Lucasfilm Ltd. LLC is an American film and television production company based in the Letterman Digital Arts Center in San Francisco, California. The studio is best known for creating and producing the Star Wars and Indiana Jones franchises, as well as its leadership in developing special effects, sound and computer animation for film. Lucasfilm was founded by filmmaker George Lucas in 1971 in San Rafael, California; most of the company's operations were moved to San Francisco in 2005. The Walt Disney Company acquired Lucasfilm in 2012 at a valuation of $4.06 billion.
|Headquarters||Letterman Digital Arts Center, Presidio of San Francisco, California, United States|
|Products||Motion pictures, television|
Number of employees
|Parent||Walt Disney Studios
(The Walt Disney Company)
Independent era (1971–2012)Edit
On July 8, 2005, Lucasfilm's marketing, online, and licensing units moved into the new Letterman Digital Arts Center located in the Presidio in San Francisco. It shares the complex with Industrial Light & Magic. Lucasfilm had planned an expansion at Skywalker Ranch in Marin County, California, but shelved the plan in 2012 due to opposition from neighbors. However, it still plans to expand elsewhere. Skywalker Sound remains the only Lucasfilm division based at Skywalker Ranch.
In June 2012, it was announced that producer Kathleen Kennedy, a long-term collaborator with Steven Spielberg and a producer of the Indiana Jones films, had been appointed as co-chair of Lucasfilm Ltd. It was reported that Kennedy would work alongside Lucas, who would remain chief executive and serve as co-chairman for at least one year, after which she would succeed him as the company's chairperson, which she did in June 2013.
On September 5, 2012, Micheline Chau, who served as president and COO of Lucasfilm for two decades, announced that she was retiring. With her departure, senior executives for each of the Lucasfilm divisions will report directly to Kathleen Kennedy. Chau was credited with keeping the Lucasfilm and Star Wars brands strong, especially through animation spin-offs and licensing initiatives.
Disney subsidiary (2012–present)Edit
Discussions relating to the possibility of The Walt Disney Company signing a distribution deal with Lucasfilm officially began in May 2011, after a meeting that George Lucas had with Disney CEO Bob Iger during the inauguration of the Star Tours – The Adventures Continue attraction. Lucas told Iger he was considering retirement and planned to sell the company, as well as the Star Wars franchise. On October 30, 2012, Disney announced a deal to acquire Lucasfilm for $4.05 billion, with approximately half in cash and half in shares of Disney stock. Lucasfilm had previously collaborated with the company's Walt Disney Imagineering division to create theme park attractions centered on Star Wars and Indiana Jones for various Walt Disney Parks and Resorts worldwide.
Kathleen Kennedy, co-chairman of Lucasfilm, became president of Lucasfilm, reporting to Walt Disney Studios Chairman Alan Horn. Additionally she serves as the brand manager for Star Wars, working directly with Disney's global lines of business to build, further integrate, and maximize the value of this global franchise. Kennedy serves as producer on new Star Wars feature films, with George Lucas originally announced as serving as creative consultant. The company also announced the future release of new Star Wars films, starting with Star Wars: Episode VII – The Force Awakens in 2015.
Under the deal, Disney acquired ownership of Star Wars, Indiana Jones, and Lucasfilm's operating businesses in live-action film production, consumer products, video games, animation, visual effects, and audio post-production. Disney also acquired Lucasfilm's portfolio of entertainment technologies. The intent was for Lucasfilm employees to remain in their current locations. Star Wars merchandising would begin under Disney in the fiscal year 2014. Starting with Star Wars Rebels, certain products will be co-branded with the Disney name, akin to what Disney has done with Pixar. On December 4, 2012, the Disney-Lucasfilm merger was approved by the Federal Trade Commission, allowing the acquisition to be finalized without dealing with antitrust problems. On December 18, 2012, Lucasfilm Ltd. was reincorporated as Lucasfilm Ltd. LLC, and on December 21, 2012, the deal was announced to be completed, because of which Lucasfilm became a wholly owned subsidiary of Disney.
Iger confirmed that Lucasfilm had plans to have stand-alone Star Wars films with Lawrence Kasdan and Simon Kinberg lined up to develop the movies that would be released sometime during the six-year period the sequel trilogy will be released.
In April 2013, the development arm of the LucasArts division was closed down and most of its staff was laid off. However, LucasArts remained open with a skeleton staff of fewer than ten employees so it could retain its function as a video game licensor. On May 6, 2013, Disney announced an exclusive deal with Electronic Arts to produce Star Wars games for the core gaming market. LucasArts retained the ability to license, and Disney Interactive Studios retained the ability to develop, Star Wars games for the casual gaming market.
20th Century Fox, the original distributor of the first six Star Wars films, still retains the physical distribution rights to the original two Star Wars trilogies, currently owning permanent full distribution rights for the original 1977 film, while also holding the theatrical and home video distribution rights to Episodes I–III, V, and VI until May 2020. On December 14, 2017, Disney agreed to acquire the Fox studio ,which would combine all these rights under its umbrella. Lucasfilm retains the television and digital distribution rights to all the Star Wars films except the original. In December 2013, Walt Disney Studios purchased the distribution and marketing rights to future Indiana Jones films from Paramount Pictures, although the latter studio will retain the distribution rights to the first four films and will receive "financial participation" from any additional films.
On January 3, 2014, Lucasfilm announced that Dark Horse Comics' license for Star Wars comics would end in 2015, and return to fellow Disney subsidiary Marvel Comics. On April 24, 2014, Lucasfilm announced that the Star Wars expanded universe would no longer be explicitly sub canon (but may be drawn upon for future works) and that The Clone Wars and Rebels animated series would be considered canon and future Star Wars projects would be overseen by a new story group to keep to that canon. Additionally, the Star Wars Legends banner would be used for those Expanded Universe materials that are in print. Disney Publishing Worldwide also announced that Del Rey would publish a new line of canon Star Wars books under the Lucasfilm Story Group being released starting in September on a bi-monthly schedule.
- Industrial Light & Magic – visual effects
- Skywalker Sound – post-production sound design
- Lucasfilm Games Team – video games (All internal video game development was halted in April 2013, but it retained its function as a Lucasfilm-branded video game licensor, retaining fewer than 10 employees.)
- Lucasfilm Animation Ltd. LLC – animation
- Lucasfilm Animation Singapore
- Lucas Licensing – licensing and merchandising
- Lucas Online – websites
- Lucasfilm Story Group (2012–) The first two revealed members were Pablo Hidalgo and Leland Chee, headed by Kiri Hart as Lucasfilm's SVP, Development.
- Kerner Optical – Practical effects division (model shop) and 3D development team (spun off from ILM in 2006 and subsequently went bankrupt in 2011)
- Pixar Animation Studios – Computer animation film production company that was sold to Steve Jobs in 1986. It became a subsidiary of The Walt Disney Company in 2006, six years prior to the Disney acquisition of Lucasfilm.
- THX Ltd. – Theater sound system (spun off from Lucasfilm in 2001) Creative Technology owned 60% of THX, and then sold to Razer Inc. in 2016.
Under George Lucas (before 2015)Edit
|1973||American Graffiti||George Lucas||George Lucas, Gloria Katz and Willard Huyck||Universal Pictures||$777,000||$140 million|
|1977||Star Wars||George Lucas||20th Century Fox1||$11 million||$775.4 million|
|1979||More American Graffiti||Bill L. Norton||Universal Studios||$3 million||$15 million|
|1980||The Empire Strikes Back||Irvin Kershner||George Lucas||Leigh Brackett and Lawrence Kasdan||20th Century Fox2||$33 million||$538.4 million|
|1981||Raiders of the Lost Ark||Steven Spielberg||George Lucas and Philip Kaufman||Lawrence Kasdan||Paramount Pictures||$18 million||$389.9 million|
|1983||Return of the Jedi||Richard Marquand||George Lucas||Lawrence Kasdan and George Lucas||20th Century Fox2||$42.7 million||$572.1 million|
|Twice Upon a Time||John Korty and Charles Swenson||John Korty, Bill Couturié and Suella Kennedy||John Korty, Charles Swenson, Suella Kennedy and Bill Couturié||Warner Bros.||Unknown|
|1984||Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom||Steven Spielberg||George Lucas||Willard Huyck and Gloria Katz||Paramount Pictures||$28.2 million||$333.1 million|
|1985||Latino||Haskell Wexler||Cinecom Pictures||Unknown|
|Mishima: A Life in Four Chapters||Paul Schrader||Leonard Schrader and Paul Schrader||Warner Bros.||$5 million||$20,758|
|1986||Labyrinth||Jim Henson||Dennis Lee and Jim Henson||Terry Jones||TriStar Pictures||$27.68 million||$11.6 million|
|Howard the Duck||Willard Huyck||Willard Huyck and Gloria Katz||Universal Pictures||$37 million||$48 million|
|1988||Willow||Ron Howard||George Lucas||Bob Dolman||Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer||$35 million||$57.3 million|
|Tucker: The Man and His Dream||Francis Ford Coppola||Arnold Schulman and David Seidler||Paramount Pictures||$24 million||$19.7 million|
|The Land Before Time||Don Bluth||Judy Freudberg and Tony Geiss||Stu Krieger||Universal Pictures||$12.5 million||$84.4 million|
|1989||Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade||Steven Spielberg||George Lucas and Menno Meyjes||Jeffrey Boam||Paramount Pictures||$48 million||$474.2 million|
|1994||Radioland Murders||Mel Smith||George Lucas||Willard Huyck, Gloria Katz, Jeff Reno and Ron Osborn||Universal Pictures||$15 million||$1.3 million|
|1999||Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace||George Lucas||20th Century Fox2||$115 million||$1.027 billion|
|2002||Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones||George Lucas||George Lucas and Jonathan Hales||$115 million||$649.4 million|
|2005||Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith||George Lucas||$113 million||$848.8 million|
|2008||Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull||Steven Spielberg||George Lucas and Jeff Nathanson||David Koepp||Paramount Pictures||$185 million||$786.6 million|
|Star Wars: The Clone Wars||Dave Filoni||Henry Gilroy, Steven Melching and Scott Murphy||Warner Bros.||$8.5 million||$68.3 million|
|2012||Red Tails||Anthony Hemingway||John Ridley||John Ridley and Aaron McGruder||20th Century Fox||$58 million||$50.4 million|
|2015||Strange Magic||Gary Rydstrom||George Lucas||David Berenbaum, Irene Mecchi and Gary Rydstrom||Walt Disney Studios
|$70-$100 million||$13.6 million|
Under Kathleen Kennedy (since 2015)Edit
|2015||Star Wars: The Force Awakens||J. J. Abrams||Lawrence Kasdan, J. J. Abrams and Michael Arndt||Walt Disney Studios
|$306 million||$2.068 billion|
|2016||Rogue One: A Star Wars Story||Gareth Edwards||John Knoll and Gary Whitta||Chris Weitz and Tony Gilroy||$265 million||$1.056 billion|
|2017||Star Wars: The Last Jedi||Rian Johnson|
|2018||Solo: A Star Wars Story||Ron Howard||Lawrence Kasdan and Jon Kasdan||Walt Disney Studios
|2019||Star Wars: Episode IX||J.J. Abrams||Colin Trevorrow, Derek Connolly and Jack Thorne (will remain credited)||J.J Abrams and Chris Terrio||Development|
|2020||Indiana Jones 5||Steven Spielberg||David Koepp|
|Untitled Anthology film||Unknown|
|TBA||Untitled Star Wars Trilogy: Part I.||Rian Johnson|
|Untitled Star Wars Trilogy: Part II.|
|Untitled Star Wars Trilogy: Part III.|
- Maniac Mansion (1990–1993)
- The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles (1992–1996)
- Untitled Star Wars TV-Series (2019)
- Star Wars: Droids (1985–1986) (Co-production Nelvana)
- Star Wars: Ewoks (1985–1987) (Co-production Nelvana)
- Star Wars: Clone Wars (2003–2005) (Co-production Cartoon Network Studios)
- Star Wars: The Clone Wars (2008–2014)
- Star Wars Rebels (2014–present)
- Star Wars Forces of Destiny (2017)
- Star Wars Detours (shelved)
Television films and specialsEdit
- Star Wars Holiday Special (1978) (uncredited)
- Caravan of Courage: An Ewok Adventure (1984)
- Ewoks: The Battle for Endor (1985)
- The Great Heep (1986)
- Defenders of Dynatron City (1992) (produced by DIC Entertainment in association with LucasArts)
- The Making of Star Wars (1977) (produced in association with 20th Century Fox Television)1
- SP FX: The Empire Strikes Back (1980) (produced in association with 20th Century Fox Television)
- Return of the Ewok (1982)
- Classic Creatures: Return of the Jedi (1983) (produced in association with 20th Century Fox Television)
- From Star Wars to Jedi: The Making of a Saga (1983) (produced in association with 20th Century Fox Television)
- The Adventures of André and Wally B. (1984)
- Captain EO (1986)
- Star Tours (1987)
- ExtraTERRORestrial Alien Encounter (1995)
- Indiana Jones Adventure (1995)
- R2-D2: Beneath the Dome (2001)
- Empire of Dreams: The Story of the Star Wars Trilogy (2004) (produced by Prometheus Entertainment in association with Fox Television Studios)
- Lego Star Wars shorts:
- Star Wars: The Legacy Revealed (2007) (produced by Prometheus Entertainment in association with The History Channel)
- Lego Indiana Jones and the Raiders of the Lost Brick (2008)
- Star Tours–The Adventures Continue (2011)
- All 7 episodes of Lego Star Wars: The Yoda Chronicles (2013, 2014)
- Lego Star Wars: Droid Tales (2015)
- Lego Star Wars: The Resistance Rises (2016)
- Lego Star Wars: The Freemaker Adventures (2016–present)
- Star Wars Blips (2017) (animated shorts)
- ^ Although the theatrical and home video distribution rights to all other Star Wars films were to be transferred to Walt Disney Studios by May 2020, 20th Century Fox was to continue to own theatrical, home video, digital, and broadcast distribution rights to the first film for the foreseeable future. On December 14, 2017, the Walt Disney Company announced it is acquiring most of Fox's parent company, 21st Century Fox, including the film studio.
- ^ Physical distribution rights were to be transferred from 20th Century Fox to the Walt Disney Studios in May 2020. (Disney has now agreed to acquire 20th Century Fox so this transfer may occur sooner). The digital distribution rights are held by Disney, as Lucasfilm had retained the digital distribution rights to all Star Wars films produced after the original.
- Cohen, David (June 5, 2014). "Industrial Light & Magic President Brennan Promoted to General Manager of Lucasfilm Exec". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved June 7, 2014.
- Lev-Ram, Michal (September 10, 2015). "How Star Wars producer Kathleen Kennedy went from secretary to boss". Fortune. Time. Retrieved December 30, 2015.
- The Walt Disney Company. "The Walt Disney Company Completes Lucasfilm Acquisition (press release)" (Press release). Retrieved January 26, 2013.
- "Industrial Light & Film". Retrieved November 4, 2012.
- Schou, Solvej (December 21, 2012). "Mickey meets 'Star Wars': Walt Disney Co. completes acquisition of Lucasfilm". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved December 22, 2012.
- Moss, Stuart (2009). The Entertainment Industry. Wallingford, UK: cab international. p. 89. ISBN 9781845935511.
- "Business Search - Business Entities - Business Programs - California Secretary of State". businesssearch.sos.ca.gov. Retrieved December 13, 2017.
- Onishi, Norimitsu (May 21, 2012). "Lucas and Rich Neighbors Agree to Disagree: Part II". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 24, 2012. Retrieved August 29, 2015.
- Lev-Ram, Michal (November 1, 2015). "Behind the scenes at Lucasfilm's Skywalker Sound". Fortune. Retrieved November 2, 2015.
- Fischer, Russ (January 17, 2012). "George Lucas Ready to Retire From Blockbuster Filmmaking". /Film. Retrieved January 17, 2012.
- Yamato, Jen (January 17, 2012). "George Lucas Promises Retirement (From Blockbusters... Not Counting Indiana Jones 5)". Movie Line. Retrieved January 17, 2012.
- Richard Verrier and Ben Fritz, "Kathleen Kennedy to helm Lucasfilm as George Lucas phases out", Los Angeles Times, June 2, 2012. Retrieved September 27, 2012.
- Gregg Kilday, "Longtime Lucasfilm President and COO Micheline Chau Retiring", The Hollywood Reporter, September 5, 2012, Retrieved December 25, 2012.
- Leonard, David (March 7, 2013). "How Disney Bought Lucasfilm—and Its Plans for 'Star Wars'". Bloomberg Businessweek. p. 3. Retrieved June 6, 2013.
- "Never mind about Star Wars 7. Who is going to be Bob Iger's No. 2?". Jim Hill Media. October 30, 2012. Retrieved November 1, 2012.
- Burr, Ty (November 3, 2012). "What to expect when Disney buys 'Star Wars'". The Boston Globe. Retrieved November 4, 2012.
- "Disney to Acquire Lucasfilm for $4 Billion". ABC News. October 30, 2012. Retrieved March 22, 2015.
- "Disney purchases Lucasfilm, announces new Star Wars". 3 News. October 30, 2012. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
- "New Star Wars Movies announced as Disney enters agreement to acquire Lucasfilm Ltd". starwars.com. Lucasfilm. October 30, 2012. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
- Oldham, Stuart (October 30, 2012). "READ: Disney chief Bob Iger's internal memo to staff: 'Lucasfilm fits perfectly with Disney's strategic priorities'". Variety. Retrieved February 20, 2016.
- Smith, Ethan (October 30, 2012). "Mickey, Darth Vader Join Forces in $4.05 Billion Deal". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
- "Fiscal Year 2013 Annual Financial Report and Shareholder Letter" (PDF). The Walt Disney Company. February 3, 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 7, 2014. Retrieved April 17, 2015.
- "Walt Disney Confirms J.J. Abrams Will Direct New 'Star Wars'". The Wall Street Journal. January 26, 2013. Retrieved January 26, 2013.
- Sampson, Mike (October 15, 2015). "There Will Be No Disney Logo Before 'Star Wars: The Force Awakens'". ScreenCrush.
- Acuna, Kirsten (November 9, 2012). "Here's What Disney CEO Bob Iger Says He Wants To Do With 'Star Wars'". Business Insider. Retrieved November 22, 2012.
- Patten, Dominic (December 4, 2012). "Disney-Lucasfilm Deal Cleared By Feds". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved December 5, 2012.
- "Business Search - Business Entities - Business Programs - California Secretary of State". businesssearch.sos.ca.gov. Retrieved December 13, 2017.
- Zakarin, Jordan (February 5, 2013). "It's Official: 'Star Wars' Stand-Alone Films From Lawrence Kasdan, Simon Kinberg in Development". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved February 6, 2013.
- Shaw, Lucas (April 3, 2013). "LucasArts to Cease Making Games, Will Lay Off Most of Staff". The Wrap. Retrieved April 3, 2013.
- Neal, Ryan W. (April 3, 2013). "Disney Closes LucasArts, Video Game Arm of LucasFilm, Cancels Star Wars Games". International Business Times. Retrieved April 3, 2013.
- "Disney to Shut LucasArts Videogame Unit". The Wall Street Journal. April 3, 2013. Retrieved April 18, 2013.
- "EA takes helm from LucasArts, will exclusively develop future 'Star Wars' games". The Verge. May 6, 2013. Retrieved May 6, 2013.
- "We're probably all about EA". The International House of Mojo. May 6, 2013. Retrieved May 6, 2013.
- Masters, Kim (October 30, 2012). "Tangled Rights Could Tie Up Ultimate 'Star Wars' Box Set (Analysis)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
- "The Walt Disney Company FY 2013 SEC Form 10-K Filing" (PDF). The Walt Disney Company. November 20, 2013. p. 13. Retrieved April 17, 2015.
Prior to the Company's acquisition, Lucasfilm produced six Star Wars films (Episodes 1 through 6). Lucasfilm retained the rights to consumer products related to all of the films and the rights related to television and electronic distribution formats for all of the films, with the exception of the rights for Episode 4, which are owned by a third-party studio. All of the films are distributed by a third-party studio in the theatrical and home video markets. The theatrical and home video distribution rights for these films revert to Lucasfilm in May 2020 with the exception of Episode 4, for which these distribution rights are retained in perpetuity by the third-party studio.
- Kroll, Justin (December 6, 2013). "Disney Acquires Rights to Future 'Indiana Jones' Movies". Variety. Retrieved December 6, 2013.
- Faughnder, Ryan (December 6, 2013). "Disney acquires control of future 'Indiana Jones' movies". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 7, 2013.
- Clark, Noelene; Blake Hennon (January 3, 2014). "'Star Wars' comics leaving Dark Horse, returning to Marvel in 2015". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 4, 2014.
- McMillan, Graeme (April 25, 2014). "Lucasfilm Unveils New Plans for 'Star Wars' Expanded Universe". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved April 25, 2014.
While Lucasfilm always strived to keep the stories created for the EU consistent with our film and television content as well as internally consistent, [Franchise creator George Lucas] always made it clear that he was not beholden to the EU,
- McMillan, Graeme (April 25, 2014). "Disney, Del Rey to Launch New 'Star Wars' Book Line". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved April 25, 2014.
- "Tiny Death Star Available For Android". The International House of Mojo. October 11, 2013. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- Droege, DB. "The future of Star Wars comics under Disney". TG Daily. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
- "Welcome to Lucasfilm". Lucasfilm Recruiting. Lucasfilm. Retrieved April 25, 2014.
- DiLeo, Adam (January 7, 2014). "Lucasfilm Ltd. / 7 Jan 2014 Lucasfilm Story Group to Ensure Star Wars Continuity Across All Platforms". IGN. Ziff Daviis. Retrieved December 22, 2015.
- Siegel, Tatiana (December 9, 2015). "Inside the 'Star Wars' Writers Room: Meet the 5 Architects of the Franchise". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved December 22, 2015.
- Shelby Hill, Steven Gaydos (September 30, 2011). "Accusations fly in Kerner bankruptcy". Variety. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- Crabtree, Sheigh (June 12, 2002). "Lucas' THX stakes out new galaxy". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on August 11, 2002. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- Hoppel, Adrian (March 20, 2013). "Law & Apple: iFone Defeats iPhone, THX Targets Apple". MacLife. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- Contribution, User (2017-01-10). "Review: Strange Magic, an underrated animated musical from Lucasfilm". ScreenAnarchy. Retrieved 2017-07-09.
- Rainey, James (July 7, 2015). "Han Solo to Get 'Star Wars' Standalone Film from '21 Jump Street' Directors". Variety. Retrieved July 8, 2015.
- Rebecca, Ford (August 15, 2015). "'Star Wars: Episode IX' Sets 'Jurassic World' Director Colin Trevorrow to Helm". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved August 16, 2015.
- "Spielberg and Ford Reunite as Indiana Jones Returns to Theaters July 19, 2019". The Walt Disney Company. March 15, 2016. Retrieved March 15, 2016.
- "Steven Spielberg Enlists a Familiar Writer for 'Indiana Jones 5' (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. March 18, 2016. Retrieved March 18, 2016.
- Breznican, Anthony (August 13, 2015). "Star Wars anthology: How young will Han Solo be?". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
- Star Wars (May 3, 2017). "Lightsaber - Star Wars Blips". Retrieved December 13, 2017 – via YouTube.
- "The Walt Disney Company To Acquire Twenty-First Century Fox, Inc., After Spinoff Of Certain Businesses, For $52.4 Billion In Stock" (Press release). The Walt Disney Company. December 14, 2017. Archived from the original on December 14, 2017. Retrieved December 14, 2017. Additional Wayback Machine archive, December 14, 2017.
- Vlessing, Etan (April 6, 2015). "'Star Wars' Movie Franchise Headed to Digital HD". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved April 7, 2015.