Marvel Studios, LLC (originally known as Marvel Films from 1993 to 1996) is an American motion picture studio based at The Walt Disney Studios in Burbank, California and is a subsidiary of Walt Disney Studios, itself a wholly owned division of The Walt Disney Company, with film producer Kevin Feige serving as president. Previously, the studio was a subsidiary of Marvel Entertainment until The Walt Disney Company reorganized the companies in August 2015.
|Marvel Films (1993–1996)|
|Headquarters||500 S. Buena Vista Street,
Burbank, California, United States
|Parent||Walt Disney Studios
(The Walt Disney Company)
Dedicated to producing films based on Marvel Comics characters, the studio has been involved in three Marvel-character film franchises to have exceeded $1 billion in North American revenue: the X-Men, Spider-Man, and Marvel Cinematic Universe multi-film franchises. X-Men and Spider-Man and other Marvel franchises are licensed out to 20th Century Fox and Sony Pictures, respectively. Since 2012, Marvel Studios' films are distributed theatrically by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures, having previously been distributed by Paramount Pictures from 2008 to 2011. Universal Pictures distributed The Incredible Hulk (2008), while Sony Pictures Releasing distributed Spider-Man: Homecoming (2017) and will distribute any future Spider-Man films made in conjunction with Marvel Studios.
Marvel Studios has released 16 films since 2008 within the Marvel Cinematic Universe, from Iron Man (2008) to Spider-Man: Homecoming (2017). These films all share continuity with each other, along with the One-Shots produced by the studio and the television shows produced by Marvel Television.
During what is known as Marvel's Timely era, Captain America was licensed out to Republic Pictures for a serial just for the free advertising. Timely failed to provide any drawing of Captain America with his shield or any further background, and Republic created a whole new background for the character, and portrayed the character using a gun.
Marvel Entertainment Group's initiativeEdit
In the late 1970s up to the early 1990s, Marvel Entertainment Group (MEG) sold options to studios to produce films based on Marvel Comics characters. One of Marvel’s superheroes, Spider-Man, was optioned in the late 1970s, and rights reverted to Marvel without a film having been produced within the allotted timeframe. From 1986 to 1996, most of Marvel’s major characters had been optioned, including the Fantastic Four, X-Men, Daredevil, Hulk, Silver Surfer, and Iron Man. A Howard the Duck film made it to the screen in 1986, but was a box-office flop. MEG was purchased by New World Entertainment in November 1986 and moved to produce films based on the Marvel characters. It released The Punisher (1989) before MEG was sold to Ronald Perelman's Andrews Group. Two other films were produced: Captain America (1990) released in the United Kingdom on screens and direct to video in the United States, and The Fantastic Four (1994), not intended for release. Marvel's rival DC Comics, on the other hand, had success licensing its properties Superman and Batman into successful film franchises.
Following Marvel Entertainment Group's (MEG) ToyBiz deal in 1993, Avi Arad of ToyBiz was named President and CEO of Marvel Films division and of New World Family Filmworks, Inc., a New World Entertainment subsidiary. New World was MEG's former parent corporation and later a fellow subsidiary of the Andrews Group. Marvel Productions became New World Animation by 1993 as Marvel would start up Marvel Films including Marvel Films Animation. Marvel Films Animation shared Tom Tataranowicz with New World Animation as head of development and production. New World Animation (The Incredible Hulk), Saban (X-Men), and Marvel Films Animation (Spider-Man) each produced a Marvel series for television for the 1996–1997 season. It was Marvel Films Animation's only production. By the end of 1993, Arad and 20th Century Fox struck a deal to make a film based on the X-Men.
New World Animation and Marvel Films Animation were sold along with the rest of New World by Andrews Group to News Corporation/Fox as announced in August 1996. As part of the deal, Marvel licensed the rights to Captain America, Daredevil and Silver Surfer to be on Fox Kids Network and produced by Saban. New World Animation continued producing a second season of The Incredible Hulk for UPN.
In August 1996, Marvel created Marvel Studios, an incorporation of Marvel Films, due to the sale of New World Communications Group, Inc., Marvel's fellow Andrews Group subsidiary in film and television stations, to News Corporation/Fox. Filing with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission to raise money to finance the new corporation, Marvel, Isaac Perlmutter's Zib, Inc. and Avi Arad sold Toy Biz stocks, which Marvel had started and took public in February 1995. Toy Biz filed an offering of 7.5 million shares with a closing price of $20.125 at the time, making the offering worth approximately $150 million. Toy Biz sought to sell 1 million shares, and Marvel sought to sell 2.5 million shares.
Jerry Calabrese, the president of Marvel Entertainment Group, and Avi Arad, head of Marvel Films and a director of Toy Biz, were assigned tandem control of Marvel Studios. Under Calabrese and Arad, Marvel sought to control pre-production by commissioning scripts, hiring directors, and casting characters, providing the package to a major studio partner for filming and distribution. Arad said of the goal for control, "When you get into business with a big studio, they are developing a hundred or 500 projects; you get totally lost. That isn't working for us. We're just not going to do it anymore. Period." Marvel Studios arranged a seven-year development deal with 20th Century Fox to cover markets in the United States and internationally. In the following December, Marvel Entertainment Group went through a reorganization plan, including Marvel Studios as part of its strategic investment. By 1997, Marvel Studios was actively pursuing various film productions based on Marvel characters, including the eventual films X-Men (2000), Daredevil (2003), Elektra (2005) and Fantastic Four (2005). Unproduced projects included Prince Namor, based on the character Namor and to be directed by Philip Kaufman, and Mort the Dead Teenager, based on the comic book of the same name and written by John Payson and Mort creator Larry Hama. Marvel was developing a Captain America animated series with Saban Entertainment for Fox Kids Network to premiere in fall 1998. However, due to the bankruptcy the series was canceled after only character designs and a one-minute promotional reel were made.
The first film packaged and licensed by Marvel Studios was Blade, based on the vampire hunter Blade. The film was directed by Stephen Norrington and starred Wesley Snipes as Blade. It was released on August 21, 1998, grossing $70,087,718 in the United States and Canada and $131,183,530 worldwide. In 1999, Marvel licensed Spider-Man to Sony.
Blade was followed by X-Men, which was directed by Bryan Singer and was released on July 14, 2000. X-Men grossed $157,299,717 in the United States and Canada and $296,250,053 worldwide. The Marvel films Blade and X-Men demonstrated that widely popular films could be made out of comic book characters not familiar to the general public.
Leading up to X-Men's release, Marvel Studios negotiated a deal with then-functional Artisan Entertainment, successful with the low-budget The Blair Witch Project, for a co-production joint venture that included rights to 15 Marvel characters including Captain America, Thor, Black Panther, Iron Fist, and Deadpool. Artisan would finance and distribute while Marvel would developing licensing and merchandising tie-ins. The resulting production library, which would also include TV series, direct-to-video films and internet projects, would be co-owned. With the deal at the time, 24 Marvel properties were then in various stages of development.
Brian Cunningham, editor of Wizard comic book magazine, believed that Avi Arad was successful in organizing strategic alliances and exercising fiscal responsibility in multimedia expansion. Cunningham said of Arad’s leadership of the studio following its parent company’s near-bankruptcy, "The fact the X-Men is primed to be the biggest movie of the summer speaks volumes about the turnaround for Marvel. From my observation, he's focused on a lot more in diversifying Marvel, doing things that proliferate Marvel characters in the mainstream." Arad sought to protect Marvel’s image by serving as executive producer in all Marvel film productions and being responsible for crossover marketing between Marvel properties. Arad had properties set up at different studios to create momentum so one studio would not cannibalize efforts with one property for the sake of another. By 2001, the success of Marvel Entertainment’s Ultimate Marvel comics created leverage in Hollywood for Marvel Studios, pushing more properties into development.
The next film licensed from Marvel Studios was Spider-Man by Columbia Pictures, directed by Sam Raimi and starring Tobey Maguire as Spider-Man. The film was released on May 3, 2002, grossing $403,706,375 in the United States and Canada and $821,708,551 worldwide. The early success of Spider-Man led the film's studio to issue a seven-figure advance for a sequel. Arad spoke of the deal, "Movies make sequels. Therefore, it's a big economic luxury to know that a movie's going to get a second and third. This is a business of precedence." According to a Lehman Brothers analysis, the Studios made only $62 million for the first 2 Spider-Man movies. Marvel was making more from half the consumer product licensing fees while making relatively little from the movie, but was enough for Marvel to regain its financial footings. In October 2002, Marvel Studios announced deals for Sub-Mariner and Prime with Universal Studios.
In producing Marvel films in the 2000s, Avi Arad sought to capture the superheroes’ internal conflicts. According to The New York Times, "Mr. Arad's great accomplishment – and it is one, given the difficulties in transferring any kind of printed material to the big screen – is conveying what makes those heroes tick as characters... He works with the filmmakers to ensure that the heroes are conflicted, the villains motivated, the outcome shaded." In contrast to the original storylines of DC Comics’ Superman and Batman films, Marvel films were more directly inspired by their comics, copying from them set pieces, scenes, plots, and dialogue.
In 2003, David Maisel approached Arad about earning Marvel more for their films. Maisel, Arad and Perlmutter met leading to Maisel being hired in as President and COO. The studio's office, then on Santa Monica Boulevard, were small with a dozen or so staff members. Kevin Feige was a junior executive generating script notes to the licensed studios.
Partnering with Lionsgate in 2004, Marvel Studios plan to enter the direct-to-DVD market with eight animated films with Lionsgate Home Entertainment handling distribution. The line was a proof of concept for Maisel's later plan. Eric Rollman was hired by Marvel as Executive Vice President, Home Entertainment & TV Production for Marvel Studios to oversee the deal with Lionsgate.
In 2004, David Maisel was hired as chief operating officer of Marvel Studios as he had a plan for the studio to self-finance movies. Marvel entered into a non-recourse debt structure with Merrill Lynch that was collateralized by certain movie rights to a total of 10 characters from Marvel's vast vault. Marvel got $525 million to make a maximum of 10 movies based on the company's properties over eight years, according to the parameters of the original deal. Those characters were: Ant-Man, The Avengers, Black Panther, Captain America, Cloak & Dagger, Doctor Strange, Hawkeye, Nick Fury, Power Pack and Shang-Chi. Ambac insured the movies would succeed or they would pay the interest payment on the debt and get the movie rights collateral.
Initially Marvel Studios was in talks with Universal Studios as a possible distributor. Negotiations dragged on, so the studio began talks with Paramount Pictures. In the second quarter of 2005, Merrill attempted to back out of full financing of each movie, demanding that Marvel finance 1/3 of the budget. Marvel took back rights in five foreign territories from Paramount for pre-sell to meet that demand. On September 6, 2005, Marvel announced the Merrill Lynch financing deal with Paramount was on as marketer and distributor. Also, the parent company changed its name from Marvel Enterprises, Inc. to Marvel Entertainment, Inc. to reflect the change to self-production.
The studio moved to a new location over a Mercedes-Benz dealership in Beverly Hills. Maisel was also named vice-chairman of the studio, but reported to Isaac Perlmutter. In October 2005, Michael Helfant joined the studio as president and chief operating officer.
In November 2005, Marvel gained the film rights to Iron Man from New Line Cinema. Marvel revealed that it had regained the film rights to The Incredible Hulk in February 2006. In April 2006, Thor was announced to be a Marvel Studios production. Lions Gate Entertainment subsequently dropped the Black Widow motion picture project it had since 2004 giving the rights back to Marvel.
Maisel and Arad fought over the rate of movie releases and strength of characters in the movie line up. Perlmutter supported Maisel and thus, in May 2006, Arad quit as studio chair and CEO. In March 2007, David Maisel was named Chairman and Kevin Feige was named President of Production as Iron Man began filming.
In January 2008, Marvel Animation was incorporated to direct Marvel's efforts in animation and home entertainment markets including then animation efforts with Lionsgate and Nickelodeon. The company in March agreed to a five picture basic cable distribution with FX for Iron Man and The Incredible Hulk movies with the additional movies to be named later. In November, Marvel Studios signed a lease with Raleigh Studios to host its headquarters and production offices and film the next four movies on the studios’ slate, including Iron Man 2 and Thor, at their Manhattan Beach facilities. By September 2008, Paramount added to its domestic film distribution contract 5 additional Marvel movies' foreign distribution.
In 2009, Marvel attempted to hire a team of writers to help come up with creative ways to launch its lesser-known properties, such as Black Panther, Cable, Iron Fist, Nighthawk, and Vision. In early 2009, Sony returned all Spider-Man television rights (including live action) in exchange for an adjustment to the movie rights.
Disney conglomerate subsidiary (2009–present)Edit
On December 31, 2009, The Walt Disney Company purchased Marvel Entertainment for $4 billion. Both Marvel and Disney stated that the merger would not affect any preexisting deals with other film studios for the time being, although Disney said they would distribute future Marvel projects with their own studio once the deals expired.
In April 2010, rumors circulated that Marvel was looking to create $20–40 million movies based on properties such as Doctor Strange, Ka-Zar, Luke Cage, Dazzler, and Power Pack. Kevin Feige responded by saying, while budgets are generally never discussed early in development, Marvel was considering films for all characters mentioned in the rumor, except Dazzler, whose rights were at Fox.
In June 2010, Marvel Entertainment set up a television division within Marvel Studios, headed up by Jeph Loeb as Executive Vice President, under which Marvel Animation would be operated. On October 18, Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures acquired the distribution rights for The Avengers and Iron Man 3 from Paramount Pictures with Paramount's logo and credit remaining on the films.
On August 22, 2011, at Disney's behest, the Studio dismissed most of its marketing department: Dana Precious, EVP of Worldwide Marketing; Jeffrey Stewart, VP of Worldwide Marketing and Jodi Miller, Manager of Worldwide Marketing. Disney markets Marvel's films. In April 2012, The Walt Disney Company China, Marvel Studios and DMG Entertainment announced an agreement to co-produce Iron Man 3 in China. DMG partly financed, produced in China with Marvel, and handled co-production matters. DMG also distributed the film in China in tandem with Disney.
Upon the release of The Amazing Spider-Man in 2012, Disney and Sony negotiated a two-way agreement. Disney would receive full merchandising ancillary rights to future Spider-Man films in exchange for Sony purchasing out Marvel's film participation rights.
On July 2, 2013, Disney purchased the distribution rights to Iron Man, Iron Man 2, Thor and Captain America: The First Avenger from Paramount. In September 2014, TNT acquired the cable rights for Avengers: Age of Ultron, Captain America: Civil War, and three other films, to air on the network two years after their theatrical releases. The films had previously aired on FX since 2008.
In February 2015, it was announced that Disney and Sony Pictures will collaborate on the next Spider-Man films, the first of which, Spider-Man: Homecoming, was released on July 7, 2017. Former Sony executive Amy Pascal will co-produce the films with Kevin Feige. The film rights to Spider-Man will still remain with Sony. Marvel Studios will also explore opportunities to integrate other characters of MCU into future Spider-Man films.
In August 2015, Marvel Studios was integrated into Walt Disney Studios, with Feige reporting directly to Walt Disney Studios chairman Alan Horn instead of Marvel Entertainment CEO Isaac Perlmutter. Marvel Television and subsidiary company Marvel Animation were left under Marvel Entertainment and Perlmutter's control.
Marvel had licensed out the film rights to many of their characters to other studios in the 1990s, starting with the X-Men to 20th Century Fox in 1993. One of the first characters to see the rights returned to Marvel was Black Panther, which were returned to Marvel in 2005, having previously been at Columbia Pictures and Artisan Entertainment. In November 2005, Marvel gained the film rights to Iron Man from New Line Cinema. In April 2006, Thor's rights reverted to Marvel from Sony, and in June, the Black Widow rights reverted to Marvel from Lions Gate Entertainment. That same year, the film rights to Hulk reverted to Marvel Studios from Universal Studios, after the latter failed to enter production on a sequel to Ang Lee's 2003 Hulk film. Universal, however, retained the right of first refusal to distribute future Hulk films.
After being acquired by Disney, Marvel began to reclaim more of their character rights, starting with Blade from New Line Cinema. In August 2012, it was reported that 20th Century Fox was willing to allow the film rights to the superhero Daredevil and his related characters revert to Marvel and Disney, a contracted stipulation that required Fox to begin production on a new Daredevil film by late 2012. Fox had approached Marvel about extending the deadline and becoming a co-financier for the film, but was rebuffed. On October 10, 2012, the Daredevil rights reverted to Marvel Studios, which was confirmed by studio president Kevin Feige on April 23, 2013. On May 2, 2013, Feige confirmed in an interview that the Ghost Rider and Punisher rights had reverted to Marvel from Sony and Lionsgate respectively, as well as reaffirming the acquisition of the Blade rights. It was later revealed in May 2013 that Marvel has also reacquired the rights to Luke Cage from Sony. In an interview with Collider in early May 2013, Kevin Feige stated he believed the Elektra rights were back at Marvel through the Daredevil deal.
In February 2015, Marvel Studios and Sony Pictures Entertainment announced that Spider-Man would appear in the Marvel Cinematic Universe, with the character appearing in Captain America: Civil War and Sony releasing Spider-Man: Homecoming produced by Feige and Pascal on July 7, 2017. Sony Pictures will continue to finance, distribute, own and have final creative control of the Spider-Man films. Marvel Studios will also explore opportunities to integrate other characters of the Marvel Cinematic Universe into future Spider-Man films. In June 2015, Feige clarified that the initial Sony deal does not allow Spider-Man to appear in any of the MCU television series, as it was "very specific... with a certain amount of back and forth allowed." 20th Century Fox was able to change the powers of Negasonic Teenage Warhead for Deadpool by giving Marvel Studios the rights to Ego the Living Planet, who appears in Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2.
After the licensing agreement with Sony that allowed Marvel to have the use of Spider-Man in their shared film universe, the only rights that Marvel Studios does not have access to are the X-Men and Fantastic Four set of characters and Deadpool; all are still in production as separate franchises at 20th Century Fox. Additionally, Marvel CCO Joe Quesada in 2012 believed Namor's rights had reverted to Marvel, but Feige said in August 2013 this was not so. However, Feige expanded in July 2014 saying that Marvel Studios, not Universal Pictures or Legendary Pictures, could make a Namor film, "but it’s slightly more complicated than that. Let’s put it this way – there are entanglements that make it less easy. There are older contracts that still involve other parties that mean we need to work things out before we move forward on it. As opposed to an Iron Man or any of the Avengers or any of the other Marvel characters where we could just put them in." In June 2016, Quesada again stated that, to his knowledge, the film rights to Namor had returned to Marvel.
|This section relies too much on references to primary sources. (July 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
Marvel Music is a subsidiary of Marvel Studios involved in the publishing of music related to its productions. Mighty Marvel Music Corporation and Marvel Music Group, Inc. (both incorporated on July 29, 1981) were music publishing subsidiaries of Marvel Entertainment Group that were retained by New World Entertainment when Marvel was sold to Andrews Group in 1989, and were with New World when they were sold to Fox.
Marvel Music was incorporated on September 9, 2005 to manage Marvel Studios' and Marvel Animation's filmed music. At New York Comic Con in 2009, Marvel officially announced the re-launch of Marvel Music, which would now serve as a label for releasing music related to Marvel's film and television productions. Beginning in 2012 with the release of Avengers Assemble (Music from and Inspired by the Motion Picture), Disney Music Group's Hollywood Records label began distributing Marvel Music's albums. In 2014, Guardians of the Galaxy: Awesome Mix Vol. 1 became the first Marvel Music album to be certified Gold—and subsequently certified Platinum—by the Recording Industry Association of America, as well as the first soundtrack album in history to top the Billboard 200 chart, while consisting entirely of previously released songs.
Named after corporate sibling Marvel Comics' imprint of the same name, Marvel Knights is also the name given to a production arm of Marvel Studios intended to be used to produce some of Marvel's darker and lesser known titles. The first film produced under the Marvel Knights banner was Punisher: War Zone, the 2008 release that rebooted the Punisher franchise. In 2012, Ghost Rider: Spirit of Vengeance was the second and final title to be released under the Marvel Knights banner.
- Avi Arad
- Marvel Films President and CEO, 1993 – August 1996
- Marvel Studios Chairman and CEO, August 1998 – May 2006
- Jerry Calabrese
- David Maisel
- Michael Helfant, President and Chief Operating Officer, October 2005
- Kevin Feige, President of Production, March 2007 – present
- Tim Connors, Chief Operating Officer, December 12, 2008 – 2012
Starting with the release of Spider-Man in 2002, Marvel Studios introduced its "flipbook" logo, created by Imaginary Forces. This logo was accompanied with music from the film's score, sound effects or a song, to lead into the beginning of the film. This was the logo seen in front of all films until 2013, when the logo was updated with the release of Thor: The Dark World, again created by Imaginary Forces. Kevin Feige stated that since Marvel was now their own entity within The Walt Disney Company, it "felt like the time to update it and have something that is more substantial as a standalone logo in front of our features" instead of having it be accompanied by Marvel's studio or distribution partners' logos. Feige added that “We didn’t want to re-invent the wheel [with the new logo], but we wanted it to feel bigger, to feel more substantial, which is why it starts with the flip, but suddenly it’s more dimensional as we go through the lettering and it reveals itself with the metallic sheen before settling into the white-on-red, well known Marvel logo, with the added flourish of the arrival and the announcement of the Studios at the bottom of the word Marvel.” Imaginary Forces used the same animation technique on the updated logo, as they did when they created the first version in 2002. They were given a few hundred comic books to select images from, ultimately choosing 120 that were "universal and not specific to one character" and created a narrative "where each image spoke to the one before it and after."
The new logo appeared on all subsequent studio productions set within the Marvel Cinematic Universe through Captain America: Civil War. With the addition of the new logo, Marvel Studios also added a fanfare to accompany the logo, composed by Brian Tyler, who wrote the scores to Iron Man 3, Thor: The Dark World, and Avengers: Age of Ultron. It was featured on the films Thor: The Dark World, Captain America: The Winter Soldier, and Guardians of the Galaxy.
In July 2016, another new logo and opening were introduced, featuring an updated fanfare, composed this time by Doctor Strange composer Michael Giacchino. The new opening begins with comic book panels seen in the previous two openings, but transitions into footage and art of the characters from the Marvel Cinematic Universe films. It was first seen in front of Doctor Strange. The updated logo was created by Perception, who were first approached in January 2016 by Marvel to update their logo. Feige specifically requested Perception "to combine the brand and the iconic characters into a single image, showcasing the heroes within the letterforms of the Marvel logo." The Perception team settled on a concept they dubbed "How to Build a Universe", which "was designed to pay tribute to [the film making] process by touching on" how a film's origins is inspired by the comics, which then results in a script, followed by concept art, resulting in the final film. Perception looked to the initial "flipbook" logo for inspiration, and payed tribute to it in the new opening, as it opens identically to the flipbook logo. Next, the opening includes "various lines lifted directly from the script pages of various Marvel screenplays", with Perception picking "both iconic fan-favorites, as well as lines that helped establish the breadth of the Marvel Universe." To add in the concept art images, Perception looked "through a massive archive of concept art and “The Art Of…” books, to select the most iconic images for each beloved character. Utilizing the original digital paintings themselves, the Perception team animated each image being painted from scratch. The final touch was mapping this artwork onto 3D models to giving these once 2D paintings a sense of depth as the camera moves around them." Finally, over 70 pieces of footage from the 13 films that had released at that time were included, with Perception arranging them in a way they called the "vault" "where luminescent footage plays on the interior walls of the “Marvel” logotype."
- "About Marvel: Corporate Information". Marvel. Archived from the original on May 3, 2014. Retrieved November 14, 2013.
- DeMott, Rick (November 13, 2009). "Marvel Studios Promotes Louis D'Esposito to Co-President". Animation World Network. Archived from the original on October 4, 2013. Retrieved October 2, 2013.
- Lang, Brent (August 31, 2015). "Marvel’s Kevin Feige Will Now Report to Disney". Variety. Archived from the original on September 1, 2015. Retrieved September 1, 2015.
In a shakeup in its command structure, Marvel Studios is being integrated into Walt Disney Studios with president Kevin Feige reporting to Alan Horn...
- "Sony Pictures Entertainment Brings Marvel Studios Into The Amazing World Of Spider-Man". Marvel. February 9, 2015. Archived from the original on February 10, 2015.
- Mangel, Andy (December 1990). "Reel Marvel". In Jim Salicrup. Marvel Age. Marvel Comics. Archived from the original on June 26, 2012. Retrieved May 5, 2011.
- Hass, Nancy (August 11, 1996). "Marvel sets up division to put its own characters into movies". The New York Times.
- Template:Cite wen
- Hartlaub, Peter (April 28, 2002). "Cool comic-book films: Golden age on silver screen for Marvel heroes". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on December 2, 2014.
- "Marvel Entertainment and Avi Arad to Develop Media Projects". The Free Library.com. Farlex, Inc. Archived from the original on July 16, 2017. Retrieved April 13, 2011.
- Hicks, Jonathan P. (November 8, 1988). "THE MEDIA BUSINESS; Marvel Comic Book Unit Being Sold for $82.5 million". The New York Times. Retrieved October 22, 2010.
- Cawley, John. "Marvel Films Animation 1993–1997". Home of John Cawley. John Cawley. Archived from the original on May 22, 2012. Retrieved May 5, 2011.
- Materna, Marisa (February 24, 2005). "Gang of Seven Goes Employee-Owned Route". Animation World Network. Archived from the original on October 17, 2012. Retrieved July 19, 2011.
- Goldman, Michael. "Stan Lee: Comic Guru". Animation World Magazine. Animation World Network. Archived from the original on April 25, 2014. Retrieved May 5, 2011.
- "John Semper on "Spider-Man": 10th Anniversary Interview". Marvel Animation Age. toonzone.net. Archived from the original on July 9, 2011. Retrieved May 5, 2011.
- Howe, Sean (September 28, 2012). "Avengers Assemble!". Slate. The Slate Group. Archived from the original on July 16, 2017. Retrieved April 28, 2015.
- "August Issue News Section:". Animation World Magazine. August 1996. Archived from the original on September 29, 2013. Retrieved July 19, 2011.
- "Toy Biz, Inc. Prospectus". NYSE.com. New York Stock Exchange. Archived from the original on December 2, 2013. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
- "Marvel plans TV, movies for characters". South Florida Sun-Sentinel. July 3, 1996.
- Benezra, Karen (July 8, 1996). "Marvel wants to be a movie mogul". MediaWeek. VNU eMedia, Inc. 6 (28).
- Kramer, Farrell (December 28, 1996). "Marvel, maker of sports cards, comics, files for bankruptcy". Fort Worth Star-Telegram. The McClatchy Company.
- Evenson, Laura (May 18, 1997). "Comics' Superpower To Turn Season's Movies Into Box-Office Gold". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on December 2, 2014.
- "TV News: Fox Kids, Family Channel To Get [Very] Animated.". Animation World Magazine. February 1998. Archived from the original on May 14, 2013. Retrieved May 17, 2011.
- Meugniot, Will. "Captain America: The Animated Series". StoryboardPro.com. Archived from the original on October 6, 2008.
- "Captain America "Skullhenge"". Animation. Steve Engelhart. Archived from the original on April 2, 2012. Retrieved May 17, 2011.
- "Blade (1998)". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on January 23, 2009. Retrieved June 18, 2008.
- Leonard, Devin (May 23, 2007). "Calling all superheroes". Fortune. Archived from the original on November 13, 2013. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- "X-Men (2000)". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on December 16, 2008. Retrieved June 18, 2008.
- Levine, Robert (June 27, 2004). "Does Whatever a Spider (and a C.E.O.) Can". The New York Times.
- Fleming, Michael (May 16, 2000). "Artisan deal a real Marvel". Variety. Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on April 9, 2015. Retrieved May 10, 2016.
- Elder, Robert K. (July 16, 2000). "Superheroes go Hollywood". The Dallas Morning News. A. H. Belo. Archived from the original on January 9, 2016. Via Highbeam.com (subscription required)
- Massari, Paul (December 2, 2001). "Marvel’s superheroes fight their way back from comic disaster". The Boston Globe.
- "Spider-Man (2002)". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on December 16, 2008. Retrieved June 18, 2008.
- Phan, Monty (May 7, 2002). "$114M – What a ' Marvel -ous' Start". Newsday.
- Masters, Kim (May 5, 2016). "Marvel Studios' Origin Secrets Revealed by Mysterious Founder: History Was "Rewritten"". Archived from the original on May 8, 2016. Retrieved May 10, 2016.
- Worley, Rob (October 9, 2002). "Comics2Film: SUB-MARINER, PRIME". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on June 3, 2016. Retrieved February 5, 2016.
- "Marvel Enters Burgeoning Made-for-DVD Market Segment Through Landmark Deal with Lions Gate Entertainment.". Business Wire. May 25, 2004. Retrieved March 18, 2011.[dead link]
- Harvey, James. "Direct-To-Video "Marvel Animated Features" Line Plans For Future Releases". Marvel Animation Age. toonzone.net. Archived from the original on December 2, 2013. Retrieved April 1, 2011.
- "Marvel Promotes Eric Rollman To President, Marvel Animation". AWN Headline News. Archived from the original on January 25, 2009. Retrieved May 6, 2008.
- Leonard, Devin (May 23, 2007). "Marvel goes Hollywood". Fortune. p. 2. Archived from the original on November 13, 2013. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- Vincent, Roger (September 6, 2005). "Marvel to Make Movies Based on Comic Books". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on April 16, 2014. Retrieved April 12, 2011. Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "lat" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
- "Marvel Launches Independent Film Slate". superherohype.com. Archived from the original on November 11, 2007. Retrieved November 26, 2007.
- Fritz, Ben; McClintock, Pamela (November 1, 2005). "Exec makes Marvel move - Entertainment News, Exec Shuffle, Media". Variety. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- Zeitchik, Steven (February 23, 2006). "Marvel stock soars on rev outlook". Variety. Archived from the original on February 23, 2013. Retrieved June 17, 2008.
- McClintock, Pamela (April 27, 2006). "Marvel Making Deals for Title Wave". Variety. Archived from the original on May 1, 2011. Retrieved March 1, 2008.
- "The Word on Black Widow". IGN. June 5, 2006. Archived from the original on March 2, 2012.
- "Marvel Entertainment Names David Maisel as Chairman, Marvel Studios and Kevin Feige as President...". Business Wire. AllBusiness.com, Inc. March 13, 2007. Archived from the original on May 11, 2009. Retrieved July 1, 2008.
- "Marvel Studios Inks Deal with FX". Wireless News (at Highbeam). March 20, 2008. Archived from the original on July 16, 2017. Retrieved May 7, 2014.
- "Marvel signs long-term lease with Raleigh". Hollywood Reporter. October 6, 2008. Archived from the original on December 4, 2008. Retrieved November 11, 2008.
- Finke, Nikki (September 29, 2008). "Paramount-Marvel Deal: Paramount To Distribute Next Five Marvel Films". Deadline.com. Archived from the original on April 1, 2014. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
- Graser, Marc (March 26, 2009). "Marvel's hiring writers". Variety. Archived from the original on February 21, 2014. Retrieved March 27, 2009.
- Goldman, Eric (September 1, 2009). "Sony No Longer Producing Spectacular Spider-Man; Studio Loses Spidey TV Rights". IGN. Archived from the original on April 14, 2014. Retrieved January 17, 2013.
- Vejvoda, Jim (August 31, 2009). "The Disney/Marvel Deal: What It Means for Movies". IGN. Archived from the original on August 12, 2012. Retrieved May 23, 2012.
- Fixmer, Andy; Sarah Rabil (September 1, 2009). "Disney’s Marvel Buy Traps Hollywood in Spider-Man Web (Update2)". Bloomberg L.P. Archived from the original on November 10, 2013. Retrieved May 23, 2012.
- Gallagher, Brian (April 22, 2010). "Marvel Studios Plans to Scale Down Their Films". Movie Web. Archived from the original on February 21, 2014. Retrieved February 21, 2014.
- Philbrick, Jami (April 24, 2010). "EXCLUSIVE: Dr. Strange and Dazzler Discussed in Marvel's New Future Film Plans". Movie Web. Archived from the original on February 21, 2014. Retrieved February 21, 2014.
- "Marvel Entertainment Launches TV Division". Deadline.com. Archived from the original on November 6, 2011. Retrieved August 5, 2010.
- Phegley, Kiel (July 2, 2010). "Jeph Loeb Talks Marvel TV". ComicBookResources.com. Archived from the original on October 29, 2013. Retrieved July 13, 2011.
- Kim Masters (October 18, 2010). "Disney to Distribute Marvel's 'The Avengers,' 'Iron Man 3'". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on January 3, 2014. Retrieved October 18, 2010.
- Finke, Nikki (May 6, 2012). "Paramount Makes Money Off ‘Avengers’ Too". Deadline.com. Archived from the original on November 10, 2013. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
- Finke, NIikki (August 23, 2011). "Disney Fires Marvel’s Marketing Department". Deadline.com. Archived from the original on August 25, 2011. Retrieved August 24, 2011.
- Wong, Stephanie (April 16, 2012). "Walt Disney to Co-Produce Iron Man 3 in China With DMG". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on January 8, 2014. Retrieved January 8, 2013.
- "Walt Disney's CEO Discusses Q4 2011 Results - Earnings Call Transcripts". Archived from the original on January 2, 2013. Retrieved January 17, 2013.
- Patten, Dominic (September 19, 2012). "Marvel Studios Heading To Disney’s Backyard". Deadline.com. Archived from the original on November 10, 2013. Retrieved December 29, 2012.
- Finke, Nikki (July 2, 2013). "Disney Completes Purchase Of Marvel Home Entertainment Distribution Rights". Deadline.com. Archived from the original on November 5, 2013. Retrieved July 2, 2013.
- Palmeri, Christopher (July 2, 2013). "Disney Buys Rights to Four Marvel Movies From Viacom’s Paramount". Bloomberg.com. Archived from the original on April 21, 2014. Retrieved July 2, 2013.
- Graser, Marc (September 17, 2014). "TNT Locks Down Next Five Marvel Movies Starting With ‘The Avengers: Age of Ultron’". Variety. Archived from the original on September 18, 2014. Retrieved September 17, 2014.
- Mike Fleming Jr. "‘Spider-Man’: Marvel’s Kevin Feige, Amy Pascal To Produce New Franchise - Deadline". Deadline. Archived from the original on February 10, 2015.
- Erik Pedersen. "Disney Shuffles Marvel Release Dates As Spider-Man Joins The Party". Deadline. Archived from the original on February 10, 2015.
- Masters, Kim; Belloni, Matthew (August 31, 2015). "Marvel Shake-Up: Film Chief Kevin Feige Breaks Free of CEO Ike Perlmutter (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on September 2, 2015. Retrieved August 31, 2015.
- Kit, Borys (January 20, 2011). "'Black Panther' Back in Development at Marvel". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on April 1, 2013. Retrieved January 21, 2011.
- Hughes, Mark (June 19, 2015). "Details Of Marvel's 'Hulk' Film Rights - Fans Can Relax About Sequel". Forbes. Archived from the original on June 22, 2015. Retrieved June 21, 2015.
...despite obtaining the cinematic rights to make Hulk movies, Marvel did not obtain distribution rights. Universal held those rights... the exact situation is that Universal currently retains the right of first refusal to distribute any Hulk films in the future. If for some reason Universal chose to forgo distribution, then Disney would immediately pick up the distribution rights for the Hulk movie.
- Kit, Borys (August 14, 2012). "Fox's Daredevil Rights on Verge of Reverting to Marvel as Ticking Clock Looms (Video)". hollywoodreporter.com. Archived from the original on August 15, 2012. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
- Fleming, Mike (August 6, 2012). "Fox Insiders: No Galactus Talks With Marvel". Deadline.com. PMC. Archived from the original on August 14, 2012. Retrieved August 7, 2012.
- Fleming, Mike (August 14, 2012). "Looks Like ‘Daredevil’ Will Go Back To Marvel And Disney". Deadline.com. PMC. Archived from the original on August 14, 2012. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
- Fleming Jr., Mike (April 23, 2013). "TOLDJA! ‘Daredevil’ Rights Revert From Fox To Disney". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on October 4, 2013. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
- Nicholson, Max (May 2, 2013). "Ghost Rider Blazes Back to Marvel". IGN. Archived from the original on February 21, 2014. Retrieved May 2, 2013.
- Kit, Borys; Bond, Paul (May 7, 2013). "A Spago dinner sets the stage for Downey's epic contract talks that could lead to more "Avengers" and "Iron Man 4" -- or a new Tony Stark.". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on May 17, 2013. Retrieved May 8, 2013.
- Nicholson, Max (May 9, 2013). "Does Marvel Studios Also Have Elektra Rights Back?". Archived from the original on February 21, 2014. Retrieved May 9, 2013.
- "Sony Pictures Entertainment Brings Marvel Studios Into The Amazing World Of Spider-Man". Marvel.com. February 9, 2015. Archived from the original on February 10, 2015. Retrieved February 10, 2015.
- Faraci, Devin (June 28, 2015). "Kevin Feige: Next Spider-Man Will Have New Villains, John Hughes Vibe". Birth. Movies. Death. Archived from the original on June 29, 2015. Retrieved June 28, 2015.
- Eggertsen, Chris (November 14, 2016). "Ryan Reynolds And Paul Wernick Talk 'Deadpool' Sequel And The Surprising Link To 'Guardians 2'". The Playlist. Archived from the original on November 15, 2016. Retrieved November 15, 2016.
- Lee, Carl (2012). "Answered: Which Studios Own Which Marvel Characters". Archived from the original on April 22, 2014. Retrieved May 9, 2013.
- Cronin, Brian (February 24, 2016). "Movie Legends Revealed: Is Deadpool Part of Fox’s X-Men Movie Rights?". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on February 26, 2016. Retrieved February 24, 2016.
- Johnson, Scott (September 6, 2013). "Could Vin Diesel Be Hinting At Playing Namor The Sub-Mariner?". Comicbook.com. Archived from the original on October 17, 2013. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
- Tilly, Chris (July 18, 2014). "Kevin Feige Talks Guardians Of The Galaxy, The Avengers & Sub-Mariner". IGN. Archived from the original on July 18, 2014. Retrieved July 18, 2014.
- "Joe Quesada Says Marvel Studios Has the Rights to Namor". Comic Book Resources. June 3, 2016. Archived from the original on July 16, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2016.
- "Entity Search: Mighty Marvel Music Corporation file number 0919369". Department of State: Division of Corporations. State of Delaware. Archived from the original on July 21, 2011. Retrieved October 22, 2011.
- "Entity Search: Marvel Music Group, Inc. file number 0919368". Department of State: Division of Corporations. State of Delaware. Archived from the original on July 21, 2011. Retrieved October 22, 2011.
- "New World Entertainment Inc. Completes Sale of Marvel for $82.5 Million; Company Begins 1989 With Busy Schedule and Further Debt Reduction". PR Newswire. January 25, 1989. Archived from the original on July 16, 2017. Retrieved October 4, 2011.
- "List of Principal Subsidiaries of the Company". Annual Report· Form 10-K · For 6/30/99. secinfo.com. p. 3. Archived from the original on May 16, 2012. Retrieved October 22, 2011.
- "Entity Search: Marvel Music, Inc. file number 4034835". Department of State: Division of Corporations. State of Delaware. Archived from the original on July 21, 2011. Retrieved October 4, 2011.
- "Patrick Doyle Thor [B.O.F] , album, ecouter, CD, Music Story". Music Story. Archived from the original on September 10, 2011. Retrieved October 4, 2011.
- Grossman, David (March 12, 2014). "Marvel Music's Strange, Brief, and Totally Doomed Rock-Comics Revolution". Spin Magazine. Archived from the original on July 16, 2017. Retrieved May 21, 2016.
- Kleinman, Maria (March 28, 2013). "Heroes Fall Album Of Music Inspired By Marvel's "Iron Man 3" Set For Release April 30" (Press release). Disney Music Group Publicity. PR Newswire. Archived from the original on February 3, 2014. Retrieved December 30, 2013 – via American City Business Journals.
- "Marvel Music And Hollywood Records' Marvel's Guardians Of The Galaxy Awesome Mix Vol. 1 Soundtrack Is Certified Gold". PR Newsire. September 25, 2014. Archived from the original on October 21, 2014. Retrieved September 26, 2014.
- Zeitchik, Steven (September 27, 2006). "Marvel lifts pair of execs". Daily Variety. Archived from the original on June 11, 2014. Retrieved May 7, 2014.
- "Marvel Studios Promotes Tim Connors to COO". Wireless News. Archive at HighBeam Research. December 12, 2008. Archived from the original on June 11, 2014. Retrieved May 7, 2014.
- McNary, Dave (March 15, 2013). "Tim Connors Departs As Legendary COO". Variety. Archived from the original on July 16, 2017. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
- "Form 8-K SEC File 1-13638". SEC Info, Fran Finnegan & Company. Archived from the original on April 27, 2012. Retrieved May 7, 2008.
- "Exclusive License Agreement Between Mvl Rights LLC And Marvel Characters, Inc.". RealDealDocs. Archived from the original on June 6, 2013. Retrieved June 25, 2012.
- "2010 Amended Annual Franchise Tax Report, Marvel Music, Inc.". State of Delaware: Department of State: Division of Corporations. Archived from the original on December 12, 2013. Retrieved October 4, 2011. Note: Secure site: File number 4034835 must be entered.
- Failes, Ian (November 18, 2013). "The dark side: behind the VFX of Thor: The Dark World". FX Guide. Archived from the original on November 19, 2013. Retrieved November 19, 2013.
- Strom, Marc (November 12, 2013). "Introducing the New Marvel Studios Logo". Marvel. Archived from the original on November 15, 2013. Retrieved November 12, 2013.
- Perry, Spencer (July 23, 2016). "See the New Marvel Studios Logo and Intro from Comic-Con". Collider.com. Archived from the original on July 25, 2016. Retrieved July 23, 2016.
- Ching, Albert (July 23, 2016). "SDCC: NEW MARVEL STUDIOS LOGO AND OPENING FANFARE REVEALED". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on July 25, 2016. Retrieved July 24, 2016.
- "Marvel Studios Logo". Perception. Archived from the original on February 4, 2017. Retrieved January 25, 2017.
- Hoffmeyer, Corey (July 15, 2017). "Marvel Studios: The First Ten Years Logo Unveiled at D23". Screen Rant. Archived from the original on July 16, 2017. Retrieved July 15, 2017.