Jim Lee (Korean 이용철; born August 11, 1964) is a Korean American comic-book artist, writer, editor, and publisher. He is currently the Co-Publisher and Chief Creative Officer of DC Comics. In recognition of his work, Lee has received a Harvey Award, Inkpot Award and three Wizard Fan Awards.
Lee at a signing for his coffee table art book, Icons: The DC Comics & WildStorm Art of Jim Lee, at Midtown Comics in Manhattan
|Born||August 11, 1964|
Seoul, South Korea
|Area(s)||Writer, Artist, Publisher|
|All Star Batman & Robin, the Boy Wonder|
Fantastic Four vol. 2
The Punisher War Journal
Superman: For Tomorrow
Justice League vol. 2
X-Men vol. 2
|Awards||Harvey Award, 1990|
Inkpot Award, 1992
Wizard Fan Award, 1996, 2002, 2003
|Revised Romanization||I Yong-cheol|
He entered the industry in 1987 as an artist for Marvel Comics, illustrating titles such as Alpha Flight and The Punisher War Journal, before gaining popularity on The Uncanny X-Men. X-Men No. 1, the 1991 spin-off series premiere that Lee penciled and co-wrote with Chris Claremont, remains the best-selling comic book of all time, according to Guinness World Records. In 1992, Lee and several other artists formed their own publishing company, Image Comics to publish their creator-owned titles, with Lee publishing titles such as WildC.A.T.s and Gen¹³ through his studio WildStorm Productions.
Eschewing the role of publisher in order to return to illustration, Lee sold WildStorm in 1998 to DC Comics, where he continued to run it as a DC imprint until 2010, as well as illustrating successful titles set in DC's main fictional universe, such as the year-long "Batman: Hush" and "Superman: For Tomorrow" storylines, and books including Superman Unchained, and the New 52 run of Justice League. On February 18, 2010, Lee was announced as the new Co-Publisher of DC Comics with Dan DiDio, both replacing Paul Levitz.
Lee was born on August 11, 1964 in Seoul, South Korea. He grew up in St. Louis, Missouri, where he lived a "typical middle-class childhood". Though given a Korean name at birth, he chose the name Jim when he became a naturalized U.S. citizen at age 12. Lee attended River Bend Elementary School in Chesterfield and later St. Louis Country Day School, where he drew posters for school plays. Having had to learn English when he first came to the U.S. presented the young Lee with the sense of being an outsider, as did the "preppy, upper-class" atmosphere of Country Day. As a result, on the rare occasions that his parents bought him comics, Lee's favorite characters were the X-Men, because they were outsiders themselves. Lee says that he benefited as an artist by connecting with characters that were themselves disenfranchised, like Spider-Man, or who were born of such backgrounds, such as Superman, who was created by two Jewish men from Cleveland to lift their spirits during the Depression. His classmates predicted in his senior yearbook that he would found his own comic book company. Despite this, Lee was resigned to following his father's career in medicine, attending Princeton University to study psychology, with the intention of becoming a medical doctor.
Rise to fame at Marvel ComicsEdit
In 1986, as he was preparing to graduate, Lee took an art class that reignited his love of drawing, and led to his rediscovery of comics at a time when seminal works such as Frank Miller's The Dark Knight Returns and Alan Moore and Dave Gibbons' Watchmen spurred a renaissance within the American comics industry. After obtaining his psychology degree, he decided to postpone applying to medical school, and earned the reluctant blessing of his parents by allotting himself one year to succeed, vowing that he would attend medical school if he did not break into the comic book industry in that time. He submitted samples to various publishers, but did not find success. When Lee befriended St. Louis-area comics artists Don Secrease and Rick Burchett, they convinced him he needed to show his portfolio to editors in person, prompting Lee to attend a New York comics convention, where he met editor Archie Goodwin. Goodwin invited Lee to Marvel Comics, where the aspiring artist received his first assignment by editor Carl Potts, who hired him to pencil the mid-list series Alpha Flight, seguéing from that title in 1989 to Punisher: War Journal. Lee's work on the Punisher: War Journal was inspired by artists such as Frank Miller, David Ross, Kevin Nowlan, and Whilce Portacio, as well as Japanese manga.
In 1989, Lee filled in for regular illustrator Marc Silvestri on Uncanny X-Men No. 248 and did another guest stint on issues No. 256 through No. 258 as part of the "Acts of Vengeance" storyline, eventually becoming the series' ongoing artist with issue No. 267, following Silvestri's departure. During his stint on Uncanny, Lee first worked with inker Scott Williams, who would become a long-time collaborator. During his run on the title, Lee co-created the character Gambit with long-time X-Men writer Chris Claremont.
Lee's artwork quickly gained popularity in the eyes of enthusiastic fans, which allowed him to gain greater creative control of the franchise. In 1991, Lee helped launch a second X-Men series simply called X-Men volume 2, as both the artist and as co-writer with Claremont. X-Men vol. 2 No. 1 is still the best-selling comic book of all-time with sales of over 8.1 million copies and nearly $7 million, according to a public proclamation by Guinness World Records at the 2010 San Diego Comic-Con. The sales figures were generated in part by publishing the issue with five different variant covers, four of which show different characters from the book that formed a single image when laid side by side, and a fifth, gatefold cover of that combined image, large numbers of which were purchased by retailers who anticipated fans and speculators who would buy multiple copies in order to acquire a complete collection of the covers. Lee designed new character uniforms for the series, including those worn by Cyclops, Jean Grey, Rogue, Psylocke and Storm and created the villain Omega Red. Actor/comedian Taran Killam, who has ventured into comics writing with The Illegitimates, has cited X-Men No. 1 as the book that inspired his interest in comics.
Image Comics and WildStorm, return to MarvelEdit
Enticed by the idea of being able to exert more control over his own work, in 1992, Lee accepted the invitation to join six other artists who broke away from Marvel to form Image Comics, which would publish their creator-owned titles. Lee's group of titles was initially called Aegis Entertainment before being christened WildStorm Productions, and published Lee's initial title WildC.A.T.s, which Lee pencilled and co-wrote, and other series created by Lee in the same shared universe. The other major series of the initial years of Wildstorm, for which Lee either created characters, co-plotted or provided art for, included Stormwatch, Deathblow and Gen¹³.
In 1993, Lee and his friend, Valiant Comics publisher Steve Massarsky, arranged a Valiant-Image Comics crossover miniseries called Deathmate, in which the Valiant characters would interact with those of WildStorm, and of Lee's fellow Image partner, Rob Liefeld. The miniseries would consist of four "center books" (each one denoted by a color rather than an issue number), two each produced by the respective companies, plus a prologue and epilogue book. Wildstorm produced Deathmate Black, with Lee himself contributing to the writing. He illustrated the covers for that book, the Deathmate Tourbook and the prologue book, as well as contributing to the prologue's interior inks.
WildStorm would expand its line to include other ongoing titles whose creative work was handled by other writers and artists, some of which were spinoffs of the earlier titles, or properties owned by other creators, such as Whilce Portacio's Wetworks. As publisher, Lee later expanded his comics line creating two publishing imprints of WildStorm, Homage and Cliffhanger (that years later merged and were replaced by a single WildStorm Signature imprint), to publish creator-owned comics by some selected creators of the US comics industry.
Lee and Rob Liefeld, another Marvel-illustrator-turned-Image-founder, returned to Marvel in 1996 to participate in a reboot of several classic characters; the project was known as Heroes Reborn. While Liefeld reworked Captain America and The Avengers, Lee plotted Iron Man and plotted and illustrated Fantastic Four issues #1-6. Halfway through the project, Lee's studio took over Liefeld's two titles, finishing all four series. According to Lee, Marvel proposed continuing the Heroes Reborn lineup indefinitely, but under the condition that Lee would draw at least one of them himself, which he refused to do. Instead, he accepted an offer to re-imagine and relaunch (in the role of editor) three mainstream Marvel Universe titles: Defenders, Doctor Strange, and Nick Fury. Though scheduled to debut in December 1997, these three relaunches never appeared.
Lee returned to WildStorm, where he would publish series such as The Authority and Planetary, as well as Alan Moore's imprint, America's Best Comics. Lee himself wrote and illustrated a 12-issue series called Divine Right: The Adventures of Max Faraday, in which an internet slacker inadvertently manages to download the secrets of the universe, and is thrown into a wild fantasy world.
Move to DC ComicsEdit
Because he felt his role as publisher and his growing family demands interfered with his role as an artist, Lee left Image Comics and sold WildStorm to DC Comics in late 1998, enabling him to focus once again on art. He drew a "Batman Black and White" backup story for the first issue of Batman: Gotham Knights (March 2000). In 2003, he collaborated on a 12-issue run on Batman with writer Jeph Loeb. "Hush" became a sales success. He followed this up in 2004 by illustrating "For Tomorrow", a 12-issue story in Superman by writer Brian Azzarello.
In 2005, Lee teamed with Frank Miller on All Star Batman & Robin, the Boy Wonder, a series plagued by delays, including a one year gap between the releases of the fourth and fifth issues. Lee himself took full responsibility for the delays, explaining that his involvement with the DC Universe Online video game were the cause, and not Miller's scripts, which had been completed for some time. All-Star also drew controversy for Miller's dialogue, pacing and depiction of the characters, garnering reviews that were mixed to negative, though Lee's art was praised, and the book enjoyed excellent sales. A total of 10 issues were produced of that series, the tenth issue being released on September 24, 2015. In September 2015 Lee indicated the possibility of returning to the book to conclude it with Miller's originally intended ending, but this series was never produced.
Lee continued to run WildStorm as Editorial Director, sometimes working on both DC and WildStorm properties simultaneously. In September 2006, Lee returned to WildC.A.T.s with Grant Morrison as the writer, but only one issue that series' fourth volume was published.
Lee provided artwork for the album booklet for Daughtry's 2009 album Leave This Town. In February 2006, it was announced that Lee would be involved with the concept art for the DC Comics online game DC Universe Online. In 2008, Lee was named the Executive Creative Director of the forthcoming game, which at that time was expected to be released in 2009. In February 2010, Lee and Dan DiDio were named Co-Publishers of DC Comics by DC Entertainment President Diane Nelson. According to Lee, this did not indicate another move away from the creative side of comics, as his Co-Publishing duties granted him greater creative involvement in the entire DC line and allow him to illustrate titles. DC announced they were ending the WildStorm imprint in September 2010.
In September 2011, DC Comics instituted an initiative called The New 52, in which the publisher cancelled all of its superhero titles and relaunched 52 new series with No. 1 issues, wiping out most of the then-current continuity. Lee and writer Geoff Johns, DC Comics' Chief Creative Officer, are the architects of the relaunch, which was initiated with a new Justice League series, written and illustrated by Johns and Lee, respectively. The series' first story arc was a new origin of the Justice League, which depicted the return of DC's primary superheroes to the team. Lee's illustration for the cover of issue No. 12 drew media attention for its depiction of Superman and Wonder Woman in a passionate embrace, a rendition that Lee said was inspired by Gustav Klimt's painting The Kiss and Alfred Eisenstaedt's 1945 photograph V-J Day in Times Square.
In July 2012, as part of the San Diego Comic-Con, Lee and Dan DiDio participated in the production of "Heroic Proportions", an episode of the Syfy reality television competition series Face Off, in which special effects makeup artists compete to create the best makeup according to each episode's theme. Lee and DiDio presented the contestants with that episode's challenge, to create a new superhero, with six DC Comics artists on hand to help them develop their ideas. The winning entry's character, Infernal Core by Anthony Kosar, was featured in Justice League Dark #16 (March 2013), which was published January 30, 2013. The episode premiered on January 22, 2013, as the second episode of the fourth season.
In October 2012, DC Entertainment and Kia Motors America entered a partnership to benefit We Can Be Heroes, a campaign dedicated to fighting hunger in the Horn of Africa. The campaign involves the creation of eight Justice League-inspired vehicles, on whose designs Lee collaborated. Each vehicle is tied thematically to a member of the Justice League, the first of which was a Batman-themed Kia Optima. A Superman-themed version inspired by Lee's art followed in February 2013.
On May 4, 2013, DC published a Free Comic Book Day sneak preview of Superman Unchained, an ongoing series written by Scott Snyder and illustrated by Lee, which was published on June 12, 2013, and intended to coincide with the feature film Man of Steel, which opened two days later.
In 2014, General Mills enlisted the help of DC Comics to create new designs for its monster-themed cereals in time for Halloween. The designs, revealed on August 6, consisted of a Boo Berry design by Lee, a Count Chocula design by Terry Dodson and a Franken-Berry design by Dave Johnson. Describing the task of designing a cartoon character, Lee explained, "Drawing simpler characters is a lot more work and harder than drawing something that's more complicated or has a lot of renderings. Every line counts and every distance between the eyes and the ears, it's all super critical."
In February 2015, DC released The Multiversity: Mastermen, the seventh issue of Grant Morrison's The Multiversity project, which Lee illustrated. That November saw the debut of the miniseries Batman: Europa, on which Lee collaborated with writers Brian Azzarello and Matteo Casali and artist Giuseppe Camuncoli. The book, which was inspired by Lee's time living in Italy, was originally announced by DC in 2004, and intended to feature Lee's painted art over Camuncoli's layouts, but after a series of delays, it published with conventional artwork as a four-issue miniseries to positive reviews.
In 2016, Lee was the main artist on the one-shot Harley Quinn and the Suicide Squad April Fool's Special sharing art duties on that book with Sean Galloway. That August, DC released the first of eight issues of Lee and writer Rob Williams new Suicide Squad series, as part of the DC Rebirth relaunch.
In July 2017, Marvel decided to capitalize on Lee's popularity by releasing 29 of its books with covers reprinting Lee's art for its 1992 Series 1 X-Men trading cards.
In March 2018, Lee and writer James Tynion IV launched the series The Immortal Men as part of DC's New Age of Heroes line. That June, following the departure of DC Entertainment's Diane Nelson, and Geoff Johns' stepping down from his role as Chief Creative Officer (CCO) of DC Comics, Lee was named DC's COO, a role he would assume while continuing to act as publisher with Dan DiDio.
Technique and materialsEdit
In talking about the artist's work ethic, Lee has said, "Sometimes I wonder if we ever really improve as artists or if the nirvana derived from completing a piece blinds us enough to love what we have created and move on to the next piece. If we could see the work as it is, with years of reflection in the here and now, how many images would end up in the trash rather than on the racks?"
In a 1996 interview with The Comics Journal, writer/illustrator Barry Windsor-Smith criticized the depth of the work of artists like Lee and Rob Liefeld, and those whom they influenced (whom he referred to as "the Liefelds and the Lees"), stating, "Your Jim Lees and all this lot, their product hasn't got anything to do with them, you know? There is no emotional investment...I look at Jim Lee's work, and the guy's learning how to draw. He has some craft to what he does...I don't think it has even crossed their minds that comic books can be a medium for intimate self-expression." The Comics Journal publisher Gary Groth concurred, stating "Lee's work is obviously more technically accomplished than Liefeld's, but otherwise it's conceptually comparable." Windsor-Smith added that he believed in the Image Comics' founders' exodus from Marvel Comics as an important step for creator autonomy and creator rights, and was angered when they returned to Marvel to do "Heroes Reborn".
Lee, his wife Carla Michelle (nee Vorhies) and their children lived in Italy for a time. They had three children as of March 1999. In 2012, when Carla was pregnant again, Lee included a tribute to her in Justice League #5, writing "I LOVE CARLA" on the shattered windshield of a car onto which Batman jumps. As of August 2013, Lee and Carla Michelle had eight children, with their ninth due later that year.
In the 1990s, Lee bought two pages of Jack Kirby concept art, which Kirby had created for a film adaptation of Roger Zelazny's novel Lord of Light, as part of the cover story to smuggle Americans out of Iran during the 1980 hostage crisis. Lee purchased the art at a Sotheby's auction via Barry Geller, the producer of the faux film, who was selling it to help pay for his child's college tuition. Although the CIA operation that rescued the Americans remained classified for another 17 years, and thus Lee had no idea of the pages' historical significance, nor did Geller know their true monetary value when he sold them to help pay his son's college tuition (with Kirby's permission). Both Lee and Geller learned of the true story behind the art years later with the rest of the public. In August 2013, four of Lee's children were headed for college, and he and Carla decided to auction off the art through Heritage Auctions in order to pay for their education.
- Alpha Flight #51, 53, 55–62, 64 (1987–88)
- Solo Avengers #1 (1987)
- The Avengers (Vol. 2) #8 (cover art)
- Captain America (Vol. 1) #383 (cover inks) (1991)
- Captain America (Vol. 2) #7-8 (cover art)
- Classic X-Men #39 (new backup story) (1989)
- Critical Mass #4 (various artists) (1990)
- Daredevil Annual #5 (1989)
- Fantastic Four (Vol. 2) #1–6 (1996–1997) (plot & pencil art), #7-12 (plot)
- Iron Man (Vol. 2) #6 (various artists) (1997)
- Justice #30 (1989)
- Marvel Comics Presents (Namor) #33 (1989)
- Punisher Annual #2 (1989)
- The Punisher War Journal #1–12, 17–19 (1988–1990)
- Solo Avengers (Mockingbird) #1 (1987)
- Spider-Man #10 (co-inker) (1991)
- St. George #8 (1989)
- Stryfe's Strike File #1 (various artists) (1993)
- Transformers #67 (cover art) (June 1990)
- Uncanny X-Men #248, 256–258, 267–277 (1989, 1990–1991)
- What The--?! #5 (1989)
- X-Men, (Vol. 2) #1–11 (1991–1992)
- Uncanny X-Men 3D #1 (2019)
- Guardians Of The Galaxy #10 (1991)
- Stryfes Strike File #1 (1993)
- Preacher #50 (1999)
- Batman: Gotham Knights (Batman Black and White) #1 (2000)
- Just Imagine Stan Lee with Jim Lee creating Wonder Woman (2001)
- Orion (Tales of the New Gods) #12 (2001)
- Batman (Vol. 1) #608–619 (2002–2003)
- Action Comics (Vol. 1) #800 (2003)
- Superman (Vol. 2) #204–215 (2004–2005)
- All Star Batman & Robin, the Boy Wonder #1–10 (2005–2008)
- Superman/Batman #26 (two pages, various artists) (2006)
- Justice League of America, (Vol. 2), #0 (one page only) (2006)
- Absolute Superman For Tomorrow (new cover) (2009)
- Justice League (Vol. 1) #1–6, 9–12 (2011–2012)
- The New 52 (Free Comic Book Day) #1 (2012)
- Superman Unchained #1–9 (2013–2014)
- Harley Quinn (Vol. 2) #0 (2014)
- Divine Right The Adventures Of Max Faraday (2014)
- Batman Europa #1 (2015)
- The Multiversity: Mastermen #1 (2015)
- Suicide Squad vol. 5 #1–8 (2016)
- Harley Quinn and the Suicide Squad April Fool's Special #1 (2016)
- Dark Days: The Forge #1 (2017)
- Dark Days: The Casting #1 (2017)
- Action Comics vol. 3 #1000 (2018)
- Justice League Day, Special Edition, #1 (2018)
- 9-11: The World's Finest Comic Book Writers & Artists Tell Stories to Remember, Volume Two
- The Immortal Men #1 (2018)
- Detective Comics #1000 (various artists) (2019)
- Batman: Hush DC Essential Edition (2019)
- Darker Image #1 (1993)
- Deathblow #1–3; (with Trevor Scott): #0 (1993–1996)
- Deathmate Black (various artists) (1993)
- Gen¹³ #0, 4–7 (1994)
- Savage Dragon #13 (1994)
- Grifter/Shi, 2-part miniseries, #1 (with Travis Charest) (1996)
- Moonlight and Ashes: Fire From Heaven, 2-part miniseries, #2 (1996)
- Divine Right #1–12 (1997–1999)
- StormWatch #47 (1997)
- WildC.A.T.s, (Vol. 1) #1–13(1992-1994), #19 (1995), #31–32 (1996-1997), 50 (1998)
Marvel Comics/Image ComicsEdit
- WildC.A.T.s/X-Men: The Silver Age (1997)
- Icons: The DC & Wildstorm Art of Jim Lee (Titan Books, 2010)
- Avengers ((Vol. 6) #9 (variant cover) (2017)
- Old Man Logan (Vol. 2) #26 (variant cover) (2017)
- Punisher (Vol. 10) #14 (variant cover) (2017)
- X-Men Blue #1 (variant cover) (2017)
- X-Men Gold #1 (variant cover) (2017), #7 (variant cover) (2017)
- Ms Marvel (Vol. 4) #20 (variant cover) (2017)
- Amazing Spider-Man (Vol. 4) #30 (variant cover) (2017)
- Captain America (Vol. 8) #700 (variant cover) (2018)
- Superman Batman #10 (variant cover) (2004)
- Catwoman: The Movie (2004)
- Countdown to Infinite Crisis (with Alex Ross) (2005)
- Infinite Crisis #1-9 (2005-2006)
- Captain Atom Armageddon #1 (variant cover) (2005)
- Trinity (Vol. 1) #14-18 (2008), #25-27 (2008), #31-33 (2009)
- Green Lantern (Vol. 4) #50 (variant cover) (2010)
- Legion of Super-Heroes (Vol. 6) #1-6 (variant covers) (2010)
- First Wave #6 (variant cover) (2011)
- Action Comics (Vol. 2) #1 (variant cover) (2011)
- Batman (Vol. 2) #2 (variant cover) (2011), #50 (variant cover) (2016)
- Flash (Vol. 4) #3 (variant cover) (2011)
- Before Watchmen: Comedian #1 (variant cover) (2012)
- Before Watchmen: Minutemen #1 (variant cover) (2012)
- Before Watchmen: Nite Owl #1 (variant cover) (2012)
- Before Watchmen: Rorschach #1 (variant cover) (2012)
- Before Watchmen: Silk Spectre #1 (variant cover) (2012)
- Before Watchmen: Ozymandias #1 (variant cover) (2012)
- Before Watchmen: Dr. Manhattan #1 (variant cover) (2012)
- Detective Comics (Vol. 2) #27 (variant cover) (2014)
- The Dark Knight III: The Master Race #1-9 (variant covers) (2015-2017)
- The Dark Knight III: The Master Race Collector's Edition #1-9 (2015-2017)
- Batman/Superman #18 (Flash 75th Anniversary variant cover) (2015)
- Titans Hunt #1 (variant cover) (2015)
- Dark Knight Returns: The Last Crusade #1 (variant cover) (2016)
- Justice League Of America (Vol. 4) #9 (variant cover) (2016)
- Scooby Apocalypse #1-4 (2016)
- Batman (Vol. 3) #19 (Fan Expo Dallas variant cover) (2017), #45 (variant cover) (2018), #50 (variant cover) (2018)
- All-Star Batman #8 (Fan Expo Dallas variant cover) (2017)
- The Wild Storm #1-12 (variant covers) (2017-2018)
- Kamandi Challenge #8 (2017)
- Dark Nights: Metal #1-6 (variant covers) (2017-2018)
- Hawkman Found #1 (variant cover) (2017)
- Action Comics (Vol. 3) #1000 (dynamic forces variant cover) (2018)
- Action Comics: 80 Years of Superman Deluxe Edition (2018)
- Batman (Vol. 3) #45 (2018)
- Justice League (Vol. 4) #1-10 (variant covers) (2018)
- Harley Quinn 25th Anniversary Special #1 (2018)
- Sandman Universe #1 (variant cover) (2018)
- Batman The MAXX Arkham Dreams #1 (variant cover) (2018)
- The Immortal Men #2-4 (2018)
- Batman: Damned #1-3 (variant covers) (2018-2019)
- Cover #6 (variant cover) (2019)
- Detective Comics: 80 Years of Batman Deluxe Edition (2019)
- Detective Comics (Vol. 3) #1000 (Torpedo Comics variant covers) (2019)
- SHAZAM! (Vol. 2) #4 (variant cover) (2019)
- Django Unchained #1 (variant cover) (2013)
- Sandman Overture #1 (variant cover) (2013)
- Mad Max Fury Road #1 (variant cover) (2015)
- WildC.A.T.s (Vol. 1) #21 (1995),
- C-23 #2 (variant cover) (1998)
- Spawn #150 (variant cover) (2005), #200 (variant cover) (2011)
- Image United #1 (variant cover) (2009)
- Skye Runner #1 (variant cover) (2006)
- New Dynamix #1 (variant cover) (2008)
- Prototype #1 (variant cover) (2009)
- Modern Warfare 2 Ghost #1 (variant cover) (2009)
- DV8 Gods & Monsters #1 (variant cover) (2010)
- Boys #30 (variant cover) (2009)
- Scooby Apocalyspe #1 (2016)
- Stormwatch #0 (1993), #3 (1993)
- WildC.A.T.s (Vol. 1) #1–9 (1993-1994)
- Kindred #1-4 (1994)
- Stormwatch Sourcebook #1 (1994)
- Divine Right #1-12 (1997-1999)
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- Lee, Jim; Baker, Bill (2010). Icons: The DC Comics & WildStorm Art of Jim Lee. Titan Books. pp. 8 and 10. ISBN 978-1845765194.
- Lee, Jim (November 14, 2017). Batman Hush: The 15th Anniversary Deluxe Edition, DC Comics (Burbank, California), p 308.
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- Gaffney, Suzanne. "Co-Conspirators Talk". The Punisher War Journal. Marvel Comics. December 1988.
- Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2008). "1990s". Marvel Chronicle A Year by Year History. London, United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. p. 255. ISBN 978-0756641238.
It was a matter of simple addition. Take Chris Claremont, the writer who had made The Uncanny X-Men the continual hit that it was, and add Jim Lee, the artist who had reinvigorated the title's popularity in recent months...The sum of all these parts was X-Men #1, the best selling comic book in the history of the medium, selling well over eight million copies.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
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- Cantor, Michael (Producer); Schreiber, Liev (Narrator) Superheroes: A Never-Ending Battle. PBS. October 15, 2013.
- Glenday, Craig, ed. (2013). Guinness World Records 2013. Jim Pattison Group. p. 212. ISBN 978-1904994879.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
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- Manning "1990s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 280: "Part of the 'Heroes Reborn' event, Iron Man was relaunched into a new universe courtesy of writers Scott Lobdell and Jim Lee, with pencils by Whilce Portacio."
- Manning "1990s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 280: "Jim Lee both wrote and drew this Heroes Reborn relaunch title with the help of fellow scripter Brandon Choi."
- McLauchlin, Jim (August 1997). "Lee Extends 'Reborn' Run". Wizard (72). pp. 18–19.
- Lee, Jim (March 1999). "Welcome and Happy New Year!". Wildcats (vol 2) #1 WildStorm Productions, p. 27.
- Manning, Matthew K.; Dolan, Hannah, ed. (2010). "1990s". DC Comics Year By Year A Visual Chronicle. London, United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. p. 286. ISBN 978-0-7566-6742-9.
In a landmark deal, DC purchased Jim Lee's WildStorm imprint, gaining another super hero universe.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
- Manning, Matthew K.; Dougall, Alastair, ed. (2014). "2000s". Batman: A Visual History. London, United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. p. 248. ISBN 978-1465424563.
The premier issue showcased the writing of Warren Ellis and the artistry of Jim Lee in the story 'To Become the Bat'.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
- Cowsill, Alan "2000s" in Dolan, p. 307: "The 'Hush' story arc [begun] in Batman #608 was artist Jim Lee's first major work since he joined DC...Written by Jeph Loeb, 'Hush' brought profound changes to the life of the Dark Knight."
- "Jim Lee". Lambiek Comiclopedia. July 13, 2012. Archived from the original on May 16, 2013.
- Cowsill "2000s" in Dolan, p. 321: "Writer Frank Miller and artist Jim Lee got things started in the first release for the new imprint - All Star Batman & Robin, the Boy Wonder."
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Scott Snyder and Jim Lee's forthcoming Superman monthly title will be previewed in the issue.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jim Lee.|
- Jim Lee at the Comic Book DB
- Jim Lee on deviantART
- Jim Lee on Twitch.tv
- Jim Lee at Mike's Amazing World of Comics
- Jim Lee at the Unofficial Handbook of Marvel Comics Creators
- Jim Lee's channel on YouTube
- Sun of Gelatometti – A blog of multiple artists, including Jim Lee
| Uncanny X-Men artist
(with Whilce Portacio from 1991–1992)
| X-Men vol. 2 writer
(with Chris Claremont)
| Fantastic Four writer/artist
(with Brandon Choi)
Scott Lobdell (writer)
Brett Booth (artist)
| Iron Man writer
(with Scott Lobdell and Jeph Loeb)
| Batman artist
| Superman artist
| Publisher of DC Comics
(with Dan DiDio)
| Justice League vol. 2 artist
Gary Frank and Ethan Van Sciver