Marvel Comics is the common name and primary imprint of Marvel Worldwide Inc., formerly Marvel Publishing, Inc. and Marvel Comics Group, an American publisher of comic books and related media. In 2009, The Walt Disney Company acquired Marvel Entertainment, Marvel Worldwide's parent company.
|Parent company||Marvel Entertainment, LLC
(The Walt Disney Company)
|Country of origin||United States|
|Headquarters location||135 W. 50th Street, New York City|
|Publication types||Comics/See List of Marvel Comics publications|
|Fiction genres||Superhero, crime, comedy, horror, mystery, romance, science fiction, war, Western|
Marvel started in 1939 as Timely Publications, and by the early 1950s had generally become known as Atlas Comics. Marvel's modern incarnation dates from 1961, the year that the company launched The Fantastic Four and other superhero titles created by Stan Lee, Jack Kirby, Steve Ditko and many others.
Marvel counts among its characters such well-known superheroes as Iron Man, Captain America, Hulk, Thor, Doctor Strange, Spider-Man, Deadpool, Wolverine, Daredevil, Ms. Marvel and Ant-Man, such teams as the Avengers, the Guardians of the Galaxy, the Inhumans, the Fantastic Four, and the X-Men, and antagonists such as Doctor Doom, Red Skull, Green Goblin, Thanos, Ultron, Doctor Octopus, Magneto, Venom and Loki. Most of Marvel's fictional characters operate in a single reality known as the Marvel Universe, with locations that mirror real-life cities. Characters such as Spider-Man, the Fantastic Four, the Avengers, Daredevil and Doctor Strange are based in New York City, whereas the X-Men have historically been based in Salem Center, New York and Hulk's stories often have been set in the Southwestern United States.
Martin Goodman founded the company later known as Marvel Comics under the name Timely Publications in 1939. Martin Goodman, a pulp magazine publisher who had started with a Western pulp in 1933, was expanding into the emerging—and by then already highly popular—new medium of comic books. Launching his new line from his existing company's offices at 330 West 42nd Street, New York City, he officially held the titles of editor, managing editor, and business manager, with Abraham Goodman officially listed as publisher.
Timely's first publication, Marvel Comics #1 (cover dated Oct. 1939), included the first appearance of Carl Burgos' android superhero the Human Torch, and the first appearances of Bill Everett's anti-hero Namor the Sub-Mariner, among other features. The issue was a great success, with it and a second printing the following month selling, combined, nearly 900,000 copies. While its contents came from an outside packager, Funnies, Inc., Timely had its own staff in place by the following year. The company's first true editor, writer-artist Joe Simon, teamed with artist and emerging industry notable Jack Kirby to create one of the first patriotically themed superheroes, Captain America, in Captain America Comics #1 (March 1941). It, too, proved a hit, with sales of nearly one million. Goodman formed Timely Comics, Inc., beginning with comics cover-dated April 1941 or Spring 1941.
While no other Timely character would achieve the success of these three characters, some notable heroes—many of which continue to appear in modern-day retcon appearances and flashbacks—include the Whizzer, Miss America, the Destroyer, the original Vision, and the Angel. Timely also published one of humor cartoonist Basil Wolverton's best-known features, "Powerhouse Pepper", as well as a line of children's funny-animal comics featuring popular characters like Super Rabbit and the duo Ziggy Pig and Silly Seal.
Goodman hired his wife's cousin, Stanley Lieber, as a general office assistant in 1939. When editor Simon left the company in late 1941, Goodman made Lieber—by then writing pseudonymously as "Stan Lee"—interim editor of the comics line, a position Lee kept for decades except for three years during his military service in World War II. Lee wrote extensively for Timely, contributing to a number of different titles.
Goodman's business strategy involved having his various magazines and comic books published by a number of corporations all operating out of the same office and with the same staff. One of these shell companies through which Timely Comics was published was named Marvel Comics by at least Marvel Mystery Comics #55 (May 1944). As well, some comics' covers, such as All Surprise Comics #12 (Winter 1946–47), were labeled "A Marvel Magazine" many years before Goodman would formally adopt the name in 1961.
The post-war American comic market saw superheroes falling out of fashion. Goodman's comic book line dropped them for the most part and expanded into a wider variety of genres than even Timely had published, featuring horror, Westerns, humor, funny animal, men's adventure-drama, giant monster, crime, and war comics, and later adding jungle books, romance titles, espionage, and even medieval adventure, Bible stories and sports.
Goodman began using the globe logo of the Atlas News Company, the newsstand-distribution company he owned, on comics cover-dated November 1951 even though another company, Kable News, continued to distribute his comics through the August 1952 issues. This globe branding united a line put out by the same publisher, staff and freelancers through 59 shell companies, from Animirth Comics to Zenith Publications.
Atlas, rather than innovate, took a proven route of following popular trends in television and movies—Westerns and war dramas prevailing for a time, drive-in movie monsters another time—and even other comic books, particularly the EC horror line. Atlas also published a plethora of children's and teen humor titles, including Dan DeCarlo's Homer the Happy Ghost (à la Casper the Friendly Ghost) and Homer Hooper (à la Archie Andrews). Atlas unsuccessfully attempted to revive superheroes from late 1953 to mid-1954, with the Human Torch (art by Syd Shores and Dick Ayers, variously), the Sub-Mariner (drawn and most stories written by Bill Everett), and Captain America (writer Stan Lee, artist John Romita Sr.). Atlas did not achieve any breakout hits and, according to Stan Lee, Atlas survived chiefly because it produced work quickly, cheaply, and at a passable quality.
Comic Code AuthorityEdit
During this time, the Comic Code Authority made its debut in September 1954, spearheaded by German-American psychiatrist Fredrick Wertham. Wertham published the book Seduction of the Innocent in order to force people to see that comics were impacting American youth. He believed violent comics were causing children to be reckless and were turning them into delinquents. In September 1954, comic book publishers got together to set up their own self-censorship organization—the Comics Magazine Association of America—in order to appease audiences. The next month, the code was published, forcing comic book companies to send their comics to them in order to gain their seal of approval. The stamp on the cover showed audiences that the comics were considered wholesome, entertaining, and educational.
The first modern comic books under the Marvel Comics brand were the science-fiction anthology Journey into Mystery #69 and the teen-humor title Patsy Walker #95 (both cover dated June 1961), which each displayed an "MC" box on its cover. Then, in the wake of DC Comics' success in reviving superheroes in the late 1950s and early 1960s, particularly with the Flash, Green Lantern, and other members of the team the Justice League of America, Marvel followed suit.[n 1]
In 1961, writer-editor Stan Lee revolutionized superhero comics by introducing superheroes designed to appeal to more older readers than the predominantly child audiences of the medium. Modern Marvel's first superhero team, the titular stars of The Fantastic Four #1 (Nov. 1961), broke convention with other comic book archetypes of the time by squabbling, holding grudges both deep and petty, and eschewing anonymity or secret identities in favor of celebrity status. Subsequently, Marvel comics developed a reputation for focusing on characterization and adult issues to a greater extent than most superhero comics before them, a quality which the new generation of older readers appreciated. This applied to The Amazing Spider-Man title in particular, which turned out to be Marvel's most successful book. Its young hero suffered from self-doubt and mundane problems like any other teenager, something readers could identify with.
Lee and freelance artist and eventual co-plotter Jack Kirby's Fantastic Four originated in a Cold War culture that led their creators to revise the superhero conventions of previous eras to better reflect the psychological spirit of their age. Eschewing such comic-book tropes as secret identities and even costumes at first, having a monster as one of the heroes, and having its characters bicker and complain in what was later called a "superheroes in the real world" approach, the series represented a change that proved to be a great success.
Marvel often presented flawed superheroes, freaks, and misfits—unlike the perfect, handsome, athletic heroes found in previous traditional comic books. Some Marvel heroes looked like villains and monsters such as the Hulk and the Thing. This naturalistic approach even extended into topical politics.
Comics historian Mike Benton also noted:
In the world of [rival DC Comics'] Superman comic books, communism did not exist. Superman rarely crossed national borders or involved himself in political disputes. From 1962 to 1965, there were more communists [in Marvel Comics] than on the subscription list of Pravda. Communist agents attack Ant-Man in his laboratory, red henchmen jump the Fantastic Four on the moon, and Viet Cong guerrillas take potshots at Iron Man.
All of these elements struck a chord with the older readers, such as college-aged adults, and they successfully gained in a way not seen before. In 1965, Spider-Man and the Hulk were both featured in Esquire magazine's list of 28 college campus heroes, alongside John F. Kennedy and Bob Dylan. In 2009 writer Geoff Boucher reflected that, "Superman and DC Comics instantly seemed like boring old Pat Boone; Marvel felt like The Beatles and the British Invasion. It was Kirby's artwork with its tension and psychedelia that made it perfect for the times—or was it Lee's bravado and melodrama, which was somehow insecure and brash at the same time?"
In addition to Spider-Man and the Fantastic Four, Marvel began publishing further superhero titles featuring such heroes and antiheroes as the Hulk, Thor, Ant-Man, Iron Man, the X-Men, Daredevil, the Inhumans, Black Panther, Doctor Strange, Captain Marvel and the Silver Surfer, and such memorable antagonists as Doctor Doom, Magneto, Galactus, Loki, the Green Goblin, and Doctor Octopus, all existing in a shared reality known as the Marvel Universe, with locations that mirror real-life cities such as New York, Los Angeles and Chicago.
Cadence Industries ownershipEdit
In 1968, while selling 50 million comic books a year, company founder Goodman revised the constraining distribution arrangement with Independent News he had reached under duress during the Atlas years, allowing him now to release as many titles as demand warranted. Late that year he sold Marvel Comics and his other publishing businesses to the Perfect Film and Chemical Corporation, which continued to group them as the subsidiary Magazine Management Company, with Goodman remaining as publisher. In 1969, Goodman finally ended his distribution deal with Independent by signing with Curtis Circulation Company.
In 1971, the United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare approached Marvel Comics editor-in-chief Stan Lee to do a comic book story about drug abuse. Lee agreed and wrote a three-part Spider-Man story portraying drug use as dangerous and unglamorous. However, the industry's self-censorship board, the Comics Code Authority, refused to approve the story because of the presence of narcotics, deeming the context of the story irrelevant. Lee, with Goodman's approval, published the story regardless in The Amazing Spider-Man #96–98 (May–July 1971), without the Comics Code seal. The market reacted well to the storyline, and the CCA subsequently revised the Code the same year.
Goodman retired as publisher in 1972 and installed his son, Chip, as publisher, Shortly thereafter, Lee succeeded him as publisher and also became Marvel's president for a brief time. During his time as president, he appointed as editor-in-chief Roy Thomas, who added "Stan Lee Presents" to the opening page of each comic book.
A series of new editors-in-chief oversaw the company during another slow time for the industry. Once again, Marvel attempted to diversify, and with the updating of the Comics Code achieved moderate to strong success with titles themed to horror (The Tomb of Dracula), martial arts, (Shang-Chi: Master of Kung Fu), sword-and-sorcery (Conan the Barbarian, Red Sonja), satire (Howard the Duck) and science fiction (2001: A Space Odyssey, "Killraven" in Amazing Adventures, Battlestar Galactica, Star Trek, and, late in the decade, the long-running Star Wars series). Some of these were published in larger-format black and white magazines, under its Curtis Magazines imprint. Marvel was able to capitalize on its successful superhero comics of the previous decade by acquiring a new newsstand distributor and greatly expanding its comics line. Marvel pulled ahead of rival DC Comics in 1972, during a time when the price and format of the standard newsstand comic were in flux. Goodman increased the price and size of Marvel's November 1971 cover-dated comics from 15 cents for 36 pages total to 25 cents for 52 pages. DC followed suit, but Marvel the following month dropped its comics to 20 cents for 36 pages, offering a lower-priced product with a higher distributor discount.
Goodman, now disconnected from Marvel, set up a new company called Seaboard Periodicals in 1974, reviving Marvel's old Atlas name for a new Atlas Comics line, but this lasted only a year and a half. In the mid-1970s a decline of the newsstand distribution network affected Marvel. Cult hits such as Howard the Duck fell victim to the distribution problems, with some titles reporting low sales when in fact the first specialty comic book stores resold them at a later date. But by the end of the decade, Marvel's fortunes were reviving, thanks to the rise of direct market distribution—selling through those same comics-specialty stores instead of newsstands.
Marvel held its own comic book convention, Marvelcon '75, in spring 1975, and promised a Marvelcon '76. At the 1975 event, Stan Lee used a Fantastic Four panel discussion to announce that Jack Kirby, the artist co-creator of most of Marvel's signature characters, was returning to Marvel after having left in 1970 to work for rival DC Comics. In October 1976, Marvel, which already licensed reprints in different countries, including the UK, created a superhero specifically for the British market. Captain Britain debuted exclusively in the UK, and later appeared in American comics.
In 1978, Jim Shooter became Marvel's editor-in-chief. Although a controversial personality, Shooter cured many of the procedural ills at Marvel, including repeatedly missed deadlines. During Shooter's nine-year tenure as editor-in-chief, Chris Claremont and John Byrne's run on the Uncanny X-Men and Frank Miller's run on Daredevil became critical and commercial successes. Shooter brought Marvel into the rapidly evolving direct market, institutionalized creator royalties, starting with the Epic Comics imprint for creator-owned material in 1982; introduced company-wide crossover story arcs with Contest of Champions and Secret Wars; and in 1986 launched the ultimately unsuccessful New Universe line to commemorate the 25th anniversary of the Marvel Comics imprint. Star Comics, a children-oriented line differing from the regular Marvel titles, was briefly successful during this period.
Despite Marvel's successes in the early 1980s, it lost ground to rival DC in the latter half of the decade as many former Marvel stars defected to the competitor. DC scored critical and sales victories with titles and limited series such as Watchmen, Batman: The Dark Knight Returns, Crisis on Infinite Earths, Byrne's revamp of Superman, and Alan Moore's Swamp Thing.
Marvel Entertainment Group ownershipEdit
In 1986, Marvel's parent, Marvel Entertainment Group (MEG), was sold to New World Entertainment, which within three years sold it to MacAndrews and Forbes, owned by Revlon executive Ronald Perelman in 1989. In 1991 Perelman took MEG public. Following the rapid rise of this stock, Perelman issued a series of junk bonds that he used to acquire other entertainment companies, secured by MEG stock.
Marvel earned a great deal of money with their 1980s children's comics imprint Star Comics and they earned a great deal more money and worldwide success during the comic book boom of the early 1990s, launching the successful 2099 line of comics set in the future (Spider-Man 2099, etc.) and the creatively daring though commercially unsuccessful Razorline imprint of superhero comics created by novelist and filmmaker Clive Barker. In 1990, Marvel began selling Marvel Universe Cards with trading card maker SkyBox International. These were collectible trading cards that featured the characters and events of the Marvel Universe. The 1990s saw the rise of variant covers, cover enhancements, swimsuit issues, and company-wide crossovers that affected the overall continuity of the fictional Marvel Universe
Marvel suffered a blow in early 1992, when seven of its most prized artists — Todd McFarlane (known for his work on Spider-Man), Jim Lee (X-Men), Rob Liefeld (X-Force), Marc Silvestri (Wolverine), Erik Larsen (The Amazing Spider-Man), Jim Valentino (Guardians of the Galaxy), and Whilce Portacio — left to form Image Comics in a deal brokered by Malibu Comics' owner Scott Mitchell Rosenberg. Three years later Rosenberg sold Malibu to Marvel on November 3, 1994, who acquired the then-leading standard for computer coloring of comic books (developed by Rosenberg) in the process, but also integrating the Genesis Universe (Earth-1136) and the Ultraverse (Earth-93060) into Marvel's multiverse.
In late 1994, Marvel acquired the comic book distributor Heroes World Distribution to use as its own exclusive distributor. As the industry's other major publishers made exclusive distribution deals with other companies, the ripple effect resulted in the survival of only one other major distributor in North America, Diamond Comic Distributors Inc. Then, by the middle of the decade, the industry had slumped, and in December 1996 MEG filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection. In early 1997, when Marvel's Heroes World endeavor failed, Diamond also forged an exclusive deal with Marvel—giving the company its own section of its comics catalog Previews.
In 1996, Marvel had some of its titles participate in "Heroes Reborn", a crossover that allowed Marvel to relaunch some of its flagship characters such as the Avengers and the Fantastic Four, and outsource them to the studios of two of the former Marvel artists turned Image Comics founders, Jim Lee and Rob Liefeld. The relaunched titles, which saw the characters transported to a parallel universe with a history distinct from the mainstream Marvel Universe, were a solid success amidst a generally struggling industry, but Marvel discontinued the experiment after a one-year run and returned the characters to the Marvel Universe proper.
In 1997, Toy Biz and MEG merged to end the bankruptcy, forming a new corporation, Marvel Enterprises. With his business partner Avi Arad, publisher Bill Jemas, and editor-in-chief Bob Harras, Toy Biz co-owner Isaac Perlmutter helped stabilize the comics line.
In 1998, the company launched the imprint Marvel Knights, taking place just outside Marvel continuity with better production qualtity. The imprint was helmed by soon-to-become editor-in-chief Joe Quesada; it featured tough, gritty stories showcasing such characters as the Daredevil, Inhumans and Black Panther.
With the new millennium, Marvel Comics emerged from bankruptcy and again began diversifying its offerings. In 2001, Marvel withdrew from the Comics Code Authority and established its own Marvel Rating System for comics. The first title from this era to not have the code was X-Force #119 (October 2001). Marvel also created new imprints, such as MAX (an explicit-content line) and Marvel Adventures (developed for child audiences). In addition, the company created an alternate universe imprint, Ultimate Marvel, that allowed the company to reboot its major titles by revising and updating its characters to introduce to a new generation.
Some of its characters have been turned into successful film franchises, such as the Men in Black movie series, starting in 1997, Blade movie series, starting in 1998, X-Men movie series, starting in 2000, and the highest grossing series Spider-Man, beginning in 2002.
In a cross-promotion, the November 1, 2006, episode of the CBS soap opera The Guiding Light, titled "She's a Marvel", featured the character Harley Davidson Cooper (played by Beth Ehlers) as a superheroine named the Guiding Light. The character's story continued in an eight-page backup feature, "A New Light", that appeared in several Marvel titles published November 1 and 8. Also that year, Marvel created a wiki on its Web site.
In 2009 Marvel Comics closed its Open Submissions Policy, in which the company had accepted unsolicited samples from aspiring comic book artists, saying the time-consuming review process had produced no suitably professional work. The same year, the company commemorated its 70th anniversary, dating to its inception as Timely Comics, by issuing the one-shot Marvel Mystery Comics 70th Anniversary Special #1 and a variety of other special issues.
Disney conglomerate unit (2009–present)Edit
On August 31, 2009, The Walt Disney Company announced a deal to acquire Marvel Comics' parent corporation, Marvel Entertainment, for $4 billion or $4.2 billion, with Marvel shareholders to receive $30 and 0.745 Disney shares for each share of Marvel they own. As of 2008, Marvel and its major, longtime competitor DC Comics shared over 80% of the American comic-book market. As of September 2010, Marvel switched its bookstores distribution company from Diamond Book Distributors to Hachette Distribution Services.
Marvel discontinued its Marvel Adventures imprint in March 2012, and replaced them with a line of two titles connected to the Marvel Universe TV block. Also in March, Marvel announced its Marvel ReEvolution initiative that included Infinite Comics, a line of digital comics, Marvel AR, an application software that provides an augmented reality experience to readers and Marvel NOW!, a relaunch of most of the company's major titles with different creative teams. Marvel NOW! also saw the debut of new flagship titles including Uncanny Avengers and All-New X-Men.
In April 2013, Marvel and other Disney conglomerate components began announcing joint projects. With ABC, a Once Upon a Time graphic novel was announced for publication in September. With Disney, Marvel announced in October 2013 that in January 2014 it would release its first title under their joint "Disney Kingdoms" imprint "Seekers of the Weird", a five-issue miniseries. On January 3, 2014, fellow Disney subsidiary Lucasfilm Limited, LLC announced that as of 2015, Star Wars comics would once again be published by Marvel.
- Michael Z. Hobson, Executive Vice President, Publishing Group vice-president, publishing (1986)
- Stan Lee, executive vice president & publisher (1986)
- Joseph Calamari, executive vice president (1986)
- Jim Shooter, vice president and Editor-in-Chief (1986)
- Abraham Goodman 1939 – ?
- Martin Goodman ? – 1972
- Charles "Chip" Goodman 1972
- Stan Lee 1972 – October 1996
- Shirrel Rhoades October 1996 – October 1998
- Winston Fowlkes February 1998 – November 1999
- Bill Jemas February 2000 – 2003
- Dan Buckley 2003–present
Marvel's chief editor originally held the title of "editor". This head editor's title later became "editor-in-chief". Joe Simon was the company's first true chief-editor, with publisher Martin Goodman, who had served as titular editor only and outsourced editorial operations.
In 1994 Marvel briefly abolished the position of editor-in-chief, replacing Tom DeFalco with five group editors-in-chief. As Carl Potts described the 1990s editorial arrangement:
In the early '90s, Marvel had so many titles that there were three Executive Editors, each overseeing approximately 1/3 of the line. Bob Budiansky was the third Executive Editor [following the previously appointed Mark Gruenwald and Potts]. We all answered to Editor-in-Chief Tom DeFalco and Publisher Mike Hobson. All three Executive Editors decided not to add our names to the already crowded credits on the Marvel titles. Therefore it wasn't easy for readers to tell which titles were produced by which Executive Editor … In late '94, Marvel reorganized into a number of different publishing divisions, each with its own Editor-in-Chief.
Marvel reinstated the overall editor-in-chief position in 1995 with Bob Harras.
Originally called associate editor when Marvel's chief editor just carried the title of editor, the title of the next highest editorial position became executive editor under the chief editor title of editor-in-chief. The title of associate editor later was revived under the editor-in-chief as an editorial position in charge of few titles under the direction of an editor and without an assistant editor.
- Associate Editor
- Executive Editor
- Martin Goodman (1939–1961–1968)
- Parent corporation
Located in New York City, Marvel has had successive headquarters:
- in the McGraw-Hill Building, where it originated as Timely Comics in 1939
- in suite 1401 of the Empire State Building
- at 635 Madison Avenue (the actual location, though the comic books' indicia listed the parent publishing-company's address of 625 Madison Ave.)
- 575 Madison Avenue;
- 387 Park Avenue South
- 10 East 40th Street
- 417 Fifth Avenue
- a 60,000-square-foot (5,600 m2) space at 135 W. 50th Street
In August 2016, Marvel held a 30.78% share of the comics market, compared to its competitor DC Comics' 39.27% share. By comparison, the companies respectively held 33.50% and 30.33% shares in 2013, and 40.81% and 29.94% shares in 2008.
Marvel characters in other mediaEdit
Marvel characters and stories have been adapted to many other media. Some of these adaptations were produced by Marvel Comics and its sister company, Marvel Studios, while others were produced by companies licensing Marvel material.
In June 1993, Marvel issued its collectable caps for milk caps game under the Hero Caps brand. In 2014, the Marvel Disk Wars: The Avengers Japanese TV series was launched together with a collectible game called Bachicombat, a game similar to the milk caps game, by Bandai.
Collectible card gamesEdit
The RPG industry brought the development of the collectible card game (CCG) in the early 1990s which there were soon Marvel characters were featured in CCG of their own starting in 1995 with Fleer's OverPower (1995–1999). Later collectible card game were:
- Marvel Superstars (2010–?) Upper Deck Company
- ReCharge Collectible Card Game (2001–? ) Marvel
- Vs. System (2004–2009, 2014–) Upper Deck Company
- X-Men Trading Card Game (2000–?) Wizards of the Coast
TSR published the pen-and-paper role-playing game Marvel Super Heroes in 1984. TSR then released in 1998 the Marvel Super Heroes Adventure Game which used a different system, the card-based SAGA system, than their first game. In 2003 Marvel Publishing published its own role-playing game, the Marvel Universe Roleplaying Game, that used a diceless stone pool system. In August 2011 Margaret Weis Productions announced it was developing a tabletop role-playing game based on the Marvel universe, set for release in February 2012 using its house Cortex Plus RPG system.
Video games based on Marvel characters go back to 1984 and the Atari game, Spider-Man. Since then several dozen video games have been released and all have been produced by outside licensees. In 2014, Disney Infinity 2.0: Marvel Super Heroes was released that brought Marvel characters to the existing Disney sandbox video game.
As of the start of September 2015, films based on Marvel's properties represent the highest-grossing U.S. franchise, having grossed over $7.7 billion  as part of a worldwide gross of over $18 billion.
- The Marvel Experience (2014–)
- Marvel Universe Live! (2014–) live arena show
- Spider-Man Live! (2002–2003)
- Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark (2011–2014) a Broadway musical
Marvel first licensed two prose novels to Bantam Books, who printed The Avengers Battle the Earth Wrecker by Otto Binder (1967) and Captain America: The Great Gold Steal by Ted White (1968). Various publishers took up the licenses from 1978 to 2002. Also, with the various licensed films being released beginning in 1997, various publishers put out movie novelizations. In 2003, following publication of the prose young adult novel Mary Jane, starring Mary Jane Watson from the Spider-Man mythos, Marvel announced the formation of the publishing imprint Marvel Press. However, Marvel moved back to licensing with Pocket Books from 2005 to 2008. With few books issued under the imprint, Marvel and Disney Books Group relaunched Marvel Press in 2011 with the Marvel Origin Storybooks line.
Many television series, both live-action and animated, have based their productions on Marvel Comics characters. These include multiple series for popular characters such as Spider-Man, Iron Man and the X-Men. Additionally, a handful of television movies, usually also pilots, based on Marvel Comics characters have been made.
Marvel has licensed its characters for theme-parks and attractions, including at the Universal Orlando Resort's Islands of Adventure, in Orlando, Florida, which includes rides based on their iconic characters and costumed performers.
Walt Disney Parks and Resorts plans on creating original Marvel attractions at their theme parks, with Hong Kong Disneyland becoming the first Disney theme park to feature a Marvel attraction. Due to the licensing agreement with Universal Studios, signed prior to Disney's purchase of Marvel, Walt Disney World and Tokyo Disney are barred from having Marvel characters in their parks. However, this only includes characters Universal is currently using, other characters in their "families" (X-Men, Avengers, Fantastic Four, etc.), and the villains associated with said characters. This clause has allowed Walt Disney World to have meet and greets, merchandise, attractions and more with other Marvel characters not associated with the characters at Islands of Adventures, such as Star-Lord and Gamora from Guardians of the Galaxy as well as Baymax and Hiro from Big Hero 6.
- Disney Kingdoms
- Marvel Comics
- Marvel Press, joint imprint with Disney Books Group
- Icon Comics (creator owned)
- Infinite Comics
- Amalgam Comics
- Curtis Magazines/Marvel Magazine Group
- Marvel Monsters Group
- Epic Comics (creator owned) (1982–2004)
- Malibu Comics (1994–1997)
- Marvel 2099 (1992–1998)
- Marvel Absurd
- Marvel Age/Adventures
- Marvel Books
- Marvel Edge
- Marvel Knights
- Marvel Illustrated
- Marvel Mangaverse
- Marvel Music
- Marvel Next
- Marvel Noir
- Marvel UK
- Marvel Frontier
- New Universe
- Paramount Comics (co-owned with Viacom's Paramount Pictures)
- Star Comics
- Ultimate Comics
- Apocryphal legend has it that in 1961, either Jack Liebowitz or Irwin Donenfeld of DC Comics (then known as National Periodical Publications) bragged about DC's success with the Justice League (which had debuted in The Brave and the Bold #28 [February 1960] before going on to its own title) to publisher Martin Goodman (whose holdings included the nascent Marvel Comics) during a game of golf.
However, film producer and comics historian Michael Uslan partly debunked the story in a letter published in Alter Ego #43 (December 2004), pp. 43–44
Irwin said he never played golf with Goodman, so the story is untrue. I heard this story more than a couple of times while sitting in the lunchroom at DC's 909 Third Avenue and 75 Rockefeller Plaza office as Sol Harrison and [production chief] Jack Adler were schmoozing with some of us … who worked for DC during our college summers.... [T]he way I heard the story from Sol was that Goodman was playing with one of the heads of Independent News, not DC Comics (though DC owned Independent News). … As the distributor of DC Comics, this man certainly knew all the sales figures and was in the best position to tell this tidbit to Goodman. … Of course, Goodman would want to be playing golf with this fellow and be in his good graces. … Sol worked closely with Independent News' top management over the decades and would have gotten this story straight from the horse's mouth.
Goodman, a publishing trend-follower aware of the JLA's strong sales, confirmably directed his comics editor, Stan Lee, to create a comic-book series about a team of superheroes. According to Lee in Origins of Marvel Comics (Simon and Schuster/Fireside Books, 1974), p. 16: "Martin mentioned that he had noticed one of the titles published by National Comics seemed to be selling better than most. It was a book called The [sic] Justice League of America and it was composed of a team of superheroes. … ' If the Justice League is selling ', spoke he, 'why don't we put out a comic book that features a team of superheroes?'"
- Sanderson, Peter (November 20, 2007). The Marvel Comics Guide to New York City. Gallery Books.
- "8 Real & Fictional Addresses of Superheroes in New York City". Dorkly. April 27, 2011.
- Claremont, Chris (w), Byrne, John (a), Austin, Terry (i). "Elegy". The Uncanny X-Men #138 (October 1980). Marvel Comics.
- Johnston, Rich (September 28, 2011). "Teen Titans #1 Burnt Down The X-Men Mansion". Bleeding Cool.
- Lascala, Marisa (June 2011). "We’re Not in Westchester Anymore, Toto: X-Men Movie Confuses Westchester with England". Hudson Valley.
- Phegley, Kiel (February 26, 2013). "Waid's 'Indestructible Hulk' Goes On Tour With Walt Simonson". Comic Book Resources.
- Postal indicia in issue, per Marvel Comics #1 [1st printing] (October 1939) at the Grand Comics Database: "Vol.1, No.1, MARVEL COMICS, Oct, 1939 Published monthly by Timely Publications, … Art and editorial by Funnies Incorporated..."
- Per statement of ownership, dated October 2, 1939, published in Marvel Mystery Comics #4 (Feb. 1940), p. 40; reprinted in Marvel Masterworks: Golden Age Marvel Comics Volume 1 (Marvel Comics, 2004, ISBN 0-7851-1609-5), p. 239
- Writer-artist Bill Everett's Sub-Mariner had actually been created for an undistributed movie-theater giveaway comic, Motion Picture Funnies Weekly earlier that year, with the previously unseen, eight-page original story expanded by four pages for Marvel Comics #1.
- Per researcher Keif Fromm, Alter Ego #49, p. 4 (caption), Marvel Comics #1, cover-dated October 1939, quickly sold out 80,000 copies, prompting Goodman to produce a second printing, cover-dated November 1939. The latter appears identical except for a black bar over the October date in the inside front-cover indicia, and the November date added at the end. That sold approximately 800,000 copies—a large figure in the market of that time. Also per Fromm, the first issue of Captain America Comics sold nearly one million copies.
- Goulart, Ron (2000). Comic book culture: an illustrated history. Collectors Press, Inc. p. 173. ISBN 978-1-888054-38-5.. Preceding Captain America were MLJ Comics' the Shield and Fawcett Comics' Minute-Man.
- "Marvel : Timely Publications (Indicia Publisher)" at the Grand Comics Database. "This is the original business name under which Martin Goodman began publishing comics in 1939. It was used on all issues up to and including those cover-dated March 1941 or Winter 1940–1941, spanning the period from Marvel Comics #1 to Captain America Comics #1. It was replaced by Timely Comics, Inc. starting with all issues cover-dated April 1941 or Spring 1941."
- Daniels, Les (1991). Marvel: Five Fabulous Decades of the World's Greatest Comics. New York City: Harry N. Abrams. pp. 27, 32–33. ISBN 0-8109-3821-9.
Timely Publications became the name under which Goodman first published a comic book line. He eventually created a number of companies to publish comics … but Timely was the name by which Goodman's Golden Age comics were known. . . . Marvel wasn't always Marvel; in the early 1940s the company was known as Timely Comics....
- "GCD :: Story Search Results". comics.org.
- A Smithsonian Book of Comic-Book Comics. Smithsonian Institution/Harry N. Abrams. 1981.
- Lee, Stan; Mair, George (2002). Excelsior!: The Amazing Life of Stan Lee. Fireside Books. p. 22. ISBN 0-684-87305-2.
- Simon, Joe; with Simon, Jim (1990). The Comic Book Makers. Crestwood/II Publications. p. 208. ISBN 1-887591-35-4.
- Simon, Joe (2011). Joe Simon: My Life in Comics. London, UK: Titan Books. pp. 113–114. ISBN 978-1-84576-930-7.
- Cover, All Surprise Comics #12 at the Grand Comics Database
- Wright, Bradford W. (2001). Comic Book Nation: The Transformation of Youth Culture in America. The Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-8018-6514-5.
- "Marvel Entertainment Group, Inc.". International Directory of Company Histories, Vol. 10. Farmington Hills, Michigan: Gale / St. James Press, via FundingUniverse.com. 1995. Archived from the original on July 11, 2011. Retrieved September 28, 2011.
- Marvel : Atlas [wireframe globe] (Brand) at the Grand Comics Database
- Marvel Indicia Publishers at the Grand Comics Database
- Per Les Daniels in Marvel: Five Fabulous Decades of the World's Greatest Comics, pp. 67–68: "The success of EC had a definite influence on Marvel. As Stan Lee recalls, 'Martin Goodman would say, "Stan, let's do a different kind of book," and it was usually based on how the competition was doing. When we found that EC's horror books were doing well, for instance, we published a lot of horror books'".
- Boatz, Darrel L. (December 1988). "Stan Lee". Comics Interview (64). Fictioneer Books. pp. 15–16.
- ABCTvOnDemand. "Marvel: 75 Years, From Pulp to Pop!". YouTube.
- Wright, Bradford. Comic Book Nation: The Transformation of Youth Culture in America. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 9780801874505.
- Marvel : MC (Brand) at the Grand Comics Database.
- "Fantastic Four". Grand Comics Database.
- Roberts, Randy; Olson, James S. (1998). American Experiences: Readings in American History: Since 1865 (4 ed.). Addison–Wesley. p. 317. ISBN 978-0-321-01031-5.
Marvel Comics employed a realism in both characterization and setting in its superhero titles that was unequaled in the comic book industry.
- Genter, Robert (2007). "With Great Power Comes Great Responsibility': Cold War Culture and the Birth of Marvel Comics". The Journal of Popular Culture. 40 (6).
- Comics historian Greg Theakston has suggested that the decision to include monsters and initially to distance the new breed of superheroes from costumes was a conscious one, and born of necessity. Since DC distributed Marvel's output at the time, Theakston theorizes that, "Goodman and Lee decided to keep their superhero line looking as much like their horror line as they possibly could," downplaying "the fact that [Marvel] was now creating heroes" with the effect that they ventured "into deeper waters, where DC had never considered going". See Ro, pp. 87–88
- Benton, Mike (1991). Superhero Comics of the Silver Age: The Illustrated History. Dallas, Texas: Taylor Publishing Company. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-87833-746-0.
- Benton, p. 38.
- Howe, Sean (2012). Marvel Comics: The Untold Story. New York, NY: HarperCollins. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-06-199210-0.
- Boucher, Geoff (September 25, 2009). "Jack Kirby, the abandoned hero of Marvel's grand Hollywood adventure, and his family's quest". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on July 25, 2011. Retrieved September 28, 2011.
- "The Real Brand X". Time. October 31, 1960. Archived from the original on June 29, 2011. Retrieved April 27, 2010.
- Daniels, Les (September 1991). Marvel: Five Fabulous Decades of the World's Greatest Comics, Harry N Abrams. p. 139.
- Nyberg, Amy Kiste. Seal of Approval: History of the Comics Code. University Press of Mississippi, Jackson, Miss., 1998
- Ro, Ronin (2004). Tales to Astonish: Jack Kirby, Stan Lee and the American Comic Book Revolution. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 179.
- Lee, Mair, p. 5.
- Levitz, Paul (2010). 75 Years of DC Comics The Art of Modern Mythmaking. Taschen America. p. 451. ISBN 978-3-8365-1981-6.
Marvel took advantage of this moment to surpass DC in title production for the first time since 1957, and in sales for the first time ever.
- Daniels, Marvel, pp.154–155
- Cooke, Jon B. (December 2011). "Vengeance, Incorporated: A history of the short-lived comics publisher Atlas/Seaboard". Comic Book Artist (16). Archived from the original on December 1, 2010. Retrieved September 28, 2011.
- Bullpen Bulletins: "The King is Back! 'Nuff Said!", in Marvel Comics cover dated October 1975, including Fantastic Four #163
- Specific series- and issue-dates in article are collectively per GCD and other databases given under References
- Both pencils and inks per UHBMCC; GCD remains uncertain on inker.
- Howe, Sean (20 August 2014). "After His Public Downfall, Sin City's Frank Miller Is Back (And Not Sorry)". Wired. Condé Nast. Retrieved 21 January 2015.
- "Marvel Focuses On Direct Sales". The Comics Journal (59): 11–12. October 1980.
- "DC Overcomes Marvel In Sales". The Comics Journal (118): 24. December 1987.
- "Marvel Reaches Agreement to Emerge from Bankruptcy". The New York Times. July 11, 1997. p. D3. Archived from the original on June 7, 2011.
- "Clive Barker official site: Comics". Clivebarker.com. November 28, 1999. Retrieved August 10, 2012.
- "Independent Heroes from the USA: Clive Barker's Razorline". Internationalhero.co.uk. Retrieved August 10, 2012.
- "Bye Bye Marvel; Here Comes Image: Portacio, Claremont, Liefeld, Jim Lee Join McFarlane's New Imprint at Malibu". The Comics Journal (48): 11–12. February 1992.
- MULLIGAN, THOMAS S. (1992-02-19). "Holy Plot Twist : Marvel Comics' Parent Sees Artists Defect to Rival Malibu, Stock Dive". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 2016-02-01.
- Ehrenreich, Ben. "PHENOMENON; Comic Genius?" New York Times magazine (November 11, 2007).
- Reynolds, Eric. "The Rumors are True: Marvel Buys Malibu," The Comics Journal #173 (December 1994), pp. 29–33.
- "News!" Indy magazine #8 (1994), p. 7.
- Reynolds, Eric. "The Rumors are True: Marvel Buys Malibu," The Comics Journal #173 (December 1994), pp. 29-33.
- "Comics Publishers Suffer Tough Summer: Body Count Rises in Market Shakedown," The Comics Journal #172 (Nov. 1994), pp. 13-18.
- "Scott Rosenberg". Wizard World. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- Duin, Steve and Richardson, Mike (ed.s) "Capital City" in Comics Between the Panels (Dark Horse Publishing, 1998) ISBN 1-56971-344-8, p. 69
- Rozanski, Chuck (n.d.). "Diamond Ended Up With 50% of the Comics Market". MileHighComics.com. Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved April 27, 2010.
- "Diamond Comic Distributors acquires Capital City Distribution; Comic distribution industry stabilized by purchase". bNet: Business Wire via Findarticles.com. July 26, 1996. Archived from the original on May 25, 2012. Retrieved April 27, 2010.
- "Hello Again: Marvel Goes with Diamond", The Comics Journal #193 (February 1997), pp. 9–10.
- Duin, Steve and Richardson, Mike (ed.s) "Diamond Comic Distributors" in Comics Between the Panels (Dark Horse Publishing, 1998) ISBN 1-56971-344-8, p. 125-126
- Miller, John Jackson. "Capital Sale Tops Turbulent Year: The Top 10 Comics News Stories of 1996". CBGXtra. Archived from the original on November 7, 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-20.
- Raviv, Dan (2001). Comic War: Marvel's Battle for Survival. Heroes Books. ISBN 978-0-7851-1606-6.
- McMillan, Graeme. Page 10. "Leaving an Imprint: 10 Defunct MARVEL Publishing Lines". Newsarama (10 January 2013).
- "Franchises: Marvel Comics". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved April 27, 2010.
- "Guiding Light Comes to Comics! | Marvel.com News". Marvel.com. Retrieved April 27, 2010.
- Gustines, George (October 31, 2006). "Pulpy TV and Soapy Comics Find a Lot to Agree On". The New York Times.
- "Marvel Universe wiki". Marvel.com. June 11, 2007. Retrieved April 27, 2010.
- Colton, David. "Marvel Comics Shows Its Marvelous Colors in Online Archive", USA Today, November 12, 2007
- Doran, Michael (April 3, 2009). "C.B. Cebulski on Marvel's Closed Open Submissions Policy". Newsarama.com. Retrieved April 5, 2009.
- Frisk, Andy. Marvel Mystery Comics 70th Anniversary Special #1 (review), ComicBookBin.com, June 6, 2009.
- "Celebrate Marvel's 70th Anniversary with Your Local Comic Shop". Marvel Comics press release via ComicBookResources.com. July 31, 2009. Archived from the original on October 19, 2010.
- Wilkerson, David B. (August 31, 2009). "Disney to Acquire Marvel Entertainment for $4B". MarketWatch.com. Archived from the original on June 8, 2011. Retrieved October 4, 2011.
- "Marvel, Disney unveil 1st comic under new imprint". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Associated Press. October 8, 2013. Archived from the original on October 18, 2013. Retrieved October 17, 2013.
- Siklos, Richard (October 13, 2008). "Spoiler alert: Comic books are alive and kicking". CNN. Archived from the original on March 17, 2010. Retrieved May 1, 2010.
- "Marvel Goes With Hachette". ICV2. May 12, 2010. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
- Reid, Calvin (December 21, 2010). "Marvel Revives CrossGen with New Creators, New Stories". Publishers Weekly. Retrieved October 12, 2011.
- "'Cars' Creative Team On Marvel's Pixar Move". Comic Book Resources. February 17, 2011. Retrieved October 28, 2011.
- "Marvel Ends Current Kids Line of Comics". Comic Book Resources. December 19, 2011.
- "Marvel Launches All-Ages "Avengers" & "Ultimate Spider-Man" Comics". Comic Book Resources. January 24, 2012.
- "Marvel, circus company join forces for superhero arena show". Los Angeles Times. March 13, 2013. Retrieved 11 May 2013.
- "Marvel Wants You To Join The ReEvolution". Comic Book Resources. 12 March 2012.
- Alonso, Axel (17 August 2012). "Axel-In-Charge: "Avengers Vs. X-Men's" Final Phase". Comic Book Resources.
- Morse, Ben (5 July 2012). "Marvel NOW!". Marvel Comics. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
- Sands, Rich. (April 12, 2013) First Look: The Once Upon a Time Graphic Novel. TV Guide.com. Accessed on November 4, 2013.
- "'Star Wars' Comics Go to Marvel in 2015, Dark Horse Responds". Newsarama. January 3, 2014. Retrieved January 3, 2014.
- Whitbrook, James (June 4, 2015). "Marvel Will Launch An "All-New, All-Different" Universe This September". io9. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- Rhoades, Shirrel (2008). A complete history of American comic books. New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing. pp. X–XI. ISBN 978-1-4331-0107-6. Retrieved March 18, 2011.
- Gilroy, Dan (September 17, 1986). "Marvel Now a $100 Million Hulk: Marvel Divisions and Top Execs". Variety. p. 81. Archived from the original (jpeg) on February 14, 2012. Retrieved October 18, 2011.
- Weiland, Jonah (October 15, 2003). "Marvel confirms Buckley as new Publisher". Comic Book Resources. Retrieved August 31, 2011.
- "Interview: Carl Potts". PopImage.com. May 2000. Archived from the original on February 6, 2010.
- "1976–1979". DC Timeline. dccomicsartists.com. Archived from the original on September 29, 2011. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
- Frankenhoff, Brent (January 4, 2011). "Marvel editors Axel Alonso, Tom Brevoort promoted". Comics Buyer's Guide Extra. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
- Phegley, Kiel (January 4, 2011). "Alonso Named Marvel Editor-In-Chief". Comic Book Resources.
- Sanderson, Peter. The Marvel Comics Guide to New York City, (Pocket Books, 2007) p. 59. ISBN 978-1-4165-3141-8
- "Marvel to move to new, 60,000-square-foot offices in October". Comic Book Resources. September 21, 2010.
- Turner, Zake. "Where We Work", The New York Observer, December 21, 2010
- Johnston, Rich. "DC Comics Humiliates Marvel With August 2016 Marketshare, As Diamond Sets A Record Month Of Sales". Bleeding Cool News. Retrieved 18 September 2016.
- "BIG TWO COMIC PUBLISHERS LOSE SHARE". ICv2. January 8, 2014. Retrieved September 22, 2015.
- Routhier, Ray (July 26, 1993). "Will Cardboard Caps From Milk Bottles Become Cream Of All". Hartford Courant. Retrieved June 3, 2016.
- "Marvel Disk Wars: The Avengers Anime & Game's 1st Promo Streamed". Anime News Network. February 10, 2014. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
- Kim, John H. "RPG Encyclopedia: M". RPG Encyclopedia. darkshire.net. Retrieved December 8, 2011.
- Holochwost, George (August 5, 2011). "Gen Con: New Marvel Comics RPG Games Announced by Margaret Weis Productions". MTV.com. Archived from the original on September 28, 2011. Retrieved September 28, 2011.
- "Franchise Index". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved May 29, 2013.
- DeCandido, Keith R.A. "Marvel Comics in Prose: An Unofficial Guide". SFF.net. Archived from the original on October 5, 2011. Retrieved October 4, 2011.
- Weiland, Jonah (May 26, 2004). "Marvel Announces Creation of New Prose Imprint, Marvel Press". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on August 24, 2011. Retrieved August 24, 2011.
- Alverson, Brigid (July 15, 2011). "SDCC '11 | Disney to unveil Marvel Press imprint at San Diego". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on August 18, 2011. Retrieved September 28, 2011.
- "Marvel Agreement between MCA Inc. and Marvel Entertainment Group". sec.gov. U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.
- Universal's Islands of Adventures: Marvel Super Hero Island official site Archived June 20, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
- Dawn C. Chmielewski (March 14, 2012). "Walt Disney plans to deploy Marvel superheroes at its theme parks". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 4, 2012.
- "Disney Parks Might Soon Add Marvel Characters". Huffington Post. March 20, 2012. Retrieved April 4, 2012.
- Chu, Karen (8 October 2013). "Hong Kong Disneyland to Open 'Iron Man' Experience in 2016". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
- John Tsang (February 27, 2013). "The 2013–14 Budget – Promoting Tourism Industry". Hong Kong Government.
- Munarriz, Rick. "Disney is Taking Too Long to Add Marvel to Disneyland and Disney World". The Motley Fool. Retrieved 17 January 2016.
- "Guardians of the Galaxy theme park characters appear for first time as Walt Disney World welcomes Marvel". Inside the Magic.
- "Exclusive 'Guardians of the Galaxy' Sneak Peek Debuts July 4 at Disney Parks". Disney Parks Blog.
- "The Stars of 'Big Hero 6′ Are Ready for Their Disney Parks Debut". Disney Parks Blog.
- Lupoff, Dick; Thompson, Don (1997). All in Color for a Dime. Krause Publications. ISBN 0-87341-498-5.
- George, Milo (2001). Jack Kirby: The TCJ Interviews. Fantagraphics Books, Inc. ISBN 1-56097-434-6.
- Howe, Sean (2012). Marvel Comics: the Untold Story. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-199210-0.
- Jones, Gerard (2004). Men of Tomorrow: Geeks, Gangsters, and the Birth of the Comic Book. Basic Books,. ISBN 0-465-03657-0.
- Steranko, James. The Steranko History of Comics. 1. ISBN 0-517-50188-0.