Labyrinth (1986 film)
Labyrinth is a 1986 musical fantasy film directed by Jim Henson, with George Lucas as executive producer, based upon conceptual designs by Brian Froud. It revolves around 16-year-old Sarah's (Jennifer Connelly) quest to reach the center of an enormous otherworldly maze to rescue her infant half-brother Toby, whom Sarah accidentally wished away to Jareth, the Goblin King (David Bowie). Most of the film's main characters, apart from Bowie and Connelly, are played by puppets produced by Jim Henson's Creature Shop.
|Directed by||Jim Henson|
|Screenplay by||Terry Jones|
|Produced by||Eric Rattray|
|Edited by||John Grover|
|Music by||Trevor Jones|
|Box office||$12.9 million (US only)|
The film started as a collaboration between Henson and Froud following their previous collaboration The Dark Crystal (1982). Terry Jones of Monty Python wrote the first draft of the film's script early in 1984, drawing on Froud's sketches for inspiration. Various other scriptwriters rewrote it and added to it, including Laura Phillips, Lucas, Dennis Lee, and Elaine May—although Jones received the film's sole screenwriting credit. It was shot from April to September 1985 on location in Upper Nyack, Piermont, and Haverstraw, New York, and at Elstree Studios and West Wycombe Park in the United Kingdom.
The New York Times reported that Labyrinth had a budget of $25 million. The film was a box office disappointment, grossing $12.9 million during its U.S. theatrical run. It was the last feature film Henson directed, and the poor reception contributed to a difficult period of Henson's career, according to his son Brian Henson. It was first met with a mixed critical response upon its release but over the years, it has been re-evaluated by critics and gained a large cult following. Tokyopop published the four-volume comic sequel Return to Labyrinth between 2006 and 2010. In January 2016, it was announced that a sequel was in development, which screenwriter Nicole Perlman described as more of a "spin-off" in the same fictional universe.
16-year-old Sarah Williams recites from a book titled The Labyrinth in the park with her dog Merlin but is unable to remember the last line while being watched by a barn owl. Realizing she is late to babysit her baby half-brother Toby, she rushes home and is confronted by her stepmother Irene, who then leaves for dinner with Sarah's father Robert. Sarah finds Toby in possession of her treasured childhood teddy bear, Lancelot. Frustrated by this and his constant crying, Sarah rashly wishes Toby be taken away by the goblins from the book. She is shocked when Toby disappears and Jareth, the Goblin King, appears. He offers Sarah her dreams in exchange for the baby, but she refuses, having instantly regretted her wish. Jareth reluctantly gives Sarah 13 hours to solve his labyrinth and find Toby before he is turned into a goblin forever. Sarah meets a dwarfish man named Hoggle, who aids her in entering the labyrinth. She has trouble finding her way at first, but meets a talking worm who inadvertently sends her in the wrong direction.
Sarah ends up in an oubliette, where she reunites with Hoggle. After they are confronted by Jareth and escape one of his traps, the two encounter a large beast named Ludo. Hoggle flees in a cowardly fashion, while Sarah befriends Ludo after freeing him from a trap, but she loses him in a forest. Hoggle encounters Jareth, who gives him an enchanted peach and instructs him to give it to Sarah, calling his loyalty into question, as he was supposed to take her back to the beginning of the labyrinth. Sarah is harassed by a group of creatures called Fierys, but Hoggle comes to her aid. Thankful, she kisses him, and they fall into a trapdoor that sends them to a flatulent swamp called the Bog of Eternal Stench, where they reunite with Ludo. The trio meet the guard of the swamp, Sir Didymus, who is an anthropomorphic fox terrier, and his sheepdog "steed" Ambrosius. After Ludo summons a trail of rocks to save Sarah from falling into the bog, Didymus joins the group. When the group gets hungry, Hoggle reluctantly gives Sarah the peach and runs away as she falls into a trance and forgets her quest. She has a dream where Jareth comes to her at a masquerade ball, proclaiming his love for her, but she rebuffs him and escapes, falling into a junkyard. After an old Junk Lady fails to brainwash her, she is rescued by Ludo and Didymus, outside the Goblin City of Jareth's castle. They are confronted by the humongous robotic gate guard, but Hoggle bravely comes to their rescue. Despite his feeling unworthy of forgiveness for his betrayal, Sarah and the others welcome him back, finally accepting him as a friend, and they enter the city together.
Jareth is alerted to the group's presence and sends his goblin army to stop them, but Ludo summons a multitude of rocks to chase the goblins away, and they enter the castle. Sarah insists she must face Jareth alone and promises to call the others if needed. In a room modelled after M. C. Escher's Relativity, she confronts Jareth while trying to retrieve Toby. She recites the lines from her book that mirror her adventure to that point, but she still cannot remember the last line. As Jareth offers Sarah her dreams, she remembers the line, "You have no power over me!" Defeated at the last second, Jareth returns Sarah and Toby home safely and turns back into the barn owl, flying away.
Realizing how important Toby is to her, Sarah gives him Lancelot and returns to her room. As her father and stepmother return home, she sees her friends in the mirror and admits even though she has grown up, she still needs them in her life every now and again. In an instant, a number of the characters from the Labyrinth appear in her room for a raucous celebration, and she reunites with all of her friends. As they celebrate, Jareth, in his owl form, watches from outside and then flies into the moonlight.
- David Bowie as Jareth, the king of the goblins.
- Jennifer Connelly as Sarah Williams, a 16-year-old girl who searches through the labyrinth to find her baby brother.
- Toby Froud as Toby Williams, Sarah's baby half-brother.
- Christopher Malcolm as Robert, Sarah and Toby's father.
- Shelley Thompson as Irene, Toby's mother and Sarah's stepmother.
- Denise Bryer as the Junk Lady
- Natalie Finland as the Labyrinth Fairies, a bunch of deceitful barefoot fairies that reside in the labyrinth.
- Juggler Michael Moschen performed Jareth's elaborate crystal-ball contact juggling manipulations.
|Shari Weiser (in body suit)|
|with Rob Mills|
|Sir Didymus||Dave Goelz
with David Barclay
|The Worm||Karen Prell||Timothy Bateson|
|The Wiseman||Frank Oz||Michael Hordern|
|The Hat||Dave Goelz||David Shaughnessy|
|The Junk Lady||Karen Prell||Denise Bryer|
|The Four Guards||Steve Whitmire||Anthony Jackson|
|Right Door Knocker||Anthony Asbury||David Healy|
|Left Door Knocker||Dave Goelz||Robert Beatty|
|Fiery #1||Kevin Clash|
|with David Barclay & Toby Philpott|
|Fiery #2||Karen Prell
with Ron Mueck & Ian Thom
|Fiery #3||Dave Goelz
with Rob Mills & Sherry Ammott
|Fiery #4||Steve Whitmire
with Cheryl Henson & Kevin Bradshaw
|Fiery #5||Anthony Asbury
with Alistair Fullarton & Rollin Krewson
|Ambrosius||Steve Whitmire||Percy Edwards|
|Goblins||Don Austen, Michael Bayliss
Martin Bridle, Fiona Beynor Brown
Simon Buckley, David Bulbeck. Sue Dacre
Geoff Felix, Trevor Freeborn
Christine Glanville, David Greenaway
Brian James, Jan King, Ronnie Le Drew
Terry Lee, Christopher Leith,
Kathryn Mullen, Angie Passmore
Michael Petersen, Nigel Plaskitt
Judy Preece, Michael Quinn
Gillie Robic, David Rudman
David Showler, Robin Stevens
Ian Tregonning, Mary Turner
Robert Tygner, Mak Wilson
|Michael Attwell, Sean Barrett,
Timothy Bateson, Douglas Blackwell,
Anthony Jackson, Peter Marinker,
Goblin Corps performed by Marc Antona, Kenny Baker, Michael Henbury Ballan, Danny Blackner, Peter Burroughs, Toby Clark, Tessa Crockett, Warwick Davis, Malcolm Dixon, Anthony Georghiou, Paul Grant, Andrew Herd, Richard Jones, John Key, Mark Lisle, Peter Mandell, Jack Purvis, Katie Purvis, Nicholas Read, Linda Spriggs, Penny Stead, and Albert Wilkinson.
I think what we are trying to do with this film is kind of harken back to a lot of those classic fantasy adventures that a young girl goes into: The Wizard of Oz, Alice in Wonderland and the works of Maurice Sendak. I don't mind comparisons. It's not like we are trying to out do them. We are simply related — The Wizard of Oz and Alice in Wonderland are so much a part of us. This is the fantasy world that she (the Labyrinth heroine) has grown up with. These are the stories that have fascinated her.
Richard Corliss noted that the film appeared to have been influenced by The Wizard of Oz and the works of Maurice Sendak, writing, "Labyrinth lures a modern Dorothy Gale out of the drab Kansas of real life into a land where the wild things are." Nina Darnton of The New York Times wrote that the plot of Labyrinth "is very similar to Outside Over There by Mr. Sendak, in which 9-year-old Ida's baby sister is stolen by the goblins". This almost got the film into legal trouble, as the similarity caused Sendak's lawyers to advise Jim Henson to stop production on the film. However, the legal complaint was eventually settled, with an end credit being added that states, "Jim Henson acknowledges his debt to the works of Maurice Sendak." Sendak's Outside Over There and Where the Wild Things Are are shown briefly in Sarah's room at the start of the film, along with copies of Alice in Wonderland, The Wizard of Oz, and Grimms' Fairy Tales.
The film's concept designer Brian Froud has stated that the character of Jareth was influenced by a diverse range of literary sources. In his afterword to the 20th-anniversary edition of The Goblins of Labyrinth, Froud wrote that Jareth references "the romantic figures of Heathcliff in Wuthering Heights and a brooding Rochester from Jane Eyre" and The Scarlet Pimpernel. Bowie's costumes were intentionally eclectic, drawing on the image of Marlon Brando's leather jacket from The Wild One as well as that of a knight "with the worms of death eating through his armour" from Grimms' Fairy Tales. In his audio commentary of Labyrinth, Froud said that Jareth also has influences from Kabuki theatre.
The dialogue starting with phrase, "you remind me of the babe" that occurs between Jareth and the goblins, in the Magic Dance sequence in the film, is a direct reference to an exchange between Cary Grant and Shirley Temple in the 1947 film The Bachelor and the Bobby-Soxer.
Labyrinth's "Escher scene", which features an elaborate three-dimensional staircase set, was inspired by the art of Dutch artist M. C. Escher. A print of Escher's lithograph Relativity is shown on Sarah's bedroom wall in the film.
Origins and scriptEdit
According to the film's conceptual designer Brian Froud, Labyrinth was first discussed between himself and director Jim Henson. Both agreed to work on another project together, and Froud suggested that the film should feature goblins. On the same journey, Froud "pictured a baby surrounded by goblins" and this strong visual image – along with Froud's insight that goblins traditionally steal babies – provided the basis for the film's plot.
Discussing the film's origins, Henson explained that he and Froud "wanted to do a lighter weight picture, with more of a sense of comedy since Dark Crystal got kind of heavy – heavier than we had intended. Now I wanted to do a film with the characters having more personality, and interacting more."
Labyrinth was being seriously discussed as early as March 1983, when Henson held a meeting with Froud and children's author Dennis Lee. Lee was tasked with writing a novella on which a script could be based, submitting it at the end of 1983. Henson approached Terry Jones to write the film's script as "his daughter Lisa had just read Erik the Viking and suggested that he try me as screen-writer." Jones was given Dennis Lee's novella to use as a basis for his script, but later told Empire that Lee had produced an unfinished "poetic novella" that he "didn't really get on with." In light of this, Jones "discarded it and sat down with Brian [Froud]'s drawings and sifted through them and found the ones that I really liked, and started creating the story from them."
While Jones is credited with writing the screenplay, the shooting script was actually a collaborative effort that featured contributions from Henson, George Lucas, Laura Phillips, and Elaine May. Jones has said that the finished film differs greatly from his original vision. According to Jones, "I didn't feel that it was very much mine. I always felt it fell between two stories, Jim wanted it to be one thing and I wanted it to be about something else." Jones has said his version of the script was "about the world, and about people who are more interested in manipulating the world than actually baring themselves at all." In Jones' original script, Jareth merely seems "all powerful to begin with" and is actually using the Labyrinth to "keep people from getting to his heart."
Jones has said that Bowie's involvement in the project had a significant impact on the direction taken with the film. Jones had originally intended for the audience not to see the center of the Labyrinth prior to Sarah's reaching it, as he felt that doing so robbed the film of a significant 'hook.' With the thought of Bowie starring in the film in mind, Henson decided he wanted Jareth to sing and appear throughout the film, something Jones considered to be the "wrong" decision. Despite his misgivings, Jones re-wrote the script to allow for songs to be performed throughout the film. This draft of the script "went away for about a year", during which time it was re-drafted first by Phillips and subsequently by Lucas.
An early draft of the script attributed to Jones and Phillips is markedly different from the finished film. The early script has Jareth enter Sarah's house in the guise of Robin Zakar, the author of a play she is due to perform in. Sarah does not wish for her brother to be taken away by the goblins, and Jareth snatches him away against her will. Jareth is overtly villainous in this draft of the script, and during his final confrontation with Sarah he tells her he would "much rather have a Queen" than "a little goblin prince." The early script ends with Sarah kicking Jareth in disgust, her blows causing him to transform into a powerless, sniveling goblin. In the extensive junkyard scene, Jareth operates the Junk Lady as a puppet, whereas in the film she is autonomous. There is actually a pub or bar in the Labyrinth where the Man with Hat and Hoggle gather, and the river Lethe in Greek myth is mentioned. As well, the ballroom scene features extensive dialogue between Jareth and Sarah, whereas in the film there is none (although there is in the novelization by A. C. H. Smith), and the goings-on with the dancers in the ballroom are more overtly sexualized.
The re-drafted script was sent to Bowie, who found that it lacked humor and considered withdrawing his involvement in the project as a result. To ensure Bowie's involvement, Henson asked Jones to "do a bit more" to the script in order to make it more humorous. May met with Henson several months prior to the start of filming in April 1985, and was asked to polish the script. May's changes "humanized the characters" and pleased Henson to the extent that they were incorporated into the film's shooting script.
At least twenty-five treatments and scripts were drafted for Labyrinth between 1983 and 1985, and the film's shooting script was only ready shortly before filming began.
The protagonist of the film was, at different stages of its development, going to be a King whose baby had been put under an enchantment, a princess from a fantasy world, and a young girl from Victorian England. In order to make the film more commercial, they made the lead a teenage girl from contemporary America. Henson noted that he wished to "make the idea of taking responsibility for one's life – which is one of the neat realizations a teenager experiences – a central thought of the film."
Auditions for the lead role of Sarah began in England in April 1984. Helena Bonham Carter auditioned for the role, but was passed over in favor of an American actress. Monthly auditions were held in the U.S. until January 1985, and Jane Krakowski, Yasmine Bleeth, Sarah Jessica Parker, Marisa Tomei, Laura Dern, Ally Sheedy, Maddie Corman, and Mia Sara all auditioned for the role. Of these, Krakowski, Sheedy and Corman were considered to be the top candidates. 14-year-old actress Jennifer Connelly "won Jim [Henson] over" and he cast her within a week. According to Henson, Connelly was chosen as she "could act that kind of dawn-twilight time between childhood and womanhood." Connelly moved to England in February 1985 in advance of the film's rehearsals, which began in March. Discussing her understanding of her role with Elle, Connelly said that the film is about "a young girl growing out of her childhood, who is just now becoming aware of the responsibilities that come with growing up."
The character of Jareth also underwent some significant developments during the early stages of pre-production. According to Henson he was originally meant to be another puppet creature in the same vein as his goblin subjects. Deciding that the role should be filled by a live actor, Henson initially considered offering it to Simon MacCorkindale or Kevin Kline. Henson eventually wanted a big, charismatic star "who could change the film's whole musical style" to play the Goblin King, and sought a contemporary musician for the role, considering Sting, Prince, Mick Jagger, and Michael Jackson before choosing Bowie.
"I wanted to put two characters of flesh and bone in the middle of all these artificial creatures," Henson explained, "and David Bowie embodies a certain maturity, with his sexuality, his disturbing aspect, all sorts of things that characterize the adult world". Henson met David Bowie in the summer of 1983 to seek his involvement, as Bowie was in the U.S. for his Serious Moonlight Tour at the time. Henson continued to pursue Bowie for the role of Jareth, and sent him each revised draft of the film's script for his comments. During a meeting that took place on June 18, 1984, Henson showed Bowie The Dark Crystal and a selection of Brian Froud's concept drawings to pique his interest in the project. Bowie formally agreed to take part on February 15, 1985, several months before filming began. Discussing why he chose to be involved in the film, Bowie explained, "I'd always wanted to be involved in the music-writing aspect of a movie that would appeal to children of all ages, as well as everyone else, and I must say that Jim gave me a completely free hand with it. The script itself was terribly amusing without being vicious or spiteful or bloody, and it had a lot more heart in it than many other special effects movies. So I was pretty hooked from the beginning."
Gates McFadden was originally offered the role of Sarah's mother by Henson, and she signed up to do the choreography as well, but due to British labor laws, she was not allowed to act in the movie, and had to accept the choreography role alone. She said, "Even though that was the reason I took the job and had, for two years, been thinking that was what was going to happen. They would not allow us."
The team that worked on Labyrinth was largely assembled from talent who had been involved in various other projects with the Jim Henson Company. Veteran performers Frank Oz, Dave Goelz, and Steve Whitmire operated various puppets in the film, as did Karen Prell, Ron Mueck and Rob Mills who had all worked with Henson on Fraggle Rock. Kevin Clash, a crew member on Sesame Street best known for performing the character Elmo, worked on the film. Members of Henson's family also worked on the production, including son Brian and daughter Cheryl. Newcomers working on the production included puppeteers Angie Passmore, Nigel Plaskitt and Anthony Asbury, who had previously worked on the satirical puppet show Spitting Image.
Principal photography began on April 15, 1985, at Elstree Studios. Labyrinth took five months to film, and was a complicated shoot due to the various puppets and animatronic creatures involved. In the making-of documentary Inside the Labyrinth, Henson stated that although Jim Henson's Creature Shop had been building the puppets and characters required for around a year and a half prior to shooting, "everything came together in the last couple weeks." Henson noted, "even if you have the characters together, the puppeteers start working with them, they find problems or they try to figure out what they're going to do with these characters."
Although each of the film's key puppets required a small team of puppeteers to operate it, the most complex puppet of the production was Hoggle. Shari Weiser was inside the costume, while Hoggle's face was radio-controlled by Brian Henson and three additional puppeteers. Speaking in the Inside the Labyrinth documentary, Brian Henson explained that Weiser "does all the body movement and her head is inside the head. However, the jaw is not connected to her jaw. Nothing that the face is doing has any connection with what she's doing with her face. The other four members of the crew are all radio crew, myself included." Speaking of the challenges involved with performing Hoggle, Brian Henson said, "five performers trying to get one character out of one puppet was a very tough thing. Basically what it takes is a lot of rehearsing and getting to know each other." Similarly challenging was Ludo, the film's big, ogre-like monster, whose original build weighed over 100 pounds. Since it would've been too exhausting for one performer, Ron Mueck, to inhabit the 75-pound suit for all of his scenes, Henson decided to have Mueck and Rob Mills exchange performances inside Ludo, as they had practically the same size and body shape.
At the early stages of filming, stars Connelly and Bowie found it difficult to interact naturally with the puppets they shared most of their scenes with. Bowie said, "I had some initial problems working with Hoggle and the rest because, for one thing, what they say doesn't come from their mouths, but from the side of the set, or from behind you." Connelly remarked, "it was a bit strange [working almost exclusively with puppets in the film], but I think both Dave [Bowie] and I got over that and just took it as a challenge to work with these puppets. And by the end of the film, it wasn't a challenge anymore. They were there, and they were their characters."
The film required large and ambitious sets to be constructed, from the Shaft of Hands to the rambling, distorted Goblin City where the film's climactic battle takes place. The Shaft of Hands sequence was filmed on a rig that was thirty feet high, with a camera mounted on a forty-foot vertical camera track. Of the many grey, scaly hands integral to the scene, 150 were live hands supplied by 75 performers, augmented by an additional 200 foam-rubber hands. Connelly was strapped into a harness when shooting the scene, and would spend time between takes suspended midway up the shaft.
The set of the Goblin City was built on Stage 6 at Elstree Studios near London, and required the largest panoramic back-cloth ever made. According to Production Designer Elliot Scott, the biggest challenge he faced was building the forest Sarah and her party pass through on their way to Jareth's Castle. The film's production notes state, "the entire forest required 120 truckloads of tree branches, 1,200 turfs of grass, 850 pounds of dried leaves, 133 bags of lichen, and 35 bundles of mossy old man's beard."
While most filming was conducted at Elstree Studios, a small amount of location shooting was carried out in England and the U.S. The park seen at the start of the film is West Wycombe Park in Buckinghamshire, England. The scenes of Sarah running back home were filmed in various towns in New York State, namely Upper Nyack, Piermont and Haverstraw.
Shooting wrapped on September 8, 1985.
Most of the visual effects on Labyrinth were achieved in-camera, with several notable exceptions. The most prominent of these post-production effects was the computer-generated owl that appears at the opening of the film. The sequence was created by animators Larry Yaeger and Bill Kroyer, and marked the first use of a realistic CGI animal in a film. The owl head maquette had to be rescued from a skip when Omnibus, the animation company, went bankrupt in 1987.
The scene where Sarah encounters the Fire Gang had to be altered in post-production as it had been filmed against black velvet cloth, to disguise the puppeteers, and a new forest background was added behind. Jim Henson was unhappy with the compositing of the finished scene, although he considered the puppetry featured in it worthy of inclusion.
Henson received help editing the film from executive producer George Lucas. According to Henson, "When we hit the editing, I did the first cut, and then George was heavily involved on bringing it to the final cut. After that, I took it over again and did the next few months of post-production and audio." Henson went on to explain, "When you edit a film with somebody else you have to compromise. I always want to go one way, and George goes another way, but we each took turns trading off, giving and taking. George tends to be very action-oriented and he cuts dialogue quite tight; I tend to cut looser, and go for more lyrical pauses, which can slow the story. So, I loosen up his tightness, and he tightens my looseness."
The soundtrack album features Trevor Jones' score, which is split into six tracks for the soundtrack: "Into the Labyrinth", "Sarah", "Hallucination", "The Goblin Battle", "Thirteen O'Clock" and "Home at Last".
Bowie recorded five songs for the film: "Underground", "Magic Dance", "Chilly Down", "As The World Falls Down" and "Within You". "Underground" features on the soundtrack twice, first in an edited version that was played over the film's opening sequence and secondly in full. "Underground" was released in various territories as a single, and in certain markets was also released in an instrumental version and an extended dance mix. "Magic Dance" was released as a 12" single in the U.S. "As The World Falls Down" was initially slated for release as a follow-up single to "Underground" at Christmas in 1986, but this plan did not materialize. The only song Bowie did not perform lead vocal on is "Chilly Down", which was performed by Charles Augins, Richard Bodkin, Kevin Clash, and Danny John-Jules, the actors who voiced the 'Firey' creatures in the film. A demo of " Chilly Down" under its original title "Wild Things" performed by Bowie was leaked in 2016 by Danny John-Jules shortly after Bowie's death.
Steve Barron produced promotional music videos for "Underground" and "As The World Falls Down". The music video for "Underground" features Bowie as a nightclub singer who stumbles upon the world of the Labyrinth, encountering many of the creatures seen in the film. The clip for "As The World Falls Down" integrates clips from the film, using them alongside black-and-white shots of Bowie performing the song in an elegant room. Both videos were released on the 1993 VHS tape Bowie - The Video Collection and the 2002 two-disc DVD set Best of Bowie.
In 2017, Capitol Studios announced that it will be reissuing the soundtrack on a Vinyl disc, this will include all five originals songs of David Bowie along with Trevor Jones's score.
The production of Labyrinth was covered in multiple high-profile magazines and newspapers, in anticipation of its release, with articles appearing in The New York Times, Time and Starlog magazine. An article that appeared in The New York Times shortly after filming wrapped in September 1985 focused heavily on the film's large scale, emphasizing the size of the production and selling Labyrinth as a more "accessible" film than The Dark Crystal due to the casting of live actors in its key roles. An hour-long making-of documentary that covered the filming of Labyrinth and included interviews with the key figures involved in its production was broadcast on television as Inside the Labyrinth.
Labyrinth was featured in music trade papers such as Billboard due to David Bowie's soundtrack for the film. Bowie was not heavily involved in promoting the film, but Jim Henson was nonetheless grateful that he produced a music video to accompany the song "Underground" from the soundtrack, saying, "I think it's the best thing he could have done for the film." Commercial artist Steven Chorney provided the film's teaser one-sheet, while Ted Coconis produced a one-sheet poster for the film's North American release.
A range of merchandise was produced to accompany the film's release, including plush toys of Sir Didymus and Ludo, a board game, computer game and multiple jigsaw puzzles. An exhibition of the film's characters and sets toured across shopping malls in various cities in the U.S, including New York City, Dallas and Chicago. Labyrinth was featured in an exhibition titled 'Jim Henson's Magic World' that was shown at the Seibu Department Store in Tokyo in August 1986.
Labyrinth opened in U.S. theaters on June 27, 1986. The film received a Royal Charity premiere at the London Film Festival on December 1, 1986, with Charles, Prince of Wales and Diana, Princess of Wales in attendance. Jim Henson, Brian Henson, Brian Froud, Jennifer Connelly, and the animatronic creature Ludo were all present to support the film.
The film was rolled out in other European countries largely between December 1986 and February 1987, and premiered in France as Labyrinthe on December 2 and in West Germany as Die Reise ins Labyrinth (The Journey into the Labyrinth) on December 13. The film was released in Denmark as Labyrinten til troldkongens slot (The Labyrinth to the Troll King's Castle) on February 20, 1987, and saw its last theatrical release in Hungary under the title Fantasztikus labirintus (Fantastic Labyrinth) when it premiered there on July 7, 1988.
The movie was released in Brazil on December 25, 1986 where it was named Labirinto – A Magia do Tempo (Labyrinth – The Magic of Time).
Labyrinth was first released on VHS, Betamax, and pan and scan LaserDisc in 1987 by Embassy Home Entertainment in the US and by Channel 5 Video Distribution in the UK. New Line Home Video re-released the film on LaserDisc in Widescreen through Image Entertainment in 1994. Sony Pictures Home Entertainment re-issued the film on VHS for the last time in 1999 in the US under the name of its subsidiary company, Columbia-TriStar and in the UK the same year, with Inside the Labyrinth included as a special feature.
The film made its DVD premiere in 1999 in the US, and has since been re-released on DVD in 2003, 2007, and 2016. All DVD releases of the film feature the Inside the Labyrinth documentary as an extra. The 2003 re-release was described as a collector's edition, and featured a set of exclusive collectors cards that featured concept art by Brian Froud. The 2007 release was promoted as an Anniversary Edition, and featured a commentary by Brian Froud and two newly produced making-of documentaries: "Journey Through the Labyrinth: Kingdom of Characters" and "Journey Through the Labyrinth: The Quest for Goblin City" which featured interviews with producer George Lucas, choreographer Gates McFadden of Star Trek fame (listed as Cheryl McFadden) and Brian Henson.
The film was released on Blu-ray in 2009, in a package that replicated the extras featured on the 2007 Anniversary Edition DVD. The Blu-ray release featured one new special feature, a picture-in-picture track that lasts the length of the film and features interviews with the crew and several minor cast members including Warwick Davis.
A 30th Anniversary edition of Labyrinth was released on DVD, Blu-ray, and 4K Blu-ray in 2016. An Amazon exclusive gift set version with came with packaging similar to Jareth's Escher-style stairs. New features included "The Henson Legacy" featuring Jennifer Connelly and members of the Henson family discussing Jim Henson's puppetry style and includes a visit to the Center for Puppetry Arts, which houses many of Jim Henson's puppets. Adam Savage from MythBusters hosts a Q&A with Brian Henson, David Goelz, Karen Prell, and Sheri Weiser. Jennifer Connelly, Brian Henson, and Cheryl Henson pay tribute to David Bowie in "The Goblin King".
In 2021, a 35th Anniversary edition of Labyrinth was released on Blu-ray and 4K Blu-ray as a set in a digibook designed to resemble Sarah's book from the film. The 2021 Blu-ray disc is the same as the 2016 release, while the 2021 4K Blu-ray disc includes new special features such as 25 minutes of deleted and extended scenes with optional commentary by Brian Henson, and 55 minutes of footage from the original auditions for the role of Sarah.
Labyrinth opened at number eight in the U.S. box office charts with $3,549,243 from 1,141 theaters, which placed it behind The Karate Kid Part II, Back to School, Legal Eagles, Ruthless People, Running Scared, Top Gun, and Ferris Bueller's Day Off. In its next weekend at the box office, the film dropped to number 13 in the charts, only earning $1,836,177. By the end of its run in U.S cinemas the film had grossed $12,729,917, just over half of its $25 million budget.
As he did with less success in The Dark Crystal, Mr. Henson uses the art of puppetry to create visual effects that until very recently were possible to attain only with animation. The result is really quite startling. It removes storyboard creations from the flat celluloid cartoon image and makes them three-dimensional, so that they actually come alive and interact with living people. The technique makes animation seem dull and old-fashioned by comparison.
The film received mixed to positive reviews from critics. On Rotten Tomatoes, the film averages a 73% positive rating from 49 reviews; the general consensus states: "While it's arguably more interesting on a visual level, Labyrinth provides further proof of director Jim Henson's boundless imagination." On Metacritic, which uses a "weighted average" of all the critics' scores, Labyrinth scores 50 out of 100 meaning “mixed or average reviews”.
While acknowledging that Labyrinth was made with "infinite care and pains", Roger Ebert gave the film two stars out of four as he felt that the film "never really comes alive". Ebert said that as the film was set in an "arbitrary world" none of the events in it had any consequences, robbing the film of any dramatic tension. Gene Siskel's review of Labyrinth for the Chicago Tribune was highly negative, and he referred to it as an "awful" film with a "pathetic story", "much too complicated plot" and a "visually ugly style". Siskel objected to the film's "violent" plot, writing, "the sight of a baby in peril is one of sleaziest gimmicks a film can employ to gain our attention, but Henson does it."
Other critics were more positive. Kathryn Buxton of The Palm Beach Post found that it had "excitement and thrills enough for audiences of all ages as well as a fun and sometimes slightly naughty sense of humor". In the Sun-Sentinel, Roger Hurlburt called Labyrinth "a fantasy fan's gourmet delight", writing that "though plot aspects are obviously borrowed from other fantasy stories -- Cinderella, Snow White and the fairy tale classics, events are served in unique form". Bruce Bailey of The Montreal Gazette admired the film's script, stating, "Terry Jones has drawn on his dry wit and bizarre imagination and come up with a script that transforms these essentially familiar elements and plot structures into something that fairly throbs with new life." Bailey was also impressed by the film's depth, writing, "adults will have the additional advantage of appreciating the story as a coming-of-age parable."
Several critics noted the film's subtext, and found it successful to varying degrees. Saw Tek Meng of the New Strait Times acknowledged, "Sarah's experiences in the labyrinth are symbolic of her transition from child to woman" but ultimately found the film "too linear" for its latent themes to come through. The New York Times' Nina Darnton compared the film's tone to the writings of E. T. A. Hoffmann, stating that Hoffman's The Nutcracker "is also about the voyage to womanhood, including the hint of sexual awakening, which Sarah experiences too in the presence of a goblin king." Darton enjoyed the film and considered it to be more successful than Henson's previous collaboration with Brian Froud, The Dark Crystal.
Reviewing Labyrinth for White Dwarf #85, Colin Greenland stated that "Like Time Bandits, Labyrinth is the story of a child trying to negotiate a dreamlike otherworld where logic is not all that it should be; and so it also borrows lavishly from The Princess and the Goblin, Alice in Wonderland, The Wizard of Oz and Where the Wild Things Are. A couple of scenes along the quest are truly eerie; others are doggedly sentimental."
Connelly's portrayal of Sarah polarized critics and received strong criticism from some reviewers. Los Angeles Daily News critic Kirk Honeycutt referred to Connelly as "a bland and minimally talented young actress". Writing for The Miami News, Jon Marlowe stated, "Connelly is simply the wrong person for the right job. She has a squeaky voice that begins to grate on you; when she cries, you can see the onions in her eyes." Contrary to these negative views, Hal Lipper of the St. Petersburg Times praised her acting saying, "Connelly makes the entire experience seem real. She acts so naturally around the puppets that you begin to believe in their life-like qualities."
Bowie's performance was variously lauded and derided. In his largely positive review of the film for Time, Richard Corliss praised him as "charismatic" referring to his character as a "Kabuki sorcerer who offers his ravishing young antagonist the gilded perks of adult servitude". Bruce Bailey enjoyed Bowie's performance, writing, "the casting of Bowie can't be faulted on any count. He has just the right look for a creature who's the object of both loathing and secret desire." In a largely critical review, Hal Lipper found, "Bowie forgoes acting, preferring to prance around his lair while staring solemnly into the camera. He's not exactly wooden. Plastic might be a more accurate description."
Following the film's mixed reception, Henson came "the closest I've seen him to turning in on himself and getting quite depressed", his son Brian told Life magazine. It was the last feature film directed by Henson before his death in 1990.
Since Henson's death, Labyrinth has been re-evaluated by several notable publications. A review from 2000 in Empire magazine called the film "a fabulous fantasy" and wrote, "David Bowie cuts a spooky enough figure in that fright wig to fit right in with this extraordinary menagerie of Goth Muppets. And Jennifer Connelly, still in the flush of youth, makes for an appealingly together kind of heroine." Writing for the Chicago Tribune in 2007, Michael Wilmington described Labyrinth as "dazzling", writing that it is "a real masterpiece of puppetry and special effects, an absolutely gorgeous children's fantasy movie". In 2010 Total Film ran a feature called 'Why We Love Labyrinth' which described Labyrinth as a "hyper-real, vibrant daydream, Labyrinth's main strength lies in its fairytale roots, which give the fantastical story a platform from which to launch into some deliriously outlandish scenarios". In their February 2012 issue, Empire featured a four-page spread on Labyrinth as part of their Muppet Special.
Labyrinth was nominated at the British Academy Film Awards for Best Special Visual Effects, and received two Saturn Award nominations, for Best Fantasy Film as well as Best Costumes. Labyrinth was also nominated for the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation.
Labyrinth is ranked 72nd on Empire's “The 80 best ‘80s movies’ and 26th on Time Out's "The 50 best fantasy movies". In 2019 The Telegraph named it as one of "The 77 best kids' films of all time".
Despite its poor performance at the American box office, Labyrinth was a success on home video and later on DVD. David Bowie told an interviewer in 1992, "every Christmas a new flock of children comes up to me and says, 'Oh! you're the one who's in Labyrinth!'" In 1997, Jennifer Connelly said "I still get recognized for Labyrinth by little girls in the weirdest places. I can't believe they still recognize me from that movie. It's on TV all the time and I guess I pretty much look the same."
Labyrinth has become a cult film. Brian Henson remembered his father, Jim Henson, as being aware that Labyrinth and The Dark Crystal both had cult followings by the time of his death in 1990, saying, "he was able to see all that and know that it was appreciated." Academic Andrea Wright wrote that Labyrinth has managed to maintain audience popularity long after its initial release to a greater extent than The Dark Crystal. Since 1997, an annual two-day event called the "Labyrinth of Jareth Masquerade Ball" where revelers come dressed in costumes inspired by the film has been held in various cities, including San Diego, Hollywood, and, most recently, Los Angeles. Labyrinth has a significant Internet fan following, and as of October 10, 2021, Fanfiction.Net hosts over 10,000 stories in its Labyrinth section.
The strong DVD sales of Labyrinth prompted rights-holders the Jim Henson Company and Sony Pictures to look into making a sequel, and Curse of the Goblin King was briefly used as a place-holder title. However, the decision was ultimately taken to avoid making a direct sequel, and instead produce a fantasy film with a similar atmosphere. Fantasy author Neil Gaiman and artist Dave McKean were called in to write and direct a film similar in spirit to Labyrinth, and MirrorMask was ultimately released in selected theaters in 2005 after premiering at the Sundance Film Festival. On January 22, 2016, Sony Pictures announced that a reboot is in development with Lisa Henson as producer and Nicole Perlman attached as the screenwriter. However, on January 25, Perlman confirmed on Twitter that while she is working on a Labyrinth project with the Jim Henson Company, it is not a remake or reboot. Perlman also discussed the timing of the rumors in conjunction with David Bowie's death and said, "Henson Co & I started talking in late 2014, so the timing of these rumors is so upsetting. I would never seek to profit from Bowie's death."
In other mediaEdit
Upon release, Labyrinth was translated to various forms of tie-in media. The Goblins of Labyrinth, a book containing Brian Froud's concept art for the film with descriptions by Terry Jones, was published in 1986 and reissued in a deluxe expanded 20th anniversary edition in 2006. A novelization of the film was written by A. C. H. Smith, which, along with Smith's novelization of The Dark Crystal, was reprinted with illustrations and Jim Henson's notes by Archaia Publishing in 2014. Marvel Comics published a three-issue comic book adaptation, which was first released in a single volume as Marvel Super Special#40 in 1986. The film was adapted into picture book form as Labyrinth: The Storybook, written by Louise Gikow with illustrations by Bruce McNally, and Labyrinth: The Photo Album, written by Rebecca Grand with photographs taken by John Brown from the film set. Other tie-in adaptations included a read-along storybook produced by Buena Vista Records, which came with either a 7" 33⅓ RPM record or cassette tape.
The film was also adapted for the Commodore 64 and Apple II home computers in 1986 as Labyrinth: The Computer Game. Different versions were also released in Japan the following year for the Family Computer console and MSX computer, under the title Labyrinth: Maō no Meikyū.
Tokyopop, in partnership with The Jim Henson Company, published a manga-style four-volume comic sequel between 2006 and 2010 called Return to Labyrinth, written by Jake T. Forbes and illustrated by Chris Lie, with cover art by Kouyu Shurei. Return to Labyrinth follows the adventures of Toby as a teenager, when he is tricked into returning to the Labyrinth by Jareth.
Archaia Entertainment, in collaboration with The Jim Henson Company, announced in 2011 it was developing a prequel graphic novel about the story of how Jareth became the Goblin King. Project editor Stephen Christy described the graphic novel as a "very tragic story" featuring a teenaged Jareth, and said it does not feature Sarah or Toby. In the early stages of development, there were plans for the novel to integrate music into the plot in some way. David Bowie was approached by Archaia in order to seek permission to use his likeness, and ascertain if he wished to have any involvement in the project. As a creative consultant on the project, Brian Froud was set to design characters as well as produce covers for the graphic novel. Reported to feature a young Jareth who is taken into the Labyrinth by a witch, the novel's official synopsis states the plot revolves around Jareth's "attempt to rescue his true love from the clutches of the wicked and beautiful Goblin Queen." While initially set for release at the end of 2012, the graphic novel was repeatedly delayed. Its scheduled April 2014 release slot was replaced by Archaia's reissue of the Labyrinth novelisation. The graphic novel remains unreleased as of 2021.
Archaia released a Labyrinth short story titled Hoggle and the Worm for Free Comic Book Day on May 5, 2012 and another titled Sir Didymus' Grand Day on May 4, 2013. To mark the film's 30th anniversary, Archaia published Labyrinth: 30th Anniversary Special, a collection of seven short stories, in 2016. Cory Godbey's stories from this collection were also released in picture book form as Labyrinth Tales. Another six-story collection was released the following year, titled Labyrinth: 2017 Special. In 2018 the two collections were compiled as Labyrinth: Shortcuts, which also included two new stories, and another three-story collection was released as Labyrinth: Under the Spell.
Between 2018 and 2019, Archaia published Labyrinth: Coronation, a 12-issue comic series written by Simon Spurrier and illustrated by Daniel Bayliss. The series is a prequel about how Jareth became the Goblin King. Beginning in 1790s Venice, the story revolves around an infant Jareth who has been stolen by the previous ruler of the labyrinth, known as the Owl King, and follows the quest of Jareth's mother, Maria, to rescue her son. In 2020, Archaia published Labyrinth: Masquerade, a one-shot story set during the film's masquerade dream sequence, written by Lara Elena Donnelly with art by Pius Bak, Samantha Dodge and French Carlomango.
In 2016, Brian Froud expressed that he would like to see Labyrinth adapted as a stage musical with live puppetry and special effects, remarking that it would be “an absolute gift to do it on stage. People would come and sing the songs, and dress up, I think." Brian Henson announced in April 2018 that the Jim Henson Company was working on a "stage show, a big theatrical version" of Labyrinth. He said the production was not intended for Broadway theatre but could potentially take place on London's West End.
In January 2016, Nicole Perlman announced that she had been hired to write the script for the sequel. By April 2017, Fede Álvarez signed on as director, as well as co-writer with Jay Basu. Henson's daughter Lisa Henson will produce. By October 2018, Álvarez confirmed that the script was complete. However, in April 2020, Álvarez announced that he had stepped down as director.
In May 2020, Scott Derrickson, known for directing Doctor Strange in the Marvel Cinematic Universe, was announced as director of the sequel. Maggie Levin will join him in writing the script for the movie. The Jim Henson Company's Brian Henson is set to be executive producer while confirming Lisa Henson as producer.
- "Labyrinth". British Board of Film Classification. Archived from the original on November 29, 2020. Retrieved December 8, 2020.
- "Labyrinth (PG)". British Board of Film Classification. June 24, 1986. Archived from the original on October 15, 2014. Retrieved October 10, 2014.
- "Labyrinth (1986)". Archived from the original on June 12, 2018. Retrieved June 12, 2018.
- McNary, Dave (January 22, 2016). "Sony Rebooting Jim Henson's 'Labyrinth'". Variety. Archived from the original on January 24, 2016. Retrieved January 22, 2016.
- Tan, Monica (January 25, 2016). "'No one is remaking Labyrinth' – screenwriter denies reports of reboot". The Guardian. Archived from the original on January 25, 2016. Retrieved January 25, 2016.
- Labyrinth (30th Anniversary Edition) (DVD/Blu-ray cover). Sony Pictures Home Entertainment. 2016.
A 16-year-old girl is given 13 hours to solve a dangerous and wonderful labyrinth and rescue her baby brother...
- "Michael Moschen Official Biography". MichaelMoschen.com. Archived from the original on February 4, 2012. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
- Porter, Bob (July 7, 1986). "Jim Henson Up To More Tricks The Fantasy Film 'Labyrinth'". The Charlotte Observer. Dallas Times Herald. p. 7B. Archived from the original on August 14, 2020. Retrieved August 14, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
- Corliss, Richard (July 7, 1986). "Cinema: Walt's Precocious Progeny". Time. Archived from the original on August 24, 2013. Retrieved January 21, 2012.
- Darnton, Nina (June 27, 1986). "Screen: Jim Henson's 'Labyrinth'". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 9, 2020. Retrieved January 21, 2012.
- Jones (2013), pp. 80–81
- Froud & Jones (2006), pp. 139–153
- Brian Froud (2007). "Audio Commentary by Conceptual Designer Brian Froud". Labyrinth (Anniversary Edition) (DVD). Sony Pictures Home Entertainment.
- Taylor, Dawn (May 7, 2009). "Scenes We Love: The Bachelor and the Bobby-Soxer". moviefone. Archived from the original on August 3, 2012. Retrieved March 3, 2012.
- Henson, Jim (June 26, 1985). "6/26/1985 – '(filming Labyrinth-) Escher;". Jim Henson's Red Book. Archived from the original on August 16, 2014. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
- Robberson, Joe (January 20, 2016). "20 Things You Never Knew About 'Labyrinth'". Zimbio. Archived from the original on July 4, 2018. Retrieved July 1, 2020.
- Pirani, Adam (August 1986). "Part Two: Into the Labyrinth with Jim Henson". Starlog. 10 (109): 44–48.
- Henson, Jim (March 28, 2011). "3/28/1983 – 'Dennis Lee – Brian F. and I begin talking about Labyrinth in London'". Jim Henson's Red Book. Archived from the original on August 19, 2012. Retrieved January 20, 2012.
- Henson, Jim (December 1983). "12/-/1983 – 'End of December – Dennis Lee hands in "Novella" of Labyrinth'". Jim Henson's Red Book. Archived from the original on August 19, 2012. Retrieved January 20, 2012.
- Howard (1993), pp. 209–210
- Williams, Owen (2012). "Dance Magic Dance: 25 Years Of Labyrinth". Empire (272): 100–103.
- "LABYRINTH: by Laura Phillips and Terry Jones". Astrolog.org. Archived from the original on January 25, 2012. Retrieved January 26, 2012.
- Henson, Jim (January 29, 1985). "1/29/1985 – 'Jennifer Connelly auditions for Labry. Cast within a week.'". Jim Henson's Red Book. Archived from the original on March 8, 2012. Retrieved January 21, 2012.
- Henson, Jim (February 26, 2011). "1/29/1985 – 2/26/1985 – 'Meet Elaine May on Labyr.'". Jim Henson's Red Book. Archived from the original on August 19, 2012. Retrieved January 21, 2012.
- "Labyrinth Production Notes". Astrolog.org. Archived from the original on January 17, 2012. Retrieved January 20, 2012.
- Sauter, Michael (June 1986). "Playing Hooky". Elle. Archived from the original on July 30, 2012. Retrieved January 28, 2012.
- Jones (2013), p. 369
- Des Saunders (director), Jim Henson (writer) (1986). Inside the Labyrinth (Televised Documentary). Los Angeles: Jim Henson Television.
- Schlockoff, Alain (February 1987). "Jim Henson Interview". Ecran Fantastique.
- Pegg (2002), pp. 468–469
- Henson, Jim (February 15, 1985). "3/28/1983 – 2/15/1985 – 'Bowie's deal is set". Jim Henson's Red Book. Henson.com. Archived from the original on August 19, 2012. Retrieved January 20, 2012.
- The Jim Henson Company (2016) [Production notes first published 1986]. "David Bowie Talks About Labyrinth: Archival 1986 Q&A". Labyrinth (30th Anniversary Edition) (Blu-ray booklet). Sony Pictures Home Entertainment. pp. 14–16.
- Whitbrook, James (May 13, 2021). "Gates McFadden on Podcasting With Star Trek Friends and the Franchise's Enduring Legacy". Retrieved May 12, 2021.
- Block & Erdmann (2016), p. 171
- Henson, Jim (May 5, 1985). "5/5/1985 – 'To Amsterdam – (Filming Labyrinth) – Forest – Wild Things, Shaft of Hands.'". Jim Henson's Red Book. Archived from the original on August 16, 2014. Retrieved January 13, 2012.
- Dickholtz, Daniel (1986). "Jennifer Connelly – I Love to Do Daring Things!". Teen Idols Mania!. Archived from the original on August 6, 2012. Retrieved January 26, 2012.
- Miller, Jon (August 2, 2011). "Lights, Camera, Action in Nyack, Piermont and Rockland". Nyack News and Views. Archived from the original on June 24, 2013. Retrieved January 28, 2012.
- Henson, Jim (December 1, 1985) [stored December 1, 2010]. "12/1/1985 – 'Back to UK – re-shoot Hoggle'". Jim Henson's Red Book. Archived from the original on August 19, 2012. Retrieved January 13, 2012.
- Yaeger, Larry. "A Brief, Early History of Computer Graphics in Film". Indiana University. Archived from the original on July 17, 2012. Retrieved January 20, 2012.
- Wolff, Robert S; Yaeger, Larry (1993). "Visualization of natural phenomena". TELOS: The Electronic Library of Science. 1: 186.
- SIGGRAPH, IEEE Computer Society. Technical Committee—Computer Graphics (July 27–31, 1987). "ACM SIGGRAPH 87: Course Notes, 14th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques". 3. The University of California: 70–71. Cite journal requires
- Sito, Tom (2013). Moving Innovation: A History of Computer Animation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. p. 194.
- McDonald, Steve. "Labyrinth (1986)". Allmusic.com. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
- Pegg (2002), p. 119
- Pegg (2002), p. 26
- "Labyrinth Liner Notes". Labyrinth (liner notes). David Bowie. EMI. 1986.CS1 maint: others in cite AV media (notes) (link)
- "(Unheard) David Bowie sings 'Wild Things' Chilly Down from Labyrinth Movie". YouTube. Archived from the original on January 8, 2021. Retrieved March 29, 2020.
- "Labyrinth soundtrack featuring original David Bowie songs will get vinyl reissue". Metro. April 28, 2017. Archived from the original on September 25, 2017. Retrieved September 25, 2017.
- Hartmetz, Aljean (September 15, 1985). "'Star Wars' and Muppet Wizards Team up in 'Labyrinth'". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 2, 2016. Retrieved February 3, 2012.
- Murphy, Jamie (September 25, 1985). "People: Sep. 23, 1985". Time. Archived from the original on February 3, 2012. Retrieved February 3, 2012.
- "Jim Henson Time Line". Jim Henson Legacy. The Jim Henson Legacy, Inc. Archived from the original on February 3, 2012. Retrieved February 4, 2012.
- McGowan, Chris (June 21, 1986). "Soundtrack Fastlane Already Facing Congestion As Labels Strengthen Crossover Links In Marketing Chain". Billboard. 99 (25). Retrieved February 4, 2012.
- "'Labyrinth' Music Video Applauded". Sun-Sentinel. Fort Lauderdale, Florida. July 4, 1986. p. 23. ProQuest 389704937
- "Untitled Article". Sunday Star News. June 26, 1986. Accessed February 4, 2012.
- "Labyrinth / one sheet / USA". Film On Paper. Archived from the original on April 18, 2012. Retrieved July 14, 2012.
- Wright, Andrea (2005). "Selling the Fantastic". Journal of British Cinema and Television. 2 (2). doi:10.3366/JBCTV.2005.2.2.256. Accessed 15 September 2010.
- Comiskey, Ray (December 2, 1986). "Bowie's Latest and the Greatest Ghost Story Session". Irish Times. Dublin. p. 12. ProQuest 522100416
- Baughan, Nikki (August 23, 2018). "A brief history of the BFI London Film Festival". BFI. Archived from the original on October 27, 2020. Retrieved October 24, 2020.
- Henson, Jim (December 1, 2011). "12/1/1986 – 'Royal Premier Labyrinth – UK – Party at Elephant on River – then to Amsterdam, Madrid, Paris, Copenhagen'". Jim Henson's Red Book. Archived from the original on August 19, 2012. Retrieved February 3, 2012.
- "Release Dates For Labyrinth". imdb. Archived from the original on April 25, 2012. Retrieved February 3, 2012.
- Henderson, Eric (February 3, 2004). "Labyrinth: Collector's Edition Box Set". Slant Magazine. Archived from the original on May 2, 2011. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
- Henson, Jim (June 27, 1986), Labyrinth, archived from the original on March 17, 2017, retrieved April 15, 2016
- Jacobson, Colin (August 29, 2007). "Labyrinth: Anniversary Edition (1986)". DVD Movie Guide. Archived from the original on October 9, 2011. Retrieved January 28, 2012.
- Tyner, Adam (September 29, 2009). "Labyrinth (Blu-ray)". DVDTalk.com. Archived from the original on November 28, 2009. Retrieved January 28, 2012.
- "Labyrinth 30th Anniversary Edition 4K Blu-ray". Blu-ray.com. Archived from the original on September 3, 2016. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- Latchem, John (August 30, 2021). "Labyrinth: 35th Anniversary Edition". Media Play News. Archived from the original on September 7, 2021. Retrieved September 7, 2021.
- "Weekend Box Office – June 27–29, 1986". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on October 17, 2014. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
- "Weekend Box Office – July 4–6, 1986". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on October 17, 2014. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
- "Labyrinth". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on June 5, 2019. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
- Variety. 21 January 1987. As cited in "Labyrinth (1986)". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. American Film Institute. Archived from the original on April 7, 2021. Retrieved April 7, 2021.
- Benson, Shelia (June 26, 1986). "Movie Review : Going To Great Lengths In A Trying 'Labyrinth'". The Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on July 11, 2016. Retrieved January 28, 2012.
- "Labyrinth (1986)". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on January 25, 2021. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
- "Labyrinth". Metacritic.com. Archived from the original on February 10, 2021. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
- Ebert, Roger (June 27, 1986). "Labyrinth". Rogerebert.com. Archived from the original on October 9, 2012. Retrieved October 21, 2010.
- Siskel, Gene (June 30, 1986). "Jim Henson's Wizardry Lost In 'Labyrinth'". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on August 8, 2012. Retrieved January 28, 2012.
- Buxton, Kathryn (July 2, 1986). "Henson's fantasy Labyrinth takes cues from the classic". The Palm Beach Post.
- Hurlburt, Roger (June 27, 1986). "When A Wish Makes You Wish You Hadn't". Sun-Sentinel. Archived from the original on September 6, 2019. Retrieved September 6, 2019.
- Bailey, Bruce (July 3, 1986). "Labyrinth is a Fairy-Tale Movie That Grown-Ups Can Believe In". The Montreal Gazette.
- Meng, Saw Tek (June 27, 1986). "Yellow Brick Road Revisited". New Strait Times.
- Greenland, Colin (December 1987). "2020 Vision". White Dwarf. Games Workshop (85): 6.
- Honeycutt, Kirk (June 27, 1986). "Quality gets lost in Labyrinth". Weekend. The Spokesman-Review. Los Angeles Daily News. p. 12. Archived from the original on August 15, 2020. Retrieved August 15, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
- Marlowe, Jon (June 27, 1986). "Bowie's trapped in Labyrinth". The Miami News. p. 2C. Archived from the original on August 14, 2020. Retrieved August 14, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
- Lipper, Hal (June 27, 1986). "Fantastic puppets can't escape fairy tale maze". St. Petersburg Times. p. 1D, 4D. Archived from the original on August 14, 2020. Retrieved August 14, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
- Harrigan, Stephen (July 1990). "It's Not Easy Being Blue". Life. Vol. 13 no. 9. pp. 92–96. ISSN 0024-3019.
- Nathan, Ian (2000). "Labyrinth: Review". Empire. Archived from the original on October 19, 2015. Retrieved January 13, 2012.
- Wilmington, Michael (June 15, 2007). "'Labyrinth' movie review: 3 stars". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on August 8, 2012. Retrieved January 28, 2012.
- Winning, Josh (May 13, 2010). "Why We Love... Labyrinth". Total Film.
- "Film in 1987". British Academy of Film and Television Arts. Archived from the original on May 29, 2018. Retrieved September 16, 2019.
- "1987 Hugo Awards". The Hugo Awards. Archived from the original on October 12, 2020. Retrieved September 16, 2019.
- "The 80 best '80s Movies'". Empire. Archived from the original on January 29, 2018. Retrieved January 29, 2018.
- "The 50 best fantasy movies". Time Out. August 22, 2018. Archived from the original on December 29, 2019. Retrieved December 29, 2019.
- "The 77 best kids' films of all time". The Telegraph. April 19, 2019. Archived from the original on September 26, 2018. Retrieved September 8, 2019.
- Weiland, Jonah (August 6, 2004). "Putting on the "Mirrormask": Executive Producer Michael Polis on the film". Examiner. Archived from the original on October 8, 2012. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
- Campbell, Virginia (1992). "Bowie at the Bijou". Moveline. 3 (7).
- Spelling, Ian (September 1997). "Damsel in the Dark". Starlog (242): 50–51.
- Sparrow, A.E. (September 11, 2006). "Return to Labyrinth Vol. 1 Review". IGN. Archived from the original on April 20, 2011. Retrieved July 10, 2007.
- Hartlaub, Peter (June 25, 2007). "Staying power is true magic of Henson's 'Dark Crystal'". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved February 4, 2012.
- Feinblatt, Scott (August 21, 2018). "Delving Into the Labyrinth of Jareth With Its Goblin King, Shawn Strider". LA Weekly. Archived from the original on April 24, 2019. Retrieved August 24, 2019.
- "Movies". FanFiction.net. Archived from the original on October 10, 2021. Retrieved October 10, 2021.
- Cameron, Jen (October 26, 2005). "Movie Review: Mirrormask". Stylus Magazine. Archived from the original on October 28, 2011. Retrieved January 28, 2012.
- Jones, Nate (January 25, 2016). "Screenwriter Denies Reports of Labyrinth Remake, Calls Timing 'Awful'". Vulture. New York. Archived from the original on January 26, 2016. Retrieved January 25, 2016.
- "'Labyrinth' Reboot Rumors Emerge In Wake Of David Bowie's Death". The Movie Network. Archived from the original on April 28, 2016. Retrieved April 15, 2016.
- Henson, Jim (June 3, 1985). "6/3/1985 – 'Shooting Labyrinth – David Bowie shoots. Blind Beggar scene, Jareth and the Goblins.'". Jim Henson's Red Book. Henson.com. Archived from the original on March 4, 2013. Retrieved December 20, 2020.
- McCall (2013), p. 115
- Smith (1986)
- Truitt, Brian (January 21, 2014). "Archaia honors Henson legacy with reprints, new material". USA Today. Archived from the original on January 22, 2014. Retrieved October 21, 2020.
- Labyrinth (Marvel, 1986 Series) Archived October 16, 2014, at the Wayback Machine at the Grand Comics Database
- Marvel Super Special #40 Archived November 7, 2012, at the Wayback Machine at the Grand Comics Database
- Gikow, Louise; McNally, Bruce (1986). Labyrinth: The Storybook Based on the Movie. New York: Henry Holt & Co. ISBN 978-0-03-007324-3.
- Grand, Rebecca; Brown, John (1986). Labyrinth: The Photo Album. New York: Henry Holt & Co. ISBN 978-0-03-007323-6.
- Labyrinth Read Along Adventure Archived February 24, 2021, at the Wayback Machine on Discogs
- Read Along Adventure: Labyrinth at Google Arts & Culture
- "Labyrinth: Maou no Meikyuu". Game FAQs. Archived from the original on May 1, 2012. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
- Macias, Amie (February 26, 2019). "Jim Henson's Labyrinth: A Discovery Adventure Review". Pastrami Nation. Archived from the original on April 26, 2021. Retrieved April 26, 2021.
- Forbes, Jake T.; Lie, Chris (August 8, 2006). Return to Labyrinth. San Francisco, California: TokyoPop. ISBN 978-1-59816-725-2.
- Schneider, Karl (May 18, 2006). "Exclusive First Look at RETURN TO LABYRINTH Manga Cover". Mania.com. Archived from the original on July 27, 2014. Retrieved January 26, 2012.
- Ohanesian, Liz (August 23, 2011). "Archaia Brings 'Lost' Jim Henson Screenplay to Life With A Tale of Sand". LA Weekly. Archived from the original on June 16, 2020. Retrieved October 18, 2021.
- Flood, Alison (January 9, 2012). "Labyrinth gets graphic novel prequel". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on April 23, 2014. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
- Gartler, James (January 6, 2012). "'Labyrinth' graphic novel prequel to answer, 'Who was the Goblin King?' – EXCLUSIVE". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on March 19, 2015. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
- Hennes, Joe (October 22, 2011). "ToughPigs at NYCC 2011". ToughPigs. Archived from the original on October 19, 2021. Retrieved October 18, 2021.
- "Jim Henson's Labyrinth". Book Depository. Archived from the original on April 23, 2021.
- Trumbore, Dave (January 8, 2012). "LABYRINTH Graphic Novel Prequel Explores Origins of David Bowie's Goblin King". Collider. Archived from the original on October 28, 2014. Retrieved October 18, 2021.
- Connelly, Brendon. "For David Bowie's Birthday: A Preview Of Archaia's Next Labyrinth Comic, And Talk Of Another". Bleeding Cool. Archived from the original on January 18, 2012. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
- "The Labyrinth Resource". Archived from the original on April 22, 2014. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
- "Jim Henson's Labyrinth 30th Anniversary Special #1". Comic Book Resources. August 5, 2016. Archived from the original on January 26, 2021. Retrieved May 19, 2019.
- Vaughn, Alyssa (September 19, 2016). "Review – Labyrinth Tales by Cory Godbey". NerdSpan. Archived from the original on April 26, 2021. Retrieved April 26, 2021.
- "Jim Henson's Labyrinth 2017 Special #1". Comic Book Resources. November 26, 2017. Archived from the original on May 9, 2019. Retrieved May 19, 2019.
- "Jim Henson's Labyrinth: Shortcuts #1". Comic Vine. September 18, 2018. Retrieved May 22, 2019.
- Prange, Melissa (December 3, 2018). "Jim Henson's Labyrinth: Under the Spell #1 Review". Rogues Portal. Archived from the original on December 7, 2018. Retrieved October 30, 2019.
- Spry, Jeff (February 26, 2018). "Exclusive: Writer Si Spurrier On Boom!'s New Labyrinth: Coronation #1". Syfy Wire. Syfy. Archived from the original on May 1, 2019. Retrieved May 19, 2019.
- Knight, Rosie (February 27, 2018). "New LABYRINTH Comic's Creators Talk the Origin Story of the Goblin King". Nerdist.com. Nerdist Industries. Archived from the original on May 1, 2019. Retrieved May 19, 2019.
- Brooke, David (December 23, 2020). "Jim Henson's Labyrinth: Masquerade #1 review". AIPT. Archived from the original on April 26, 2021. Retrieved April 26, 2021.
- Fletcher, Rosie (October 18, 2016). "9 gorgeous Labyrinth secrets – told to us by the man who made it". Digital Spy. Archived from the original on May 17, 2019. Retrieved April 18, 2020.
- Thomas, Helen Meriel (September 26, 2016). "David Bowie was urinated on by baby co-star whilst filming 'Labyrinth'". NME. Archived from the original on May 17, 2019. Retrieved April 18, 2020.
- Thompson, Simon (April 17, 2018). "Jim Henson's 'Labyrinth' Returns To Theaters And Set To Become A Musical". Forbes. Archived from the original on October 20, 2019. Retrieved April 18, 2020.
- Handler, Rachel (January 23, 2016). "David Bowie's Labyrinth Is Getting A Sequel". Vanity Fair. Archived from the original on January 24, 2016. Retrieved January 25, 2016.
- Knoll, Justin (April 13, 2017). "'Don't Breathe' Helmer Fede Alvarez to Direct 'Labyrinth' Spin-Off for TriStar". Variety. Archived from the original on April 14, 2017. Retrieved April 13, 2017.
- Fleming, Mike (April 13, 2017). "TriStar Rebirths World Of 'Labyrinth:' 'Spider Web's Fede Alvarez & Jay Basu Aboard". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on February 4, 2020. Retrieved February 5, 2020.
- Davis, Erik (October 25, 2018). "Director Fede Alvarez Says The 'Labyrinth' Sequel Has a Script and is Moving Forward". Fandango Media. Archived from the original on October 27, 2018. Retrieved October 26, 2018.
- Squires, John (April 29, 2020). "Fede Alvarez Explains Why He's No Longer Directing a 'Labyrinth' Sequel [Exclusive]". Bloody Disgusting. Archived from the original on May 14, 2020. Retrieved May 26, 2020.
- Fleming, Mike (May 26, 2020). "Scott Derrickson Set To Direct 'Labyrinth' Sequel For TriStar Pictures; Maggie Levin To Write Script". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on May 26, 2020. Retrieved May 26, 2020.
- Radish, Christina (February 1, 2021). "Jennifer Connelly on 'Snowpiercer' Season 2 and Why 'Labyrinth' Is Still "Really Special" to Her". Collider. Archived from the original on February 1, 2021. Retrieved October 8, 2021.
- Radish, Christina (September 14, 2021). "Brian Henson on 'Labyrinth' 35th Anniversary, How the 4K Release Has Never Looked Better, and His Father's Legacy". Collider. Archived from the original on September 14, 2021. Retrieved October 8, 2021.
- Froud, Brian; Jones, Terry (2006) . The Goblins of Labyrinth (20th Anniversary ed.). New York: Abrams. ISBN 978-0-8109-7055-7.
- Howard, Kim (1993). Life Before And After Monty Python. New York: Plexus. ISBN 0-312-08695-4.
- Jones, Brian Jay (2013). Jim Henson: The Biography. Random House. ISBN 9780345526137.
- McCall, Douglas (2013). Monty Python: A Chronology, 1969-2012 (2nd ed.). McFarland & Company. ISBN 978-0-7864-7811-8.
- Pegg, Nicholas (2002). The Complete David Bowie. London: Reynolds & Hearn Ltd. ISBN 1-903111-40-4.
- Smith, A. C. H. (1986). Labyrinth: A Novel Based On The Jim Henson Film. New York: Henry Holt. ISBN 978-0-03-007322-9.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Labyrinth (film)|