Namor the Sub-Mariner (//) (Namor McKenzie) is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Debuting in early 1939, the character was created by writer-artist Bill Everett for Funnies Inc., one of the first "packagers" in the early days of comic books that supplied comics on demand to publishers looking to enter the new medium. Initially created for the unreleased comic Motion Picture Funnies Weekly, the Sub-Mariner first appeared publicly in Marvel Comics #1 (cover-dated Oct. 1939) – the first comic book from Timely Comics, the 1930s–1940s predecessor of the company Marvel Comics. During that period, known to historians and fans as the Golden Age of Comic Books, the Sub-Mariner was one of Timely's top three characters, along with Captain America and the original Human Torch. Everett said the character's name was inspired by Samuel Taylor Coleridge's poem, "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner". Everett came up with "Namor" by writing down noble-sounding names backwards and thought Roman/Namor looked the best.
|Namor the Sub-Mariner|
Cover of Sub-Mariner (2007) #1, textless variant.
Art by Michael Turner.
|First appearance||Motion Picture Funnies Weekly (April 1939)|
|Created by||Bill Everett (writer/artist)|
|Alter ego||Namor McKenzie|
|Species||Atlantean/Human Mutant hybrid|
|Place of origin||Atlantis|
|Notable aliases||Namor the First, The Avenging Son, Imperius Rex, The Sub-Mariner|
The mutant son of a human sea captain and a princess of the mythical undersea kingdom of Atlantis, Namor possesses the super-strength and aquatic abilities of the Homo mermanus race, as well as the mutant ability of flight, along with other superhuman powers. Through the years, he has been portrayed as an antihero alternately from a good-natured but short-fused superhero, or a hostile invader seeking vengeance for perceived wrongs that misguided surface-dwellers committed against his kingdom. The first known comic book antihero, the Sub-Mariner has remained a historically important and relatively popular Marvel character. He has served directly with the Avengers, the Fantastic Four, the Invaders, the Defenders, the X-Men, and the Illuminati as well as serving as a foil to them on occasion.
Namor the Sub-Mariner first appeared in April 1939 in the prototype for a planned giveaway comic titled Motion Picture Funnies Weekly, produced by the comic book packager Funnies Inc. The only eight known samples among those created to send to theater owners were discovered in the estate of the deceased publisher in 1974. When the giveaway idea fell through, creator Bill Everett used the character for Marvel Comics #1, the first comic book by Funnies, Inc. client Timely Comics, predecessor of Marvel Comics. The final panel of the earlier, unpublished eight-page Sub-Mariner story had included a "Continued Next Week" box that reappeared, sans lettering, in an expanded 12-page story. The series Marvel Comics was retitled Marvel Mystery Comics with issue #2 (Dec. 1939).
In his first appearances Namor was an enemy of the United States. Comics historian Les Daniels noted that "Namor was a freak in the service of chaos. Although the Sub-Mariner acted like a villain, his cause had some justice, and readers reveled in his assaults on civilization. His enthusiastic fans weren't offended by the carnage he created as he wrecked everything from ships to skyscrapers." Everett's antihero would eventually battle Carl Burgos' android superhero, the Human Torch, when in 1940 Namor threatened to sink the island of Manhattan underneath a tidal wave. When the U.S. entered World War II, Namor would aid the Allies of World War II against Adolf Hitler and the Axis powers. Supporting characters included Betty Dean, a New York City policewoman introduced in Marvel Mystery Comics #3 (and later known as Betty Dean-Prentiss), who was a steady companion, and his cousins Namora and Dorma.
Namor starred in the Golden Age comic book Sub-Mariner Comics, published quarterly, then thrice-yearly, and finally bimonthly, from issues #1–32 (Fall 1941 – June 1949). A backup feature each issue starred the detective-superhero the Angel. Along with many other Timely characters, Namor disappeared a few years after the end of World War II and the decline in popularity of superhero comics. He briefly fought crime as a member of the post-war superhero team the All-Winners Squad, and, through a 1970s retcon, was given a history of having fought with the Allies during World War II in the superhero team the Invaders. Both these super-groups were built around the core of Namor, Captain America, and the original Human Torch.
The Sub-Mariner experienced a brief revival in the mid-1950s at Atlas Comics, the 1950s iteration of Marvel. Along with Captain America and the original Human Torch, he was revived in Young Men #24. Soon afterward, Sub-Mariner Comics was revived with issues #33–42 (April 1954 – Oct. 1955). During this time, Namora had her own spin-off series. A planned live-action television program starring Namor did not appear and the revival of the comic book series was cancelled a second time.
Silver Age and afterEdit
Namor returned in Fantastic Four #4 (May 1962), where a member of the titular superhero team, Johnny Storm, the new Human Torch, discovers him living as an amnesiac homeless man in the Bowery section of Manhattan. Storm helps him recover his memory, and Namor immediately returns to his undersea kingdom – identified, for the first time in the Marvel canon, as Atlantis. Finding it destroyed from nuclear testing, Namor assumes his people are scattered and that he will never find them. He again becomes an antihero during this period, as two elements – a thirst for vengeance and a quest for identity – would dominate the Sub-Mariner stories of the 1960s. He was both a villain and a hero – striking against the human race who destroyed his home, but showing a great deal of noblesse oblige to individuals.
Initially, Namor variously finds himself allied with the supervillains Doctor Doom and Magneto, but his royal nobility and stubborn independent streak make these alliances-of-convenience short-lived. Namor's revival was a hit with readers, but Marvel could not give him his own title due to publication and distribution restrictions that would not be lifted until 1968. Instead, Namor was given numerous guest-appearances – including in Daredevil #7 (April 1965), a rare superhero story drawn by comics great Wally Wood – and a starring feature in the split-title comic Tales to Astonish (beginning issue #70, Aug. 1965). By now, during a period fans and historians call the Silver Age of Comic Books, he is more authoritative, arrogant and solemn than the impetuous youthful character of the 1940s and mid-1950s, speaking in neo-Shakespearean dialogue rather than the more colloquial speech of his youth, often shouting his battle cry, "Imperius Rex!".
He was spun off into his own title, the 1968–74 series Sub-Mariner. The super-villain Tiger Shark was introduced in issue #5 by writer Roy Thomas and artist John Buscema and the super-hero Stingray in issue #19 by Thomas and Bill Everett. Some of the later issues of this Sub-Mariner series are notable for having been written and drawn by the character's creator, Bill Everett, shortly before his death; as well, they reintroduced a now-older Namora, and introduced her daughter, Namorita Prentiss. By now more of a reluctant superhero "the Sub-Mariner was perfect for the Marvel Age of angst-ridden protagonists. Noble yet misunderstood, powerful yet thwarted ... [he was] portrayed as a regal monarch – a king without a country." The final issue, #72 (Sept. 1974), was written by Steve Skeates and featured an unofficial intercompany crossover with the last issue of DC Comics' Aquaman series. A five- to six-page backup feature, "Tales of Atlantis", chronicling the undersea kingdom from its ancient origins, appeared in issues #62–66 (June–Oct. 1973), written by Gerber, with penciling by Howard Chaykin and later Jim Mooney. After the cancellation of Sub-Mariner, Namor co-starred with Doctor Doom in the Super-Villain Team-Up series. The series suffered from mediocre sales due to its lack of a stable creative team, and following issue #13 Namor was dropped from the co-star spot.
Following a four-issue miniseries a decade later, Prince Namor, the Sub-Mariner (Sept.-Dec. 1984), by scripter/co-plotter J. M. DeMatteis, penciler/co-plotter Bob Budiansky, and inker Danny Bulanadi, the 12-issue maxiseries The Saga of the Sub-Mariner (Nov. 1988 – Oct. 1989) provided a retrospective of Namor's past adventures while tying up loose plot threads and resolving contradictions that had accumulated over the character's decades of published history. Namor again received an ongoing series in 1990. Namor, the Sub-Mariner, which ran 62 issues (April 1990 – May 1995), was initially written and penciled by John Byrne who took over the inking as well from issues #4–21. Unlike all of Namor's previous series, the cover logo emphasized the character's name rather than the "Sub-Mariner" epithet. From #26–38, the series' penciler and eventual penciler-inker was then-newcomer Jae Lee, with Bob Harras scripting from #33–40. After three fill-in issues, the remainder of the series was written by Glenn Herdling and pencilled by Geof Isherwood. This series followed Namor as CEO of Oracle, Inc., a corporation devoted to reducing pollution, particularly in the oceans, and provided the stage for the return of the 1970s martial artist superhero Iron Fist, who had been presumed dead. Whereas J. M. DeMatteis saw his series as an opportunity to explore Namor much more deeply than he had been able to in the team book The Defenders, John Byrne felt that the character did not work well outside of a group context and accordingly gave Namor, the Sub-Mariner a massive supporting cast.
The 12-issue miniseries Namor (June 2003 – May 2004), credited to co-writers Bill Jemas (then Marvel's president) and Andi Watson, and penciled initially by Salvador Larroca and later by Pat Olliffe and others, explored Namor's youth, charting his teenage romance with a young American girl in the early 20th century. A six-issue miniseries, Sub-Mariner vol. 2 (Aug. 2007 – Jan. 2008), by co-writers Matt Cherniss and Peter Johnson and, primarily, artist Phil Briones, introduced Namor's heretofore undisclosed son, Kamar.
Namor has also served alongside, or even as a member of, superhero teams – most notably the Defenders, which included Doctor Strange, the Hulk, and the Silver Surfer. Other groups he was associated with included the Avengers; and both the World War II and modern-day versions of the Invaders.
Marvel revived The Defenders, with Namor on the team, in December 2011. The series was cancelled after 12 issues.
He became one of the main characters, along with the other Illuminati members, in the third volume of New Avengers beginning in 2013.
Fictional character biographyEdit
As related in Marvel Comics #1 (cover-dated Oct. 1939) and subsequent, expanded retellings of his origin story, Namor was born in the capital city of the initially unnamed Atlantean empire, then located off the Antarctic coast. His mother was Emperor Thakorr's daughter, Fen, and his father an American sea captain, Leonard McKenzie, of the icebreaker Oracle; they had fallen in love and married aboard ship while she was, unbeknownst to him, spying on the human intruders. When Fen did not return, Atlantean warriors attacked the Oracle, evidently killing McKenzie, and returned Fen to her kingdom. The pink-skinned mutant Namor was subsequently born among the blue-skinned Atlanteans. He became the Prince of Atlantis, and a warrior for his people against the "surface-dwellers". He became friends with New York City police woman Betty Dean in Marvel Mystery Comics #3 (Jan. 1940), and when the U.S. entered World War II, he began fighting the Axis powers. In flashback stories beginning in the 1970s, he was retconned as a member of the Allied superhero team the Invaders, consisting originally of himself, Captain America, Bucky, the original Human Torch, and Toro.
Namor is injured after the war, and in Fantastic Four #4 is shown living in the flophouse Bowery district of Manhattan as an amnesiac derelict. Regaining his memory in this story, he becomes enraged upon learning that the original site of Atlantis was destroyed by nuclear testing, its inhabitants evacuated. Namor vows revenge on humanity, but after several attacks thwarted by superheroes, including in Fantastic Four #6, 9, and 14 (Sept. and Dec. 1962, May 1963), Strange Tales #107 (April 1963), he finds his people and launches an unsuccessful invasion of New York City in Fantastic Four Annual #1 (1963).
Sometime before his return as the sub-mariner however, Namor made friends with the family of fellow world war II veteran, Randall Peterson. Even when Namor'd lost his memories after the fight with Destine, he'd instinctively remembered his connection to their family when Randall's daughter, Nay Peterson went into labor. Mr. McKenzie would live amongst the Randall house for a while longer until he was approached by Charles Xavier. Namor would join him for a time in searching for other mutants much like themselves, during these travels it was revealed as to why Namor suffered episodes of emotional imbalance. Professor Xavier would attempt to delve into the Sub-Mariners mind in order to quell his personal trauma from WWII. This instead solidified the bipolar disorder that Namor suffer's from throughout his life, culminating in the manifestation of a delusion modeled after another friend he'd lost to the Nazi Party many decades later.
Namor Mackenzie returns to Atlantis to marry his royal cousin, Lady Dorma. In Sub-Mariner #37 (May 1971), the evil princess Llyra of Lemuria, another undersea culture, kidnaps and replaces Dorma at the wedding, hoping to usurp Namor's kingdom. Though Namor's marriage to Dorma is still official, she dies as a result of Llyra's machinations. In issues #45–46 (Nov.-Dec. 1971) Namor finally meets his father, long thought dead, only to lose him when McKenzie gives his life in battle against the supervillain Tiger Shark.
Namor allies with the "non-team" the Defenders initially in Marvel Feature #1–3, Dec. 1971 – June 1972, then in the series The Defenders. After being deposed from his throne, Namor joins the superhero team the Avengers. He is briefly married to Marrina, an aquatic alien and a member of the Canadian super-team Alpha Flight. She is later presumed killed, but she is later revealed to be in a coma, of which Namor is unaware.
Father-daughter oceanographers Caleb and Carrie Alexander, theorizing that Namor's propensity toward rage is due to his half-human half-Atlantean blood chemistry, equip Namor with a monitor to warn when he has to seek either air or water. This allows Namor to control his metabolism. He collects sunken treasures to finance his secret purchase of a corporation he renames Oracle Inc., which he turns to conservation and environmental purposes. Later, Namor loses his ankle-wings during a battle with the animated garbage-monster Sluj, but they are later restored. While continuing his business endeavors, Namor travels to the dimension of K'un-L'un, where he finds and brings back the superhero Iron Fist, who had been presumed dead for many months. Namor once again rules Atlantis, and Oracle begins sponsoring the charitable super-group Heroes for Hire.
In the one-shot New Avengers: Illuminati (May 2006), Namor is revealed to have been a member for several years of the clandestine policy group the Illuminati, with Mister Fantastic, Iron Man, Doctor Strange, Professor X, and Black Bolt. In the series Sub-Mariner vol. 2, #1–6 (Aug. 2007 – Jan. 2008), he discovers his long-lost son Kamar, who attempts to usurp the throne of Atlantis but is killed by the supervillain Nitro.
In 2011, Namor joined the mutant superhero team the X-Men. Namor helped with the Curse of the Mutants, and Avengers vs. X-Men events, before joining the Illuminati, and All-New Invaders. That same year, during the "Fear Itself" storyline, Namor enlists the aid of Lyra, Loa, Silver Surfer, and Doctor Strange after he is ousted from his kingdom by Attuma, who was transformed into Nerkodd: Breaker of Oceans. They later get attacked by the Undying Ones, demons who break through Earth's dimension as a result of the global panic weakening the barriers between the dimensions and who make a deal with Nerkodd to help them take over Earth.
When the X-Men relocated to Utopia off the coast of San Francisco, Namor assists them due to his sympathy with their status as outsiders. As a result, he sides with the X-Men during the subsequent war with the Avengers over the coming of the Phoenix Force to Earth, eventually becoming one of the 'Phoenix Five' when the Phoenix Force is fractured between himself, Cyclops, Emma Frost, Colossus and Magik. He is eventually defeated by a mass attack from the Avengers when he attacks Wakanda, becoming the first of the Phoenix Five to fall.
Having recovered his senses after his time as one of the Phoenix Five, Namor rejoins the Illuminati when Black Panther calls for their aid – Beast replacing the deceased Professor X – in dealing with an incursion event as an alternate universe threatens to collide with their own. Although they are forced to destroy the other Earth to protect their own, the Illuminati resolve to continue protecting their Earth from such events, only for Namor to detonate an anti-matter device to destroy another Earth when the others could not bring themselves to do it. Believing that the Illuminati's morality is holding them back, Namor assembles a new Cabal to deal with the incursions, but despite the team achieving legitimacy as Earth's protectors, Namor grows weary of the wholesale slaughter they carry out in the name of preserving their universe. Although he collaborates with the Illuminati in a plan to destroy the Cabal by trapping them on the next Earth to be destroyed, the Black Panther and Black Bolt leave him behind to die with the Cabal, disgusted at his earlier actions. A second simultaneous Incursion allows Namor and the Cabal to escape to the third Earth, in the Ultimate Universe.
The members of the new Squadron Supreme evacuate and destroy Atlantis after deeming it a threat to world peace. Hyperion decapitates Namor in retaliation for the worlds destroyed by the Cabal. Due to a mishap with Mister Fantastic's magically-enhanced time machine, the time distortion phantoms of Doctor Spectrum and Hyperion are sent back in time where this incident resulted in Namor being revived.
During the "Secret Empire" storyline, Namor had been holding the Cosmic Cube shard and prepared to switch it with the fake one before HYDRA's invasion on Atlantis. Upon Hydra's Avengers finding the fake Cosmic Cube shard, they leveled the Atlantean temple that it was held in. Captain America later puts Namor into a position where he will be forced to sign a peace treaty that would enable Hydra to access the Cosmic Cube fragment in Atlantis. It is revealed that Namor also found and hid his old ally Winter Soldier, who survived from being launched by Zemo, and being offered to disguise himself as his unidentified bodyguard. With the heroes finally finding a way to defeat Hydra by locating the remaining pieces of Cosmic Cubes before Hydra, Namor and Bucky finally join their allies for their final battle against Hydra at Washington, D.C.
Namor crashes Tiger Shark's battle with Stingray where he demanded their allegiance. When Stingray tried to reason with Namor, he was attacked by the War Sharks summoned by Namor. This caused Tiger Shark to swear his allegiance to Namor. The two of them form the Defenders of the Deep with Orka, Andromeda, Echidna, the Piranhas, Fathom Five members Bloodtide and Manowar, and King Crab. Namor states that the surface-dwellers can have their land and the Avengers while the Defenders of the Deep will protect the oceans and those who live within it. The Defenders of the Deep encountered the Avengers where Captain America voices his disappointment in Namor for Stingray nearly getting killed. Their fight is crashed by the Winter Guard who are also after the Defenders of the Deep. The Defenders of the Deep got away.
The maddened Namor would venture to seek other avenues of consolidating a solid war power while defending the oceans from surface dwellers. While the Defenders of the Deep deal with Hydropolis, Namor would seek out a long defected splinter sect of Atlanteans known as the Vodani in order to fortify his war on the hated airbreathers, but they had long since sequestered themselves far from the Earth's oceans and onto another planet. Something Namor wouldn't find out til after he'd went searching for them, unknowingly stumbling onto a plot by demons to destroy the earth for profit. Namor would seek to make an alliance with the Atlantean castaways in order to bolster his armies. He was lead to believe by vanquishing an old foe of their society, they would consider Namor's proposal. But the task of slaying a creature in order to gain their trust was a snark hunt. A ruse set up by the Vodani King in order to leave him more vulnerable to a sneak attack they had in store for the Submariner whether he succeeded or failed. As the Vodani and their leader had grown to despise anything related to what they came to see as impure Atlanteans, opting to kill them on sight rather than parley with them. A furious Namor would do battle with the rival leader, but found himself to be quickly outmatched and was on the verge of dying. Until he took advantage of certain insights he learned using a portal which lead to the Vodani's homeworld from Earth, flying his hateful adversary into the vacuous depths of space where he would suffocate and die, as would have Namor himself if not for the unexpected arrival in the form of a cosmic godsend. Finding aid in an old colleague from his days on the Defenders, Namor learns from Silver Surfer about an old enemy having become a universal threat which is now heading towards the Sol Star System. In order to feed a cosmic entity known as the Conductor's engine of destruction Nebulon who has parasitically latched onto it via a devils deal conducted by rogue agents of hell, is directing its cosmic furnace towards Vodon to use it in order to stoke its fire. Unbeknownst to Namor however, a time tossed Doctor Strange and the Immortal Hulk were also involved with the calamity sparked by hell and the demon possessed adversary. While on their end, Namor would make a sacrifice to the daughter of the monarch he'd killed. Both in order to save the planet after it was hurled from its orbit as well as undermine its new queen and forge the alliance he'd sought in the first place. But the woman scorned rebuked his request and uses her power over bio-electricity in order to fuel the Silver Surfer for the purpose of sending the planet Vodan into a star system with no planets to keep it from freezing to death. His plan now despoiled by his exile from their world, Namor returns to Earth in order to resume his war with the land dwellers after jokingly citing how the Non-Team up of the Defenders had saved it from annihilation. He then quotes to Silver Surfer that they should all get together and eat shawarma sometime.
Namor would again prep to assimilate Atlantean outliers into his military outfit, this time seeking a sect of shock-troopers known as the Sea Blades whom defected from Atlantis over a decade ago due to their future king's surface heritage. They found yet another separatist sect whom they had intermingled with while sequestered away from the main city.
As the blades prepped to assail their returned leader, Namor showcased his newfound water shifting abilities by parting the oceans and leaving the Sea Blades and their leader to asphyxiate unless they ceded leadership to him. After said altercation, he would go over his war plans with the ingratiated marine admiral Karris as the rest of his forces made their pilgrimage back to Atlantis. So awestruck was the once disavowing naval enforcer that he immediately signed on with Namor's plan to change the world. Revealing that in secret with his guide Marchen which only Namor can see and interact with. Namor's Atlantean technicians have been fabricating some kind of bomb that will target specific human DNA. To that end, he would incarcerate the metahuman criminal Hydro-Man in order to siphon his power over water into himself.
When his former friend Captain America presented himself to the Atlanteans in order to broker an agreement with Namor, he attacked Captain America in a rage while ranting about how Atlantis has taken the heat of the surface world's battles time and time again. Once more showcasing his power over the water by parting the oceans after shattering Roger's breathing helmet, Namor lets Steve go while telling him the next time they met, there would be no mercy.
Powers and abilitiesEdit
Because of his unusual genetic heritage, Namor is unique among both ordinary humans and Atlanteans; he is sometimes referred to as "Marvel's first mutant" because, while the majority of his observed superhuman powers come from the fact that he is a hybrid of human and Atlantean DNA, his ability to fly can't be explained by either side (Atlanteans are an offshoot of "baseline" humanity); though, in terms of in-continuity chronology, there were many mutants in existence before Namor. Namor possesses a fully amphibious physiology suited for extreme undersea pressures, superhuman strength, speed, agility, durability, flight, and longevity. Namor has the ability to survive underwater for indefinite periods, and specially developed vision which gives him the ability to see clearly in the murky depths of the ocean.
Bill Everett, in his first Sub-Mariner story, described the character as "an ultra-man of the deep [who] lives on land and in the sea, flies in the air, [and] has the strength of a thousand [surface] men". No other powers were mentioned. When the series was revived in 1954, Namor lost his ankle wings and with them the power of flight; they, and his full strength, were restored in Sub-Mariner Comics #38 (Feb. 1955), in which Everett additionally wrote a flashback story, "Wings on His Feet", detailing their appearance on Namor at age 14. This story was twice reprinted during the Silver Age of Comic Books, in Marvel Super-Heroes #17 (Nov. 1968), and in the book Comix by Les Daniels.
Namor has the ability to swim at superhuman speeds, even by Atlantean standards.
Namor has greater longevity than a normal human being. He is nearly 100 years old as he was born in 1920 in the Marvel timeline, but has the appearance of a male in his prime. His identity as a pre–World War II superhero is well-established, making him less subject to the sliding timescale of the Marvel universe.
During Namor's original fight with the Human Torch in Marvel Mystery Comics #8 (June 1940, and the first fight between superheroes to appear in any media), Namor was able to forcibly expel water from his body to extinguish fires, although it proved useless against the Torch.
After he was revived yet again in the 1960s by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby, Namor demonstrated powers of various sealife that had not been shown in earlier stories. An editorial note in Marvel Tales #9 (July 1967), stated explicitly that "nautical Namor has since lost his power to imitate the characteristics of fish..." According to one of Sub-Mariner's scripters, Roy Thomas: "As for Namor's electrical and other sea-creaturely powers. They were used in one or two stories in F.F. and the Human Torch series in Strange Tales, then dropped – as one of Stan [Lee] and Jack [Kirby]s early (and quite forgivable) mistakes. The explanation, given in a reprint of a Torch/Namor bout a few years later, was that he had these powers only for a short time and then lost them." He sporadically showcases enhanced senses having eyesight that enables seeing in the deepest ocean depths, hear when a school of fish turn a corner from a world away and even feel when the deepest currents change by the slightest degree.
In all his incarnations, Namor possesses superhuman strength and, with the possible exceptions of Orka and Tyrak at their full sizes, is the strongest Atlantean ever known. The exact level of his strength is dependent upon his physical contact with water, in which he needn't be submerged. It has been shown as sufficient to effortlessly toss a water-filled ocean-liner, despite the underwater viscosity. His strength diminishes slowly the longer he is out of contact with water, though an extended period on land does not result in his death, as it would for a typical Atlantean, and his power is retained in full as long as he keeps himself wet. Namor possesses superhuman stamina and resistance to injury due to his hybrid nature. Namor's strength level is such that he has held his own in hand-to-hand combat with beings as powerful as the Hulk in the past.
Some stories have mentioned that Namor has gills for breathing underwater, e.g., in Namor, the Sub-Mariner #5, Namor thinks "this New York river water burns my gills and scalds my lungs". and artists such as Salvador Larroca have drawn him with gill slits on either side of his neck. In The Sub-Mariner #18–22 (1969–70), beings from outer space surgically closed Namor's gills for a time, leaving him with the ability to breathe air but unable to breathe underwater. Other sources have stated that his lungs contain oxygen diffusing membranes that allow him to breathe underwater.
Namor possesses a telepathic rapport with all forms of marine life. He is able to mentally communicate with most forms of Ichthyoid, Cephalopod, Plankton, Anthozoa, Csnidarian, etc; and can mentally persuade them to do his bidding. Namor can mentally communicate with other Atlanteans and give mental-telepathic orders to all his men.
Due to a unique aspect of his hybrid nature, not shared by Namorita, it was theorized that Namor is vulnerable to oxygen imbalances in his blood that trigger manic-depressive mood swings; he can prevent imbalances by regular immersion in water.
Namor gives off a sense of charisma which most women tend to find captivating. Many of the ladies that have entered his life made clear their attraction to his masculine, slightly alien personality in ways both subtle and blatant. He reacts to such advances with gratitude tinged with a slight distance born of monarchical etiquette.
Namor is a natural leader, trained by the royal family of Atlantis as befitting an heir to the throne. He has historically led troops into battle with expert success. His typical interpersonal behavior with both subject and friend borders on the aloof; this is more a sense of regal noblesse oblige rather than snobbishness.
Namor was given possession of the Time Gem. This gem allows the user total control over the past, present, and future. It allows time travel, can age and de-age beings, and can be used as a weapon by trapping enemies or entire worlds in unending loops of time. After the Hood attempted to steal the Gems, Namor briefly helped Thor recover the Gem from the bottom of the ocean to prevent the Hood acquiring it, before being entrusted with the Power Gem as the Gems were divided amongst the new Illuminati – Steve Rogers replacing Black Bolt – once again.
Later publications depict Namor being vastly more powerful than ever before. He is shown to be physically strong enough and tough enough to battle the all-new roster of Avengers and win singlehandedly. Easily able to physically match the might of Thor and Iron Man, take a direct cosmic charged blow from Captain Marvel, survive a point blank gamma blast from the newly empowered She-Hulk and recover from getting run over by the Hellcharger of Ghost Rider almost instantly. Another addition to his abilities is his power over water itself, having somehow absorbed the abilities of Hydro-Man and put them to better used than he ever did. Using his hydrokinesis to flood a prison cell of Roxxon enforcers miles away from the ocean through the facility complex's sewage line, and again when he went to conscript a long since defected Atlantean sect in preparation for war on the surface world, literally parting the seas around their own kingdom only to drop the waters back into place.
Namor was educated by the royal tutors of the Atlantean court, and speaks English, Atlantean, and Lemurian. He is a highly skilled business executive.
Formerly depicted abilitiesEdit
In The Fantastic Four #9 (Dec. 1962), Namor states, "I have the powers of all the creatures who live beneath the sea! I can charge the very air with electricity – using the power of the electric eel!" In the same issue, "the radar sense of the cave fish from the lowest depths of the sea" enables him to sense the presence of Sue Storm when she is invisible. He uses "the power to surround himself with electricity in the manner of an electric eel" again in Strange Tales #107 (April 1963), and #125 (Oct. 1964); in the former he manifests the power to inflate his body like a puffer fish. These extra powers were ignored, when Marvel gave Namor his own feature beginning in Tales to Astonish #70 (Aug. 1965).
Another ability unknown in the Golden Age and rarely displayed is his empathic rapport with many forms of marine life. He had a limited empathic rapport with Namorita, but only as a result of being given one of her "magic earrings" (which has long since disappeared).
An editorial note in Marvel Tales #9 (July 1967), which reprinted the story from Strange Tales #107, stated explicitly that "nautical Namor has since lost his power to imitate the characteristics of fish..." His electrical abilities were seen out of comic continuity in 1991's Spider-Man: The Video Game. Furthermore, Namor employed these "lost" powers semi-regularly in his 1990s series, under John Byrne's pen. In Marvel Mystery #2 (Dec. 1939) Namor once boasted a personal hydration function of his physiology, once extinguishing a pedestrian had been set on fire by cigarette light. His body excreted water from his individual pores, dousing the flames.
"Marvel's first mutant"Edit
Marvel has repeatedly identified Namor as "Marvel's first mutant", which is true with regard to the order in which the character appeared in print. He is not the oldest mutant within the fictional Marvel Universe timeline. A number of mutants predate him, including Selene (active since at least 10,000 BC), Apocalypse (born in the 30th century BC), Exodus (born in the 12th century AD), Wolverine (late 19th century AD), Mystique and Destiny (dates of birth unknown, but known to have been active at the "Dawn of the 20th century"), the demonic mutant Azazel, and a group of mutants known as the Externals.
In X-Men #6 (July 1964), X-Men leader Professor Xavier and antagonist Magneto each suspect Namor is a mutant and make efforts to recruit him. Later writers in the 1960s and 1970s described him as a hybrid, not a mutant, in order to distinguish him from the mutant X-Men. When the series was revived in 1990, the series title logo carried the subtitle "Marvel's first and mightiest mutant!".
Namor is actually a hybrid of Atlantean and human physiology, although he has principal characteristics that neither Atlanteans (Homo mermanus) nor humans (Homo sapiens) possess. These include his ability to fly, and possibly his durability and strength (which is several times that of an Atlantean).
In the first issue of the five part Illuminati miniseries, after being experimented on by the Skrulls, it was confirmed that Namor is not only an Atlantean/human hybrid but also a mutant.
- Attuma – Leader of the Atlantean barbarians, Attuma would threaten Atlantis repeatedly; conquering it on several occasions, and became Namor's nemesis.
- Byrrah – Childhood friend and rival to Namor, Byrrah was Atlantean royalty that lost the throne to Namor and observed him as unfit for the position. For many years, he would challenge Namor's rule and ally with his enemies to usurp him. Eventually, he appears to have made peace with Namor and stands by his side as a brother.
- Captain Barracuda – A modern-day pirate employing advanced technology that frequently crossed swords with Namor (and several other heroes).
- Deep Six – A group formed by Attuma to maintain his rule of Atlantis during one of his periods as its conqueror. His subordinates included Tiger Shark, Orka, Piranha, Sea Urchin, and Nagala (bearing the Serpent Crown).
- Doctor Doom – Sometimes allies, sometimes enemies, Doom and Namor use each other but inevitably turn against each other when their ultimate sensibilities override the benefits of working together. This has been their perpetual relationship since first meeting years ago.
- Doctor Dorcas – A brilliant scientist that created several of Namor's greatest threats such as Tiger Shark, Orka, and Piranha, often working alongside the likes of Attuma and Byrrah. He appeared to die in a battle with Namor, but later turned up alive with starfish-based abilities.
- Fathom Five – Led by Llyron, the son of Namor's enemy Llyra and supposedly Namor himself. Later, it is revealed that Llyron is the grandson of Namor's half-brother that was passed off as Namor's successor who usurped his throne, Fathom Five sought to wipe out humanity. Its members include Dragonrider, Bloodtide, Manowar, and Sea Leopard.
- Great White – An albino villain and shark trainer. He ambushed Loa and her father while they were surfing. Loa managed to use her ability to kill the sharks while Great White was defeated by Namor.
- Karthon the Quester – A faithful servant to Lemurian ruler Naga that sought the Serpent Crown for his master from Namor. His sense of honor conflicted with his master and after Naga's rule was toppled, Karthon became king and an ally to Namor.
- Llyra – A Lemurian that usurped Karthon's rule of his kingdom and became Namor's enemy when he tried to restore his friend and ally. She would return to face him repeatedly, in time becoming high priestess of Set.
- Magneto – Sometimes allies, sometimes enemies, Magneto and Namor use each other but inevitably turn against each other when their ultimate sensibilities override the benefits of working together. This has been their perpetual relationship since first meeting years ago.
- Naga – Longtime wielder of the Serpent Crown, Naga would rule Lemuria until he was murdered by his staunchest aide Karthon.
- Orka – An underling of Krang empowered by Doctor Dorcas to be massively strong and grow stronger in the presence of orca. He would return repeatedly as a minion for Namor's enemies.
- Piranha – Created by Doctor Dorcas, the Piranha is an ever-evolving enemy of Namor to return again and again.
- Puppet Master – Using Namor as a pawn on several occasions, such as against the Fantastic Four and in obtaining funds, the Puppet Master would garner the ire of the sea king. On one occasion, when Namor considered befriending the Hulk, Puppet Master took the green behemoth over and forced him to battle Namor.
- Tiger Shark – An Olympic swimmer transformed by Doctor Dorcas into a hybrid of Namor's DNA and a tiger shark. He battles Namor repeatedly over the years, at one time an ally to the sea king, though today he has again chosen to be his enemy.
- Tyrak – A powerful warrior in Attuma's army that can grow to monstrous size and bears incredible physical strength.
- U-Man – Meranno was a childhood rival to Namor that joined the Third Reich and took the name U-Man. Leading the Nazis to Atlantis, their attack left its emperor in a coma with Namor succeeding him. During World War II, he would be Namor's frequent sparring partner.
- Warlord Krang – One time military leader of Atlantis' forces, Krang tried to usurp Namor's power and became an enemy to the kingdom. He would return repeatedly to challenge Namor.
In the Marvel Noir reality, Namor is a captain of a ship named "Dorma". Captain Namor is a widely infamous pirate of the seven seas and an associate of Tony Stark, who pays him for the numerous voyages on his adventures. Namor considers himself as a man of the sea and doesn't share any allegiances to any countries or nations. As part of his tradition as a pirate, Namor marks himself and his crew by slicing their ears to look like shark's fins. He is the captain of the Dorma, an advanced submarine while taking the guise of a fishing trawler.
In May 1939, Stark hired Namor to find the location of Atlantis. He traveled with Stark, James Rhodes, and Pepper Potts on the submersible, the "Happy Hogan", in locating Atlantis and finding the valuable Orichalcum. Upon returning to the surface, Namor and his friends were immediately captured by the Nazis led by Baron Zemo and Von Strucker, and the Orichalcum stolen by them. Namor and his allies were then left to die on his trawler by torpedo; Namor took action in having everyone quickly board the Dorma and escape before the torpedo destroyed the trawler. Namor later rescued Stark following the destruction of Von Strucker's airship fleet, as (in Namor's words) Stark owes him a boat for the destruction of his.
Namor is still active in the MC2 future timeline, and still uniting occasionally for battle alongside the Hulk and Doctor Strange as "Defenders". His appearance, while slightly older looking, is unchanged save for growing a goatee. In Fantastic Five vol. 2 #1 it was revealed that he had held Doctor Doom captive for over ten years, after the mad monarch destroyed Atlantis. Doom subsequently escaped, and in #4, Namor is seen being tortured by him. He is freed after Reed Richards sacrifices himself to send both his and Doom's consciousnesses to the Crossroads of Infinity.
In Ultimate Fantastic Four #24, the team is surveying the ruins of Atlantis and finds an estimated 9,000-year-old tomb containing the hibernating Namor – an imprisoned Atlantean criminal, considered the worst villain of his time. Reed Richards' translation of the Atlantean language reveals Namor's claims of kingship to be false.
His extreme intelligence allows him to become fluent in English in a matter of minutes merely by listening to S.H.I.E.L.D. agents and the Fantastic Four talking. Confronting the human, Namor withstands full-strength flares from the Human Torch and is strong enough to fight the Thing, withstand Sue Storm's force fields, and stretch Richards (Mr. Fantastic) to near-breaking. He destroys machinery designed to contain the Hulk. Though beaten by the Fantastic Four, he creates a tidal wave in the shape of Poseidon, threatening to destroy Manhattan with it. He is appeased when he demands, and receives, a meaningful kiss from Sue Storm. He then returns to the sea.
Ultimate Namor is a mutant Atlantean with amphibious physiology suited for high water pressure. He has vast super strength, durability, high speed swimming ability, flight, and water manipulation.
When the characters arrive in his realm he is arguing with his cousin Rita (Namorita) about her reluctance to marry. She suggests that this is because he refuses to find a consort himself. Upon meeting the Four from the Fantastick, he is attracted to Susan Storm, and attempts to woo her, unsuccessfully. He later plots with Otto von Doom to win her, while "disposing" of Sir Richard Reed. Doom turns against him, and Numenor is stabbed with his own trident and dies. Because Bensaylum is not underwater, its inhabitants are portrayed as basically human although they retain the pointed ears.
Namor assisted Doctor Doom, Hulk, Magneto, Red Skull, and Ultron in a plot to take over New York.
House of MEdit
To follow up on Scarlet Witch's alteration of reality, Namor was considered the "first mutant" in the reality that she created under Quicksilver's approval. He represented Atlantis when he was meeting with Magneto.[volume & issue needed]
In the Earth X series Namor suffers from dementia. He is responsible for the death of Johnny Storm. As a result, Franklin Richards used his powers to cause half of Namor's body to be continually on fire.
Earth 9602 (Amalgam Comics)Edit
Sub-Mariner: The DepthsEdit
The character receives a macabre overhaul in this dark Marvel Knights mini-series set in an alternate 1950s. Namor is a fabled being among mariners, said to pursue and kill any searching for Atlantis. Randolph Stein, a man who makes a living debunking modern myths, is hired to find Atlantis and, along with his submarine crew, encounters Namor in the ocean depths.
Namor was listed as the 88th greatest comic book character by Wizard magazine. IGN ranked Namor as the 77th greatest comic book hero of all time opining that "With the Atlanteans and X-Men both seeking their place in a dangerous world, Namor's role as leader is more vital than ever", and 14th in their list of "The Top 50 Avengers". In 2013, ComicsAlliance ranked Namor as #16 on their list of the "50 Sexiest Male Characters in Comics".
Classic Collected Editions
|Title||Volume||Material collected||Pages||Publication date||ISBN|
|Marvel Masterworks: Golden Age Sub-Mariner||1||Sub-Mariner Comics #1–4||280||June 2005||9780785116172|
|2||Sub-Mariner Comics #5–8||280||August 2007||9780785122470|
|3||Sub-Mariner Comics #9–12||240||December 2009||9780785133513|
|Marvel Masterworks: Atlas Era Heroes||3||Sub-Mariner Comics #33–42||272||September 2008||9780785129301|
|Marvel Masterworks: The Sub-Mariner||1||Tales to Astonish #70–87||224||May 2002||9780785108757|
|2||Tales to Astonish #88–101, Iron Man and Sub-Mariner #1, The Sub-Mariner #1||240||June 2007||9780785126881|
|3||The Sub-Mariner #2–13||272||August 2009||9780785134879|
|4||The Sub-Mariner #14–25||240||February 2011||9780785150480|
|5||The Sub-Mariner #26–38 & Hercules story from Ka-Zar #1||288||January 2014||9780785166191|
|6||The Sub-Mariner #39–49 & Daredevil #77||280||February 2015||9780785191841|
|7||The Sub-Mariner #50–60||240||January 2016||9780785199151|
|Essential Sub-Mariner||1||Daredevil #7; Tales to Astonish #70–101; Tales of Suspense #80; Iron Man and Sub-Mariner #1; The Sub-Mariner #1||504||September 2009||9780785130758|
|Namor Visionaries – John Byrne||1||Namor, the Sub-Mariner (1990) #1–9||216||February 2011||9780785153047|
|2||Namor, the Sub-Mariner (1990) #10–18||232||September 2012||9780785160434|
Modern Limited Editions
|Title||Material collected||Publication date||ISBN|
|Sub-Mariner: Revolution||Sub-Mariner (2007–2008) #1–6:||February 27, 2008||978-0785127475|
|Sub-Mariner: The Depths||Sub-Mariner: The Depths #1–5||December 2009||978-0785133377|
|Namor: The First Mutant – Volume 1: Curse of the Mutants||Namor: The First Mutant #1–6||February 2011||9780785151746|
|Namor: The First Mutant – Volume 2: Namor Goes to Hell||Namor: The First Mutant #5–11||September 2011||9780785151760|
In other mediaEdit
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- In the 1950s, a television series was planned starring Richard Egan, but it never went into production. Similarly, a Sub-Mariner television pilot was announced during the seventies but never filmed due to the similarity to the short-lived Man from Atlantis.
- In 1966, Namor (along with Captain America, Iron Man, Thor, and the Hulk) had his own segment in the animated series The Marvel Super Heroes, voiced by John Vernon.
- In 1967, the Hanna-Barbera Fantastic Four animated series had two episodes featuring characters based on the Sub-Mariner, as Grantray-Lawrence had already licensed the character a year earlier. "Demon of the Deep", based on Fantastic Four #4, featured the villain "Gamma", who uses a gigantic undersea monster to attack New York. "Danger in the Depths", based on Fantastic Four #33, features "Prince Triton", voiced by Mike Road, and his arch-enemy Attuma, voiced by Henry Corden.
- In 1977–78 Man from Atlantis was aired. While it was loosely inspired by Namor it had no real relation to the character.
- In 1981, the Sub-Mariner appeared in the Spider-Man episode "Wrath of the Sub-Mariner", voiced by Vic Perrin. He attacks New York in response to pollution caused by the Kingpin.
- He appeared in the "7 Little Superheroes" episode of Spider-Man and His Amazing Friends, voiced by William Woodson. He appeared alongside the Spider-Friends, Captain America, Shanna the She-Devil, and Doctor Strange when they were invited by Chameleon to visit his home on Wolf Island.
- In 1994, Namor had a guest-starring role in an episode of the 1994 Fantastic Four episode "Now Comes the Sub-Mariner", voiced by James Warwick.
- Namor appeared in The Avengers: United They Stand episode "To Rule Atlantis", voiced by Raoul Trujillo. His portrait is seen in the conference room in "Avengers Assemble, Part 1".
- In 2006, Namor appeared in the Fantastic Four: World's Greatest Heroes episodes "Imperious Rex" and "Atlantis Attacks", voiced by Michael Adamthwaite.
- In 2013, Namor appeared in the Inhumans motion comic, voiced by Trevor Devall.
In 1997, Philip Kaufman had begun development on a film titled Namor: Sub-Mariner, with Sam Hamm hired to write the script by 1999. The project was ultimately abandoned. By June of 2001, Namor was in development from Universal Pictures, and David Self attached to write a new script. In 2002, Saban Entertainment became involved with the project in a joint-production contract with Marvel; while the script was written by Randall Frakes. Principal photography was scheduled to begin in 2003, with an intended mid-2004 release.
After multiple production delays, Chris Columbus entered early negotiations to direct and was attached to the film from 2004-2005; while the studio indended to release the film in 2007. Jonathan Mostow was hired as director by September 2006. The film ultimately never materialized.
By June of 2014, it was confirmed that the film rights to Namor, have returned to Marvel. Kevin Feige explained that though the rights are held by Marvel Studios, there are a number of contracts and arrangements that need to be resolved. Later he clarified, that the film rights to the character are "complicated" with Universal holding distribution rights.
- A garbage man who discovers Peter Parker's discarded Spider-Man costume in Spider-Man 2, portrayed by Brent Briscoe, is identified as Namor in the film's novelization.
- Namor is a playable character in the 1991 Sega Spider-Man arcade game.
- Namor has a cameo role in Captain America and the Avengers.
- Namor is a boss in the 1997 Fantastic Four game.
- In the 2000 Spider-Man video game, Namor has a cameo in the game's "What If?" mode during the underwater Carnage battle, and in the Character Viewer.
- Namor appears as a non-player character in Marvel: Ultimate Alliance in the Xbox, Xbox 360, PC, PSP and PS2 versions, voiced by Peter Renaday. He is a playable character on the Game Boy Advance version. In the console versions, the heroes investigate Atlantis to find the Atlanteans rioting, having been driven mad by sonic weapons used by Attuma and Tiger Shark in order to overthrow Namor. The heroes find Namor being tortured by being trapped in a bubble of oxygen. Saving him, the heroes are asked by Namorita to help stop the coup, as well as the optional task of finding rare seaweed that can by used to heal Namor. If the task is completed, Namor will grow to trust surface dwellers, eventually joining a worldwide organization of superheroes. If not, the weakened Namor will be usurped by Krang, who will steal nuclear weapons in order to wage war against humanity.
- Namor appears in a slot machine based game licensed by Marvel.
- Sanderson, Peter (1998). Marvel Universe. New York, New York: Harry N. Abrams. ISBN 978-0810981713.
- Giant-Size Super-Stars 1 (May 1974)
- MacIntosh, Bruce (April 2008). "Sub-Mariner: Proud Prince or Perennial Punching Bag?". Back Issue!. Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing (27): 15–22.
- Sanderson, Peter; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2008). "1939". Marvel Chronicle A Year by Year History. London, United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. p. 11. ISBN 978-0756641238.
Writer/artist Bill Everett originally conceived Namor the Sub-Mariner in 1939 for an eight-page title called Motion Picture Funnies Weekly. Produced by Funnies Inc., this black-and-white magazine was intended to be handed out in movie theaters, but this idea fell through. So when Funnies Inc. packaged Marvel Comics #1 for Martin Goodman, Everett added four pages to his story, which finally saw print in color.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
- Thomas, Roy (w). "Okay, Axis, Here We Come! (Comic book letter column/text article)" The Invaders 20 (September 1977)
- Daniels, Les (1991). Marvel: Five Fabulous Decades of the World's Greatest Comics. New York, New York: Harry N. Abrams. p. 27. ISBN 9780810938212.
- Weldon, Glen; Kantor, Michael (2013). Superheroes!: Capes, Cowls, and the Creation of Comic Book Culture. New York, New York: Crown Archetype. p. 136. ISBN 978-0385348584.
- Sanderson "1940s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 18: "Alex's Schomburg's powerful cover [to Sub-Mariner Comics #1] significantly showed Namor employing his incredible strength to overturn a German submarine full of Nazi soldiers."
- Sanderson "1940s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 16: "When the Sub-Mariner attacked New York City, policewoman Betty Dean undertook a courageous scheme to capture him."
- Sub-Mariner Comics at the Grand Comics Database
- Sanderson "1940s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 41: This final issue [#32 (June 1949)] of the 1940s Sub-Mariner Comics series presented [Bill] Everett's new retelling of [the character's origin].
- Sub-Mariner Comics (revival) at the Grand Comics Database
- Brevoort, Tom "1950s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 58: "After his popularity in Young Men, the Sub-Mariner was given back his own title."
- Brevoort, Tom "1950s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 61: "Martin Goodman had been in talks with television executives about turning Namor's adventures into a live-action TV series, reportedly to star actor Richard Egan. However, negotiations wound up going nowhere, and, as a result, Sub-Mariner's extended lease on life came to an end with issue #42."
- Tipton, Scott (May 12, 2004). "Under Pressure". Comics101.com. Archived from the original on March 8, 2013. Retrieved June 12, 2008.
the success of the George Reeves Superman TV series had prompted some TV producers to develop a Sub-Mariner series, which was reportedly to star B-movie actor Richard Egan, who's probably best known for his turn in Walt Disney's Hayley Mills vehicle Pollyana. When plans for the TV series sunk to Davy Jones' locker, so did Namor's new comic book.
- DeFalco, Tom "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 86: "Stan Lee and Jack Kirbuy reintroduced one of Marvel's most popular Golden Age heroes – Namor, the Sub-Mariner."
- Sanderson, Peter (2007). The Marvel Comics Guide to New York City. New York, New York: Pocket Books. pp. 17–18. ISBN 1-4165-3141-6.
- Benton, Mike (1991). Superhero Comics of the Silver Age: The Illustrated History. Austin, Texas: Taylor Publishing Company. p. 98. ISBN 978-0-87833-746-0.
- DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 109: "Prince Namor replaced Giant-Man as the lead feature in Tales to Astonish #70. The Sub-Mariner series was written by Stan Lee and drawn by Gene Colan, who was using the pen name Adam Austin at the time."
- Sub-Mariner at the Grand Comics Database
- DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 131: "Created by writer Roy Thomas and artist John Buscema, Tiger Shark was super-strong and had razor-sharp teeth."
- DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 139
- Benton, p. 100
- May, Michael (August 1, 2012). "CCI: That '70s (Creators) Panel". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on March 8, 2013. Retrieved March 7, 2013.
[Mark] Evanier asked what work from that period the writer is most proud of. Skeates replied that he was pleased with the experimentation he'd started doing on the last four issues of Aquaman and talked a little about the unofficial Aquaman/Sub-Mariner crossover he'd been allowed to write for Marvel. Since Aquaman had been cancelled abruptly on a cliffhanger, Roy Thomas let Skeates wrap up the story in a fill-in issue of Sub-Mariner.
- Sanderson "1970s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 168: "Namor, the Sub-Mariner sought a new alliance with Doctor Doom in this giant-size comic."
- Lantz, James Heath (September 2016). "Prince Namor the Sub-Mariner: Scion of the Deep or Royal Pain?". Back Issue!. Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing (91): 50–62.
- Manning, Matthew K. "1990s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 248: "Comics superstar John Byrne revamped the classic Marvel character Namor in this new series that he both wrote and drew."
- "Marvel Announces Namor Ongoing Series". Newsarama. May 13, 2010. Archived from the original on March 8, 2013. Retrieved March 7, 2013.
- Tramountanas, George A. (April 12, 2011). "X-Position: Stuart Moore Swims with Namor". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on March 8, 2013. Retrieved March 7, 2013.
- Sanderson "1970s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 151: "[Roy] Thomas and artist Ross Andru reunited [Doctor] Strange, the Hulk, and Namor as a brand new Marvel superhero team – the Defenders."
- Beard, Jim (July 29, 2011). "SDCC 2011: Defenders". Marvel Comics. Archived from the original on March 8, 2013. Retrieved March 7, 2013.
The events of Fear Itself will lead to a new formation of the legendary Marvel team, spotlighting such heroes as Doctor Strange, Namor the Sub-Mariner, The Silver Surfer, Iron Fist, Red She-Hulk and a roundtable of other Marvel favorites.
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Bunn, Cullen (w), Garbett, Lee (p), Meikis, David (i). Fear Itself: The Deep 2 (September 2011)
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Bunn, Cullen (w), Garbett, Lee (p), Meikis, David (i). Fear Itself: The Deep 4 (November 2011)
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- As explained in the letters page of Sub-Mariner #31 (November 1970)
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