percent of advertising revenue generated by the shows it distributes.
In November 2009, Hulu also began to establish partnerships with record labels to host music videos and concert performances on the site, including EMI in November 2009, and Warner Music Group in December 2009.
In early March 2010, Viacom announced that it was pulling two of the website's most popular shows, The Colbert Report and The Daily Show, off Hulu. The programs had been airing on Hulu since late 2008. A spokesman for Viacom noted that "in the current economic model, there is not that much in it for us to continue at this time. If they can get to the point where the monetization model is better, then we may go back." In February 2011, both shows were made available for streaming on Hulu again. The Daily Show was again removed from Hulu in March 2017 in order to push viewers to watch the program on Viacom and Comedy Central's apps.
Hulu will be the exclusive streaming home for R-rated films from Disney's Touchstone Pictures and Hollywood Pictures labels and 20th Century Fox's pre-Disney-Fox merger film library, as well as a complement to Disney + which will not feature any R-rated films and shows.
Hulu in May 2018 announced its first-ever license deal with DreamWorks Animation, becoming the exclusive streaming home for future DWA movies feature films, as well as library films. DWA had streamed exclusively through Netflix since 2013.
From January 17, 2011 to April 24, 2014, Hulu streamed its own in-house web series The Morning After, a light-hearted pop-culture news show. It was produced by Hulu in conjunction with Jace Hall's HDFilms and stars Brian Kimmet and Ginger Gonzaga. Producing the show was a first for the company, which in the past has been primarily a content distributor.
On January 16, 2012, Hulu announced that it would be airing its first original script based program, titled Battleground, which premiered in February 2012. The program aired on Hulu's free web service rather than on the subscription-based Hulu Plus. Battleground is described as a documentary-style political drama.
Later that same month, Hulu announced it would air The Fashion Fund, a six-part reality series, and the winner of the show would receive $300,000 to start their career.
To continue with its original programming movement, Hulu announced that there would be a total of seven original programs that were planned to air on its service: Battleground, Day in the Life, and Up to Speed were previously mentioned; and on April 19, Hulu added four more shows to its list: Don't Quit Your Daydream, Flow, The Awesomes, and We Got Next. Some of these programs began airing in 2012, while others premiered over the next few years.
On May 4, 2016, Hulu acquired The Beatles: Eight Days a Week, as its first documentary acquisition, as part of a planned Hulu Documentary Films collection. The film premiered theatrically on 15 September, before debuting on the streaming service on 17 September.
On July 12, 2014, it was announced that Hulu had signed a three-year deal purchasing exclusive online streaming rights to the South Park library. Through the deal, the South Park Studios website became powered by Hulu video and featured advertising. Along with this, the domain name changed from "southparkstudios.com" to "southpark.cc.com". Previously, the show had been available on the television website Netflix. The new site launch caused some technical issues, which were resolved allowing fans to watch uncensored episodes and clips. For viewers outside the US, episodes and clips still stream through the "classic" South Park player and nothing changed aside from the new site design. A handful of countries also have their own localized versions of South Park sites, with the old experience.
It was announced that beginning in September 2014, following the premiere of the 18th season, only 30 select episodes will be featured for free viewing at a time on the website, with new episodes being available for an entire month starting the day following their original airings. The entire series (with the exception of "Super Best Friends", "200", and "201") is available for viewing on the Hulu subscription service.
On May 14, 2015, AT&T struck a deal with Hulu that would give its customers access to streaming service on both regular and premium tiers. On October 22, 2016, AT&T announced a deal to buy Time Warner, who owns 10% of Hulu, for $108.7 billion. In November 2017, the U.S. Justice Department said it was moving to sue to block the AT&T-Time Warner merger. AT&T completed their merger in June 2018, winning the lawsuit from the Justice Department.
Neon Alley is a Viz Media-owned anime-oriented streaming service that launched on October 2, 2012, streaming to both the US and Canadian markets. At the start of April 2014, the service discontinued its original livestream format and relaunched as a video-on-demand (FVOD) platform accessible on either its website or Internet-connected devices through Hulu. Since Hulu wasn't available in the Canadian market, Neon Alley subsequently restricted its service to the United States. On July 21, 2016, Tubi TV announced that they had commenced streaming of certain Viz titles in Canada.
- A+E Networks: A&E, FYI, History, Lifetime, Military History, Viceland
- AMC Networks: AMC, SundanceTV, WE tv, BBC America
- ANO TV-Novosti: RT America
- Azteca International Corporation: Azteca
- CBS Corp. content in Japan and the United States: CBS, CBS Sports Network, The CW (joint venture with Warner Bros.), Showtime (for $8.99/mo extra)
- Discovery Inc.: Animal Planet, Discovery Channel, Discovery en Español, Discovery Digital Networks, Destination America, Investigation Discovery, TLC, Discovery Family
- Disney: ABC, Disney Channel, Disney XD, Disney Junior, Freeform
- 21st Century Fox: FX, FXM, FXX, National Geographic Channel
- Fox Corp.: Fox, Fox News Channel, Fox Business Network, Big Ten Network, FS1, FS2
- NBCUniversal: CNBC, MSNBC, NBC, NBCSN, Oxygen, Syfy, USA Network, Bravo, E!, Universal Kids
- Starz Inc.: Starz
- Univision: Fusion
- Viacom: BET, Comedy Central, MTV, Nickelodeon, Nick Jr., Nicktoons, TV Land, VH1, Paramount Network, CMT, Logo TV
- WarnerMedia: Adult Swim, Cartoon Network, CNN, The CW (joint venture with CBS), HLN, TBS, TNT, HBO (for $14.99/mo extra), Cinemax (for $9.99/mo extra)
Producers and distributorsEdit
- 21st Century Fox: 20th Television, 20th Century Fox Television
- Annapurna Pictures
- CBS Corporation: CBS Television Studios
- Discotek Media
- Disney: Disney-ABC Domestic Television, ABC Studios
- Amblin Partners: DreamWorks Pictures
- Fremantle Media
- Green Apple Entertainment
- Maiden Japan
- MGM: Epix
- Media Blasters
- Comcast: NBCUniversal, Universal Television
- NIS America
- Nutri Ventures Corporation
- Right Stuf
- Sentai Filmworks
- Sony: Aniplex of America, Sony Pictures Entertainment, Funimation
- Viz Media
- AT&T: WarnerMedia
- Wise Entertainment
- Viki (Asian programs)
Hulu's original series The Handmaid's Tale, won two awards at the 33rd annual Television Critics Association Awards for Program of the Year and Outstanding Achievement in Drama. At the 69th Primetime Emmy Awards, Hulu earned a total of 8 awards for The Handmaid's Tale and became the first streaming service to win Outstanding Drama Series. The Handmaid's Tale also received Emmys for Outstanding Directing, Outstanding Writing, Outstanding Cinematography and Outstanding Production Design. Elisabeth Moss won the Emmy for Outstanding Lead Actress, and Ann Dowd received the award for Outstanding Supporting Actress. At the 75th Golden Globe Awards The Handmaid's Tale took home two awards, Best TV Drama and Best Actress in a Drama TV Series (Elisabeth Moss).
At the 2016 Critics' Choice Documentary Awards, Hulu's first-released documentary, The Beatles: Eight Days A Week – The Touring Years won the award for Best Music Documentary. The documentary also received Grammy Award for Best Music Film at the 2017 Grammy Awards and Best Documentary at the 16th Annual Movies for Grownups Awards. At the Creative Arts Emmys, the documentary earned two Emmys including Outstanding Sound Editing and Outstanding Sound Mixing.
At the 68th Primetime Emmy Awards, Hulu received its first Emmy Award nominations for its Original series, 11.22.63 and for Triumph's Election Special 2016. In 2016, Hulu received its first Golden Globe nomination for its Original series, Casual, for TV series, Comedy.
In July 2010, the Financial Times revealed that Hulu had been working on plans for an international launch of Hulu Plus for several months, and had identified the UK and Japan as markets where its free website and subscription model could feasibly work. Hulu chief executive Jason Kilar expressed his belief that the US model could be replicated elsewhere, saying "We won't be satisfied until this is a global service." Hulu's first expansion into an international market took place with the launch of a service in Japan on September 1, 2011. On November 8th, 2018, Disney announced that after the closure of their acquisition of 21st Century Fox (which would give them majority control in Hulu), they intend on expanding Hulu to other international markets.
Nippon TV acquisition of Hulu Japan serviceEdit
On February 27, 2014, Nippon Television Network Corporation (Nippon TV) acquired Hulu's Japan business. The transaction, which is subject to certain regulatory conditions, marked Nippon TV's entry into the SVOD (Subscription Video On Demand) business. Through the acquisition, the Hulu service continues to offer Japanese consumers premium content, including Hollywood and Japanese films and dramas and popular television programming. Additionally, Nippon TV's popular shows and original exclusive content launched on the Hulu service in Japan, expanding its content offering. Japanese users have access to a library of popular television shows such as the CSI franchise, Grey's Anatomy, Prison Break, and Ugly Betty, and as well as movies such as Armageddon, Men in Black, and Pirates of the Caribbean.
Absence in Canadian marketEdit
Hulu is unable to launch in Canada due to the relatively small size of Canada's online advertising market and because Canada's television networks already have the exclusive online streaming rights in Canada to several titles offered on Hulu, including many mainstream American television network programs. The absence of Hulu in the Canadian market raised concerns by fans of the sitcom The Mindy Project when it was cancelled by Fox in the spring of 2015 and subsequently picked up by Hulu; the show's Canadian broadcaster, City, subsequently announced it would continue to air the series in Canada. At present, Canadian consumers have access to several other streaming systems, including a Canadian version of Netflix, Amazon Video and Crave, with Crave streaming some programming from Hulu.
- Although NBC Universal is also a major shareholder (30%) of Hulu, by the Federal Communications Commission, NBC Universal and Comcast are required (for seven years after Comcast acquired NBCUniversal in 2011) not to exercise any right to influence the conduct or operation of Hulu. "Neither Comcast nor C-NBCU shall exercise any right to influence the conduct or operation of Hulu, including those arising from agreements, arrangements or operation of its equity interests (e.g., board seats, voting for directors or other shareholder matters, management and veto rights, etc.) and C-NBCU shall as and from the date of this Order hold its interest in Hulu solely as an economic interest." (MO&O, 1/20/11, FCC Grants Approval of Comcast-NBCU Transaction, Comcast Corporation and NBC Universal Archived 2010-06-11 at the Wayback Machine., Federal Communications Commission)
- "NBC Officially Owns 32 Percent of Hulu". The Big Money. February 3, 2010. Archived from the original on February 5, 2010. Retrieved December 29, 2010.
- Spangler, Todd (August 3, 2016). "Time Warner Acquires 10% Stake in Hulu for $583 Million". Variety. Archived from the original on August 8, 2016. Retrieved August 8, 2016.
- "Hulu's Billion-Dollar Milestone: A Sign Of Just How Far Behind Netflix It Has Fallen". Forbes. Archived from the original on 2018-01-30. Retrieved 2017-08-31.
- "Hulu.com Site Info". Alexa Internet. Archived from the original on 2018-06-11. Retrieved 2018-06-13.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2018-05-02. Retrieved 2018-05-02.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2018-06-01. Retrieved 2018-05-31.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Hulu.com Opens to Public, Offers Free Streams of Hit TV Shows, Movies and Clips from More Than 50 Providers Including FOX, NBC Universal, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios Inc. and Sony Pictures Television" (Press release). Business Wire. 12 March 2008. Archived from the original on 22 December 2017. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
- WTF is OTT? Archived 2018-05-29 at the Wayback Machine. Published by Digiday.com July 7, 2015, retrieved, May 29, 2018
- Kramer, Staci D. (April 30, 2006). "It's Official: Disney Joins News Corp., NBCU In Hulu; Deal Includes Some Cable Nets". Archived from the original on May 4, 2011. Retrieved October 30, 2006.
- Goldman, David (2017-12-14). "Disney buys 21st Century Fox: Who gets what". CNNMoney. Archived from the original on 2017-12-14. Retrieved 2017-12-14.
- "Introducing Yahoo View, a TV Watching Experience Featuring Hulu | Business Wire". www.businesswire.com. Archived from the original on 2017-02-06. Retrieved 2017-02-06.
- "Netflix vs. Hulu: Streaming Service Showdown". PCMAG. Archived from the original on 2017-08-03. Retrieved 2017-08-03.
- "Hulu to top 23 million subscribers by year-end". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2018-12-05.
- Kilar, Jason (2008-05-14). "What's in a Name?". Archived from the original on 2011-07-17. Retrieved 2010-07-17.
- "Leadership – Discovery Communications, Inc". corporate.discovery.com. Archived from the original on 2016-05-29. Retrieved 2016-05-25.
- "Peter Chernin Offers $500M for Hulu". TheWrap. 2013-04-05. Archived from the original on 2016-10-20. Retrieved 2016-05-25.
- "Free, Legal and Online: Why Hulu Is the New Way to Watch TV". WIRED. Archived from the original on 2016-05-27. Retrieved 2016-05-25.
- Wauters, Robin. "We Happy? Miramax Deal Brings Hundreds Of Movies To Hulu Plus (And To Hulu)". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on 2016-05-03. Retrieved 2016-05-25.
- "NBC Universal and News Corp. Announce Deal with Internet Leaders AOL, MSN, MySpace And Yahoo! to Create a Premium Online Video Site with Unprecedented Reach" (Press release). Business Wire. 22 March 2007. Archived from the original on 1 January 2011. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
- Nat Worden (2007-03-22). "Google's Still on Top". TheStreet.com. Archived from the original on 2007-09-30. Retrieved 2007-08-29.
- Nat Worden (2007-08-29). "Google's New Foe: Hulu". TheStreet.com. Archived from the original on 2007-09-04. Retrieved 2007-08-29.
- "Hulu Debuts via Private Beta and on Distribution Partners AOL, Comcast, MSN, MySpace and Yahoo!" (Press release). Business Wire. 20 October 2007. Archived from the original on 22 December 2017. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
- "Hulu TV Ads: Alec in Huluwood". Hulu. Hulu. Archived from the original on 2009-05-08. Retrieved May 10, 2009.
- McCarthy, Caroline (January 26, 2009). "Hulu to shock the world with Super Bowl ad". CNET News. Archived from the original on August 6, 2009. Retrieved February 2, 2009.
- Brady, Shirley (August 29, 2006). "NBC and Fox Jump Through Hulu Hoop". Cable360.net. Archived from the original on September 6, 2012. Retrieved 2007-08-29.
- Lawler, Ryan (May 12, 2012). "It's Done: Early Hulu Investor Providence Equity Partners Has Sold Its Stake For $200M". techcrunch.com. Archived from the original on October 13, 2012. Retrieved May 12, 2012.
- Stelter, Brian; Stone, Brad (2010-04-05). "Hulu, the online-video hub, contemplates its future". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2011-06-22. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
- Grotticelli, Michael (2010-04-26). "Hulu plans subscription service". Broadcast Engineering. Archived from the original on 2010-07-04. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
- U.S. video viewing site Hulu plans an IPO: report Archived August 20, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
- Dealbook (2010-08-16). "Hulu Is Said to Be Ready for an I.P.O". Dealbook.blogs.nytimes.com. Archived from the original on 2010-10-22. Retrieved 2010-12-29.
- Vascellaro (2011-06-21). "Website Hulu Considers Sale". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 2015-03-28. Retrieved 2011-06-21.
- Parr, Ben (October 13, 2011). "Hulu Is No Longer For Sale". Mashable. Mashable, Inc. Archived from the original on May 21, 2013. Retrieved June 14, 2013.
- Van Grove, Jennifer (January 31, 2012). "Hulu CEO Jason Kilar: Original programming is an important part of the agenda". VentureBeat. Archived from the original on July 3, 2017. Retrieved August 31, 2017.
- "Mike Hopkins Named CEO of Hulu". Archived from the original on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2013.
- Riley, Charles and Hadas Gold. "Disney is buying most of 21st Century Fox for $52.4 billion". CNNMoney. Archived from the original on 2018-01-21. Retrieved 2018-01-30.
- Brian Stelter, The New York Times. "Fox to Limit Next-Day Streaming on Hulu to Paying Cable Customers Archived 2013-05-31 at the Wayback Machine.". July 26, 2011. Retrieved July 28, 2011.
- Wasserman, Todd, Mashable  Archived 2011-10-30 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Hulu BBC Deal, A Positive Step After Some Cloudy Times". CEOWORLD Magazine. 18 September 2013. Archived from the original on 28 September 2013. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
- "Hulu Makes Big Kids Programming Push With New Disney Channel Deal". Ad Week. Archived from the original on 17 June 2016. Retrieved 17 June 2016.
- "The CW Bloodbath is Coming – Hulu Removing CW Shows September 18th". Exstreamist.com. 17 August 2016. Archived from the original on 14 November 2016. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
- "CBS shows on Hulu". help.hulu.com. Archived from the original on 2017-01-05. Retrieved 2017-01-04.
- "CBS". Hulu. Archived from the original on 2017-01-05. Retrieved 2017-01-04.
- "CBS signs deal to be on Hulu's live-streaming platform". Reuters. 2017-01-04. Archived from the original on 2017-01-04. Retrieved 2017-01-04.
- "Hulu adds CBS to its upcoming live TV service". Engadget. Archived from the original on 2017-01-05. Retrieved 2017-01-04.
- "Now you can get Spotify and Hulu together for just $12.99 each month". The Verge. Archived from the original on 2018-04-12. Retrieved 2018-04-11.
- Atkinson, Claire (2009-10-21). "Chase Carey: Hulu to Charge in 2010". Broadcasting & Cable. Reed Business Information. Archived from the original on 2009-10-25. Retrieved 2009-11-08.
- Sandoval, Greg (October 22, 2009). "More signs Hulu subscription service is coming". Media Maverick. CNET. Archived from the original on June 17, 2011. Retrieved November 4, 2009.
- Stelter, Brian (29 June 2010). "Hulu Unveils Subscription Service For $9.99 a Month". New York Times. Archived from the original on 12 November 2014. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
- Stelter, Brian (27 November 2010). "Hulu Drops Prices to Compete With Netflix". New York Times. Archived from the original on 12 November 2014. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
- Nakashima, Ryan January 13, 2012. "Hulu Plus ends year with 1.5 million subscribers".
- Stelter, Brian (4 May 2016). "Hulu closes in on 12 million subscribers; plans cable-like TV option". money.cnn.com. CNN. Archived from the original on 3 November 2016. Retrieved 1 November 2016.
- Stelter, Brian (9 January 2018). "Hulu closes in on 12 million subscribers; plans cable-like TV option". theverge.com. Verge. Archived from the original on 7 February 2018. Retrieved 6 February 2018.
- Peterson, Tim (April 29, 2015). "Hulu Will Drop Hulu Plus Brand, Picks up 'Seinfeld'". Advertising Age. Archived from the original on September 6, 2015. Retrieved September 13, 2015.
- "Hulu Explores Adding Ad-Free Option to Its Service". Wall Street Journal. July 16, 2015. Archived from the original on January 9, 2016. Retrieved March 7, 2017.
- "Hulu – About". Hulu. Archived from the original on 2015-04-06. Retrieved 2015-04-08.
- Wallenstein, Andrew (2 September 2015). "Hulu Adds (Mostly) Ad-Free Subscription Service". Variety. Archived from the original on 3 September 2015. Retrieved 2 September 2015.
- "This is the end of Hulu as we know it". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 9 August 2016. Retrieved 9 August 2016.
- Jarvey, Natalie (August 8, 2016). "Hulu to End Free TV Service". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on August 8, 2016. Retrieved August 8, 2016.
- Brodkin, Jon (August 8, 2016). "Hulu will soon end its free streaming options". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on August 8, 2016. Retrieved August 8, 2016.
- "Hulu confirms plan to stream live TV next year". The Verge. Vox Media. Archived from the original on 10 August 2016. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
- Lieberman, David (November 1, 2016). "Disney And Fox Agree To Provide Sports And Broadcast Channels To Hulu". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved January 24, 2017.
- Mike Snider (May 3, 2017). "You can now watch 50-plus channels of live TV on Hulu with $39.99 upgrade". USA Today. Gannett Company. Archived from the original on May 8, 2017. Retrieved May 9, 2017.
- Jared Newman (May 3, 2017). "Hulu Live TV launches in beta: What you need to know". TechHive. Archived from the original on May 9, 2017. Retrieved May 9, 2017.
- Todd Spangler (May 3, 2017). "Hulu Live TV Service Launches With 50 Channels for $40 Monthly". Variety. Penske Media Corporation. Archived from the original on May 8, 2017. Retrieved May 9, 2017.
- Nathan McAlone (May 3, 2017). "Hulu just launched its $40-a-month cable-TV competitor — here are all the details". Business Insider. Archived from the original on May 7, 2017. Retrieved May 9, 2017.
- Sandra Gonzalez (May 3, 2017). "Hulu launches live TV service". CNN Money. Time Warner. Archived from the original on May 3, 2017. Retrieved May 9, 2017.
- Todd Spangler (May 3, 2017). "Hulu Live TV Bundle: Full Channel Lineup". Variety. Penske Media Corporation. Archived from the original on May 8, 2017. Retrieved May 9, 2017.
- Todd Spangler (March 10, 2017). "Hulu Live TV Service Won't Have Viacom Networks". Variety. Penske Media Corporation. Archived from the original on May 12, 2017. Retrieved May 9, 2017.
- "Hulu hits 1 million live TV subscriber mark, debuts new campaign". Retrieved 2018-09-25.
- Dawn C. Chmielewski (26 July 2010). "Hulu's sharp decline in viewership underscores inconsistency in measuring size of online audience". LA Times. Archived from the original on 11 March 2017. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- Schonfeld, Erick (7 February 2011). "ComScore: Hulu Is Watched Twice As Much As The 5 Major TV Networks Online Combined". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on 12 December 2017. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
- Gruenwedel, Erik (May 2, 2018). "Hulu Tops 20 Million Subs, Inks First Deal with DreamWorks Animation". Media Play News. Archived from the original on May 3, 2018. Retrieved May 2, 2018.
- Rebecca Dana and Emily Steel (2008-03-11). "Can Hulu Find Its Mojo With Viewers?". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 2016-01-09. Retrieved 2008-03-19.
- "ABC to offer shows on Hulu". The Live Feed. April 30, 2009. Archived from the original on May 4, 2009. Retrieved December 11, 2017.
- Albanesius, Chloe (18 November 2009). "Hulu, EMI Strike Deal for Music Videos, Concerts". PC Magazine. Archived from the original on 21 November 2009. Retrieved 24 December 2009.
- Albanesius, Chloe (23 December 2009). "Hulu, Warner Music Sign Deal for Music Content". PC Magazine. Archived from the original on 27 December 2009. Retrieved 24 December 2009.
- New York Daily News article: "Comedy Central's 'The Daily Show' and 'The Colbert Report' off Hulu Archived 2010-03-06 at the Wayback Machine.."
- Multichannel News article: "Dauman: Vivendi Could Return To Hulu."
- Mike Fleming Jr (February 8, 2018). "Disney Unveils Inaugural Streaming Service Launch Slate To Town; No R-Rated Fare". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on February 26, 2018. Retrieved April 5, 2018.
- Liz Shannon Miller (2011-01-18). "New Series The Morning After Nudges Hulu Into Production". GigaOM. Archived from the original on 2011-07-21. Retrieved 2011-05-02.
- Rother, Larry, January 16, 2012, "Hulu Announces First Original-Script-Based Program". Archived 2017-10-29 at the Wayback Machine.
- Poggi Jeanine January 27, 2012. Hulu Adds Unscripted Series 'The Fashion Fund,' Accelerating Original Content Effort." Archived 2012-07-10 at Archive.today
- Perez, Sarah (April 19, 2012). "Hulu Announces Four More Original Series". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on October 29, 2017. Retrieved December 11, 2017.
- Wasserman, Todd (May 21, 2012). "Hulu to Launch New Show With Kevin Smith Plus 9 Other Titles". Mashable. Archived from the original on October 29, 2017. Retrieved December 11, 2017.
- Busch, Anita (March 1, 2016). "Lionsgate, Hulu Acquire Comedy 'Joshy'". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on March 2, 2016. Retrieved March 2, 2016.
- "Joshy Sundance 2016 Film Review". The Film Stage. January 26, 2016. Archived from the original on June 16, 2016. Retrieved May 16, 2016.
- Kastrenakes, Jacob (4 May 2016). "Hulu is getting into documentaries, starting with Ron Howard's Beatles film". The Verge. Archived from the original on 7 May 2016. Retrieved 16 May 2016.
- "Watch the Trailer for The Beatles: Eight Days a Week – The Touring Years". The Beatles. Archived from the original on 24 June 2016. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
- "Hulu and South Park Announce Exclusive Multi-Year Content Licensing Deal at 2014 Television Critics Association Summer Press Tour – Business Wire". businesswire.com. Archived from the original on 2017-12-12. Retrieved 2017-12-11.
- "South Park – Watch Full Episodes, Clips & More". southparkstudios.com. Archived from the original on 2014-07-12. Retrieved 2017-12-11.
- "South Park – Watch Full Episodes, Clips & More". cc.com. Archived from the original on 2017-09-27. Retrieved 2017-12-11.
- "Netflix removes South Park and other titles from its library". Know Your Mobile. Archived from the original on 2017-12-12. Retrieved 2017-12-11.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-10-19. Retrieved 2014-09-22.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "South Park – New Site FAQs". cc.com. Archived from the original on 2017-12-12. Retrieved 2017-12-11.
- Smiley, Minda (May 14, 2015). "AT&T strikes deal with Hulu to offer subscription service to its customers". The Drum. Archived from the original on May 18, 2015. Retrieved May 14, 2015.
- Yu, Roger (October 22, 2016). "AT&T agrees to buy Time Warner for more than $80B". USA Today. Archived from the original on October 23, 2016. Retrieved October 22, 2016.
- Gryta, Thomas; Hagey, Keach; Cimilluca, Dana (October 22, 2016). "AT&T Reaches Deal to Buy Time Warner for $86 Billion". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on October 23, 2016. Retrieved October 22, 2016. (Subscription required (help)).
- Littleton, Cynthia (October 22, 2016). "AT&T Sets $85.4 Billion Time Warner Deal, CEOs Talk 'Unique' Potential of Combination". Variety. Archived from the original on October 23, 2016. Retrieved October 23, 2016.
- Kang, Cecilia; Merced, Michael J. de la (November 20, 2017). "Justice Department Sues to Block AT&T-Time Warner Merger". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on December 11, 2017. Retrieved December 11, 2017.
- "Viz Debuts Neon Alley". Archived from the original on 28 June 2016. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
- "Stream Naruto, Sailor Moon & More: VIZ Media Partners with Tubi TV to Deliver Free Anime". Tubi TV. July 21, 2016. Archived from the original on October 24, 2017. Retrieved October 1, 2016.
- Turchiano, Danielle (5 August 2017). "TCA Award Winners: 'The Handmaid's Tale,' 'This Is Us,' 'Atlanta,' Carrie Coon Take Top Honors". Variety. Archived from the original on 4 October 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
- Goldberg, Lesley (5 August 2017). "'Handmaid's Tale' Wins Top Honor at 2017 TCA Awards". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 11 September 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
- Hipes, Patrick; N'Duka, Amanda (17 September 2017). "Hulu's 'The Handmaid's Tale' Win Marks First Best Series Emmy For A Streaming Service". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on 2 October 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
- Stelter, Brian (18 September 2017). "And the top award goes to ... Hulu?". CNN. Archived from the original on 5 October 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
- Chow, Andrew R. (17 September 2017). "Emmys 2017 Winners List". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 6 January 2018. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
- "The complete list of 2017 Emmy winners and nominees". Los Angeles Times. 17 September 2017. Archived from the original on 14 July 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
- "Winners & Nominees 2018". www.goldenglobes.com. Archived from the original on 2018-01-14. Retrieved 2018-01-15.
- "CRITICS' CHOICE DOCUMENTARY AWARDS FEATURED ON CBS SUNDAY MORNING, OCT 29". Critic's Choice. 9 October 2017. Archived from the original on 12 November 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
- "Critics' Choice Documentary Awards: 'O.J.: Made In America' & '13th' Dominate". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on 6 November 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
- "Grammys 2017: Complete list of winners and nominees". Los Angeles Times. 12 February 2017. Archived from the original on 6 December 2016. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
- "'The Beatles: Eight Days a Week' Producer Nigel Sinclair 'Honored' by Best Music Film Grammy Nomination". Billboard. 6 December 2016. Archived from the original on 4 November 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
- Otterson, Joe (17 September 2017). "Hulu Carried to Emmys Glory by Eight Wins for 'Handmaid's Tale'". Variety. Archived from the original on 3 October 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
- Romano, Nick (9 September 2017). "2017 Creative Arts Emmy winners include Carpool Karaoke, RuPaul's Drag Race, SNL". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on 14 October 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
- "68th Emmy Awards Nominees and Winners". Emmys. Archived from the original on 1 October 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
- Lewis, Dave. "Complete list of 2016 Emmy nominations and winners". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 14 July 2016. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
- Nededog, Jethro (10 December 2015). "Hulu just got its first Golden Globes nomination and it's a huge blow to the major networks". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 6 January 2018. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
- Birnbaum, Debra (10 December 2015). "Golden Globes: 'Casual' Comedy Series Nom Marks Hulu's Awards Arrival". Variety. Archived from the original on 25 September 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
- "Why can't I use Hulu internationally?". Hulu.com. Archived from the original on 9 June 2015. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
- Garrahan, Matthew. Hulu eyes launching global pay platform Archived 2015-09-24 at the Wayback Machine., Financial Times, July 8, 2010. Retrieved July 11, 2010.
- Laughlin, Andrew. Hulu 'puts UK launch back on agenda' Archived 2011-09-21 at the Wayback Machine., Digital Spy, July 9, 2010. Retrieved July 11, 2010.
- "Hulu officially launches streaming service in Japan". CNET. 1 September 2011. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
- "Disney Confirms Hulu Will Be Offered Internationally After Fox Purchase". Comicbook.com. Retrieved 8 November 2018.
- "Nippon TV Acquires Hulu Service in Japan". Businesswire. 2014-02-27. Archived from the original on 2017-12-05. Retrieved 2017-12-11.
- "Hulu launches its first overseas operation in Japan". Asia Pacific Arts. 2011-09-01. Archived from the original on 2013-11-02. Retrieved 2011-09-29.
- Mudhar, Raju (4 January 2016). "Why these five well-known online services snub Canada". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on 3 November 2016. Retrieved 1 November 2016.
- "Life Is Just a Game". Answerman (column). Anime News Network. Archived from the original on 28 June 2016. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
- "Mindy Project staying on City despite being dropped by Fox". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on 28 September 2015. Retrieved 27 September 2015.