Open main menu

An alien invasion is featured in H. G. Wells' 1897 novel The War of the Worlds.
Space exploration was predicted in August 1958 in the science fiction magazine Imagination.

Science fiction (sometimes called Sci-Fi or simply SF) is a genre of speculative fiction that has been called the "literature of ideas". It typically deals with imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and technology, time travel, parallel universes, fictional worlds, space exploration, and extraterrestrial life. It often explores the potential consequences of scientific innovations.[1][2]

Science fiction, whose roots go back to ancient times, is related to fantasy, horror, and superhero fiction, and includes many subgenres. However its exact definition has long been disputed among authors, critics, and scholars.

Science fiction literature, film, television, and other media have become popular and influential over much of the world. Besides providing entertainment, it can also criticize present-day society, and is often said to generate a "sense of wonder".

Contents

DefinitionsEdit

"Science fiction" is difficult to define precisely, as it includes a wide range of concepts and themes. James Blish wrote: "Wells used the term originally to cover what we would today call "hard" science fiction, in which a conscientious attempt to be faithful to already known facts (as of the date of writing) was the substrate on which the story was to be built, and if the story was also to contain a miracle, it ought at least not to contain a whole arsenal of them."[3]

Isaac Asimov said: "Science fiction can be defined as that branch of literature which deals with the reaction of human beings to changes in science and technology."[4] According to Robert A. Heinlein, "A handy short definition of almost all science fiction might read: realistic speculation about possible future events, based solidly on adequate knowledge of the real world, past and present, and on a thorough understanding of the nature and significance of the scientific method."[5]

Tom Shippey compared George Orwell's Coming Up for Air (1939) with Frederick Pohl and C. M. Kornbluth's The Space Merchants (1952), and concluded that the basic building block and distinguishing feature of a science fiction novel is the presence of the novum,[6] a term Darko Suvin adapted from Ernst Bloch and defined as "a discrete piece of information recognizable as not-true, but also as not-unlike-true, not-flatly- (and in the current state of knowledge) impossible."[7]

Lester del Rey wrote, "Even the devoted aficionado or fan—has a hard time trying to explain what science fiction is," and that the reason for there not being a "full satisfactory definition" is that "there are no easily delineated limits to science fiction."[8] Author and editor Damon Knight summed up the difficulty, saying "science fiction is what we point to when we say it."[9] Mark C. Glassey described the definition of science fiction as U.S. Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart did with the definition of pornography: "I know it when I see it."[10][11]

HistoryEdit

 
Illustration by Aubrey Beardsley for Lucian's A True Story

Science fiction is a modern genre. Though writers in antiquity sometimes dealt with themes common to modern science fiction, their stories made no attempt at scientific and technological plausibility, the feature that distinguishes science fiction from earlier speculative writings as well as from other contemporary speculative genres such as fantasy and horror. Science fiction had its beginnings in ancient times when the line between myth and fact were blurred.[12]

Written in the 2nd century CE by the satirist Lucian, A True Story contains many themes and tropes that are characteristic of modern science fiction, including travel to other worlds, extraterrestrial lifeforms, interplanetary warfare, and artificial life. Some consider it the first science-fiction novel.[13][14][15][16][17] Some of the stories from The Arabian Nights,[18][19] along with the 10th-century The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter[19] and Ibn al-Nafis's 13th-century Theologus Autodidactus,[20] also contain elements of science fiction.

Products of the Scientific Revolution and the Age of Enlightenment, Johannes Kepler's Somnium (1634), Francis Bacon's New Atlantis (1627),[21] Cyrano de Bergerac's Comical History of the States and Empires of the Moon (1657) and The States and Empires of the Sun (1662), Margaret Cavendish's "The Blazing World" (1666),[22][23][24][25] Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels (1726), Ludvig Holberg's Nicolai Klimii Iter Subterraneum (1741) and Voltaire's Micromégas (1752) are regarded as some of the first true science-fantasy works.[26][27] Isaac Asimov and Carl Sagan considered Somnium the first science-fiction story; it depicts a journey to the Moon and how the Earth's motion is seen from there.[28][29]

Following the 18th-century development of the novel as a literary form, Mary Shelley's Frankenstein (1818) and The Last Man (1826) helped define the form of the science-fiction novel. Brian Aldiss has argued that Frankenstein was the first work of science fiction.[30][31] Edgar Allan Poe wrote several stories considered science fiction, including "The Unparalleled Adventure of One Hans Pfaall" (1835) which featured a trip to the Moon.[32][33] Jules Verne was noted for his attention to detail and scientific accuracy, especially Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea (1870).[34][35][36][37] In 1887, the novel El anacronópete by Spanish author Enrique Gaspar y Rimbau introduced the first time machine.[38][39]

Many critics consider H. G. Wells one of science fiction's most important authors,[40][41] or even "the Shakespeare of science fiction."[42] His notable science-fiction works include The Time Machine (1895), The Island of Doctor Moreau (1896), The Invisible Man (1897), and The War of the Worlds (1898). His science fiction imagined alien invasion, biological engineering, invisibility, and time travel. In his non-fiction futurologist works he predicted the advent of airplanes, military tanks, nuclear weapons, satellite television, space travel, and something resembling the World Wide Web.[43]

Edgar Rice Burroughs' A Princess of Mars, published in 1912, was the first of his three-decade-long planetary romance series of Barsoom novels which were set on Mars and featured John Carter as the hero.[44]

In 1926, Hugo Gernsback published the first American science-fiction magazine, Amazing Stories. In its first issue he wrote:

By 'scientifiction' I mean the Jules Verne, H. G. Wells and Edgar Allan Poe type of story—a charming romance intermingled with scientific fact and prophetic vision... Not only do these amazing tales make tremendously interesting reading—they are always instructive. They supply knowledge... in a very palatable form... New adventures pictured for us in the scientifiction of today are not at all impossible of realization tomorrow... Many great science stories destined to be of historical interest are still to be written... Posterity will point to them as having blazed a new trail, not only in literature and fiction, but progress as well.[45][46][47]

In 1928, E. E. "Doc" Smith's first published work, The Skylark of Space, written in collaboration with Lee Hawkins Garby, appeared in Amazing Stories. It is often called the first great space opera.[48] The same year, Philip Francis Nowlan's original Buck Rogers story, Armageddon 2419, also appeared in Amazing Stories. This was followed by a Buck Rogers comic strip, the first serious science-fiction comic.[49]

In 1937, John W. Campbell became editor of Astounding Science Fiction, an event which is sometimes considered the beginning of the Golden Age of Science Fiction, which is characterized by stories celebrating scientific achievement and progress.[50] In 1942, Isaac Asimov started his Foundation series, which chronicles the rise and fall of galactic empires and introduced psychohistory.[51][52] The "Golden Age" is often said to have ended in 1946, but sometimes the late 1940s and the 1950s are included.[53]

George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four, published in 1949, is an important work of dystopian science fiction.[54][55] Theodore Sturgeon's More Than Human (1953) explored possible future human evolution.[56][57][58] In 1957, Andromeda: A Space-Age Tale by the Russian writer and paleontologist Ivan Yefremov presented a view of a future interstellar communist civilization and is considered one of the most important Soviet science fiction novels.[59][60]

In 1959, Robert A. Heinlein's Starship Troopers marked a departure from his earlier juvenile stories and novels.[61] It is one of the first and most influential examples of military science fiction,[62][63] and introduced the concept of powered armor exoskeletons.[64][65][66] The German space opera series Perry Rhodan, written by various authors, started in 1961 with an account of the first Moon landing[67] and has since expanded in space to multiple universes, and in time by billions of years.[68] It has become the most popular science fiction book series of all time.[69]

In the 1960s and 1970s, New Wave science fiction was known for its embrace of a high degree of experimentation, both in form and in content, and a highbrow and self-consciously "literary" or "artistic" sensibility.[26][70][71] In 1961, Solaris by Stanisław Lem was published in Poland.[72] The novel dealt with the theme of human limitations as its characters attempted to study a seemingly intelligent ocean on a newly discovered planet.[73][74] 1965's Dune by Frank Herbert featured a much more complex and detailed imagined future society than had previous science fiction.[75]

In 1968, Philip K. Dick's Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?, was published. It is the literary source of the Blade Runner movie franchise.[76][77] 1969's The Left Hand of Darkness by Ursula K. Le Guin was set on a planet in which the inhabitants have no fixed gender. It is one of the most influential examples of social science fiction, feminist science fiction, and anthropological science fiction.[78][79][80]

In 1976, C. J. Cherryh published Gate of Ivrel and Brothers of Earth, which began her Alliance-Union universe future history series.[81][82][83] In 1979, Science Fiction World began publication in the People's Republic of China.[84] It dominates the Chinese science fiction magazine market, at one time claiming a circulation of 300,000 copies per issue and an estimated 3-5 readers per copy (giving it a total estimated readership of at least 1 million), making it the world's most popular science fiction periodical.[85]

In 1984, William Gibson's first novel, Neuromancer, helped popularize cyberpunk and the word "cyberspace," a term he originally coined in his 1982 short story Burning Chrome.[86][87][88] In 1986, Shards of Honor by Lois McMaster Bujold began her Vorkosigan Saga.[89][90] 1992's Snow Crash by Neal Stephenson predicted immense social upheaval due to the information revolution.[91] In 2007, Liu Cixin's novel, The Three-Body Problem, was published in China. It was translated into English by Ken Liu and published by Tor Books in 2014,[92] and won the 2015 Hugo Award for Best Novel,[93] making Liu the first Asian writer to win the award.[94]

Emerging themes in late 20th and early 21st century science fiction include environmental issues, the implications of the Internet and the expanding information universe, questions about biotechnology, nanotechnology, and post-scarcity societies.[95][96] Recent trends and subgenres include steampunk,[97] biopunk,[98][99] and mundane science fiction.[100][101]

FilmEdit

 
The Maschinenmensch from the 1927 film Metropolis

The first, or at least one of the first, recorded science fiction film is 1902's A Trip to the Moon, directed by French filmmaker Georges Méliès.[102] It was profoundly influential on later filmmakers, bringing a different kind of creativity and fantasy to the cinematic medium.[103][104] In addition, Méliès's innovative editing and special effects techniques were widely imitated and became important elements of the medium.[105][106]

1927's Metropolis, directed by Fritz Lang, is the first feature-length science fiction film.[107] Though not well-received in its time,[108] it is now considered a great and influential film.[109][110][111]

In 1954, Godzilla, directed by Ishirō Honda, began the kaiju subgenre of science fiction film, which feature large creatures of any form, usually attacking a major city or engaging other monsters in battle.[112][113]

1968's 2001: A Space Odyssey, directed by Stanley Kubrick and based on the work of Arthur C. Clarke, rose above the mostly B-movie offerings up to that time, both in scope and quality, and greatly influenced later science fiction films.[114][115][116][117] That same year, Planet of the Apes (the original), directed by Franklin J. Schaffner and based on the 1963 French novel La Planète des Singes by Pierre Boulle, was released to popular and critical acclaim, due in large part to its vivid depiction of a post-apocalyptic world in which intelligent apes dominate humans.[118]

In 1977, George Lucas began the Star Wars film series with the film now identified as "Star Wars: Episode IV – A New Hope."[119] The series, often called a space opera,[120] went on to become a worldwide popular culture phenomenon,[121][122] and the second-highest-grossing film series of all time.[123]

Since the 1980s, science fiction films, along with fantasy, horror, and superhero films, have dominated Hollywood's big-budget productions.[124][123] Science fiction films often "cross-over" with other genres, including animation (WALL-E - 2008, Big Hero 6 - 2014), gangster (Sky Racket - 1937), Western (Serenity - 2005), comedy (Spaceballs -1987, Galaxy Quest - 1999), war (Enemy Mine - 1985), action (Edge of Tomorrow - 2014, The Matrix - 1999), adventure (Jupiter Ascending - 2015, Interstellar - 2014), sports (Rollerball - 1975), mystery (Minority Report - 2002), thriller (Ex Machina - 2014), horror (Alien - 1979), film noir (Blade Runner - 1982), superhero (Marvel Cinematic Universe - 2008-), drama (Arrival - 2016, A.I.: Artificial Intelligence -2001), and romantic comedy (Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind - 2004).[125]

TelevisionEdit

 
Don Hastings (left) and Al Hodge from Captain Video and His Video Rangers

Science fiction and television have consistently been in a close relationship. Television or television-like technologies frequently appeared in science fiction long before television itself became widely available in the late 1940s and early 1950s.[126]

The first known science fiction television program was a thirty-five-minute adapted excerpt of the play RUR, written by the Czech playwright Karel Čapek, broadcast live from the BBC's Alexandra Palace studios on 11 February 1938.[127] The first popular science fiction program on American television was the children's adventure serial Captain Video and His Video Rangers, which ran from June 1949 to April 1955.[128]

The Twilight Zone (the original series), produced and narrated by Rod Serling, who also wrote or co-wrote most of the episodes, ran from 1959 to 1964. It featured fantasy, suspense, and horror as well as science fiction, with each episode being a complete story.[129][130] Critics have ranked it as one of the best TV programs of any genre.[131][132]

The animated series The Jetsons, while intended as comedy and only running for one season (1962–1963), predicted many inventions now in common use: flat-screen televisions, newspapers on a computer-like screen, computer viruses, video chat, tanning beds, home treadmills, and more.[133] In 1963, the time travel-themed Doctor Who premiered on BBC Television.[134] The original series ran until 1989 and was revived in 2005.[135] It has been extremely popular worldwide and has greatly influenced later TV science fiction.[136][137] Other programs in the 1960s included The Outer Limits (1963-1965),[138] Lost in Space (1965-1968), and The Prisoner (1967).[139][140][141]

Star Trek (the original series), created by Gene Roddenberry, premiered in 1966 on NBC Television and ran for three seasons.[142] It combined elements of space opera and Space Western.[143] Only mildly successful at first, the series gained popularity through syndication and extraordinary fan interest. It became a very popular and influential franchise with many films and television shows, novels, and other works and products.[144][145][146][147] Star Trek: The Next Generation (1987-1994) led to four additional Star Trek shows (Deep Space 9 (1993-1999), Voyager (1995-2001), Enterprise (2001-2005), and Discovery (2017-present))--with more in some form of development.[148][149][150][151]

The miniseries V premiered in 1983 on NBC.[152] It depicted an attempted takeover of Earth by reptilian aliens.[153] Red Dwarf, a comic science fiction series aired on BBC Two between 1988 and 1999, and on Dave since 2009.[154] The X-Files, which featured UFOs and conspiracy theories, was created by Chris Carter and broadcast by Fox Broadcasting Company from 1993 to 2002,[155][156] and again from 2016-2018.[157][158] Stargate, a film about ancient astronauts and interstellar teleportation, was released in 1994. Stargate SG-1 premiered in 1997 and ran for 10 seasons (1997-2007). Spin-off series included Stargate Infinity (2002-2003), Stargate Atlantis (2004-2009), and Stargate Universe (2009-2011).[159] Other 1990s series included Quantum Leap (1989-1993) and Babylon 5 (1994-1999).[160]

SyFy, launched in 1992 as The Sci-Fi Channel,[161] specializes in science fiction, supernatural horror, and fantasy.[162][163]

Social influenceEdit

Science fiction's great rise in popularity during the first half of the 20th century was closely tied to the popular respect paid to science at that time, as well as the rapid pace of technological innovation and new inventions.[164] Science fiction has often predicted scientific and technological progress.[165][166] Some works predict that new inventions and progress will tend to improve life and society, for instance the stories of Arthur C. Clarke and Star Trek.[167] Others, such as H.G. Wells's The Time Machine and Aldous Huxley's Brave New World, warn about possible negative consequences.[168][169]

In 2001 the National Science Foundation conducted a survey on "Public Attitudes and Public Understanding: Science Fiction and Pseudoscience."[170] It found that people who read or prefer science fiction may think about or relate to science differently than other people. They also tend to support the space program and the idea of contacting extraterrestrial civilizations.[170][171] Carl Sagan wrote: "Many scientists deeply involved in the exploration of the solar system (myself among them) were first turned in that direction by science fiction."[172]

Brian Aldiss described science fiction as "cultural wallpaper."[173] Evidence for this widespread influence can be found in trends for writers to employ science fiction as a tool for advocacy and generating cultural insights, as well as for educators when teaching across a range of academic disciplines not limited to the natural sciences.[174] Scholar and science fiction critic George Edgar Slusser said that science fiction "is the one real international literary form we have today, and as such has branched out to visual media, interactive media and on to whatever new media the world will invent in the 21st century. Crossover issues between the sciences and the humanities are crucial for the century to come."[175]

As protest literatureEdit

 
"Happy 1984" in Spanish or Portuguese, referencing George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four, on a standing piece of the Berlin Wall (sometime after 1998)

Science fiction has sometimes been used as a means of social protest. James Cameron's 2009 film Avatar was intended as a protest against imperialism, and specifically the European colonization of the Americas.[176] Its images were used by, among others, Palestinians in their protest against Israel.[177] George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four is often invoked in protests against governments and leaders who are seen as totalitarian.[178][179]

Robots, artificial humans, human clones, intelligent computers, and their possible conflicts with human society have all been major themes of science fiction since, at least, the publication of Shelly's Frankenstein. Some critics have seen this as reflecting authors’ concerns over the social alienation seen in modern society.[180]

Feminist science fiction poses questions about social issues such as how society constructs gender roles, the role reproduction plays in defining gender, and the inequitable political or personal power of one gender over others. Some works have illustrated these themes using utopias to explore a society in which gender differences or gender power imbalances do not exist, or dystopias to explore worlds in which gender inequalities are intensified, thus asserting a need for feminist work to continue.[181][182]

Libertarian science fiction focuses on the politics and social order implied by right libertarian philosophies with an emphasis on individualism and private property, and in some cases anti-statism.[183]

Climate fiction, or "cli-fi," deals with issues concerning climate change and global warming.[184][185] University courses on literature and environmental issues may include climate change fiction in their syllabi,[186] and it is often discussed by other media outside of science fiction fandom.[187]

Comic science fiction often satirizes and criticizes present-day society, and sometimes makes fun of the conventions and clichés of more serious science fiction.[188][189]

Sense of wonderEdit

Science fiction is often said to generate a "sense of wonder." Science fiction editor and critic David Hartwell wrote: "Science fiction’s appeal lies in combination of the rational, the believable, with the miraculous. It is an appeal to the sense of wonder."[190] Carl Sagan said: "One of the great benefits of science fiction is that it can convey bits and pieces, hints and phrases, of knowledge unknown or inaccessible to the reader . . . works you ponder over as the water is running out of the bathtub or as you walk through the woods in an early winter snowfall."[191]

In 1967, Isaac Asimov commented on the changes then occurring in the science fiction community: "And because today’s real life so resembles day-before-yesterday’s fantasy, the old-time fans are restless. Deep within, whether they admit it or not, is a feeling of disappointment and even outrage that the outer world has invaded their private domain. They feel the loss of a 'sense of wonder' because what was once truly confined to 'wonder' has now become prosaic and mundane."[192]

Science fiction studiesEdit

The study of science fiction, or science fiction studies, is the critical assessment, interpretation, and discussion of science fiction literature, film, TV shows, new media, fandom, and fan fiction.[193] Science fiction scholars study science fiction to better understand it and its relationship to science, technology, politics, other genres, and culture-at-large.[194] Science fiction studies began around the turn of the 20th century, but it was not until later that science fiction studies solidified as a discipline with the publication of the academic journals Extrapolation (1959), Foundation: The International Review of Science Fiction (1972), and Science Fiction Studies (1973),[195][196] and the establishment of the oldest organizations devoted to the study of science fiction in 1970, the Science Fiction Research Association and the Science Fiction Foundation.[197][198] The field has grown considerably since the 1970s with the establishment of more journals, organizations, and conferences, as well as science fiction degree-granting programs such as those offered by the University of Liverpool[199] and the University of Kansas.[200]

ClassificationEdit

Science fiction has historically been sub-divided between hard science fiction and soft science fiction–with the division centering on the feasibility of the science central to the story.[201] However, this distinction has come under increasing scrutiny in the 21st century. Some authors, such as Tade Thompson and Jeff VanderMeer, have pointed out that stories that focus explicitly on physics, astronomy, mathematics, and engineering tend to be considered "hard" science fiction, while stories that focus on botany, mycology, zoology, and the social sciences tend to be categorized as "soft," regardless of the relative rigor of the science.[202]

Max Gladstone defined "hard" science fiction as stories "where the math works," but pointed out that this ends up with stories that often seem "weirdly dated," as scientific paradigms shift over time.[203] Michael Swanwick dismissed the traditional definition of "hard" SF altogether, instead saying that it was defined by characters striving to solve problems "in the right way–with determination, a touch of stoicism, and the consciousness that the universe is not on his or her side."[202]

Ursula K. Leguin also criticized the more traditional view on the difference between "hard" and "soft" SF: "The 'hard' science fiction writers dismiss everything except, well, physics, astronomy, and maybe chemistry. Biology, sociology, anthropology—that's not science to them, that's soft stuff. They're not that interested in what human beings do, really. But I am. I draw on the social sciences a great deal."[204]

As serious literatureEdit

 
Illustration by Theodor von Holst for 1831 edition of Mary Shelley's Frankenstein.[205]

Respected authors of main-stream literature have written science fiction. Mary Shelley wrote a number of science fiction novels including Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus (1818), and is considered a major writer of the Romantic Age.[206] Aldous Huxley's Brave New World (1932) is often listed as one of England's most important novels, both for its criticism of modern culture and its prediction of future trends including reproductive technology and social engineering.[207][208][209][210] Kurt Vonnegut was a highly respected American author whose works contain science fiction premises or themes.[211][212][213] Other science fiction authors whose works are widely considered to be "serious" literature include Ray Bradbury (including, especially, Fahrenheit 451 (1953) and The Martian Chronicles (1951)),[214] Arthur C. Clarke (especially for Childhood's End),[215][216] and Paul Myron Anthony Linebarger, writing under the name Cordwainer Smith.[217]

In her much reprinted essay "Science Fiction and Mrs Brown,"[218] American author Ursula K. Le Guin first asked: "Can a science fiction writer write a novel?"; and then answered: "I believe that all novels, . . . deal with character, and that it is to express character–not to preach doctrines, sing songs, or celebrate the glories of the British Empire, that the form of the novel, so clumsy, verbose, and undramatic, so rich, elastic, and alive, has been evolved. . . . The great novelists have brought us to see whatever they wish us to see through some character. Otherwise they would not be novelists, but poets, historians, or pamphleteers."

Orson Scott Card, best known for his 1985 science fiction novel Ender's Game and also an author of non-SF fiction,[219] has postulated that in science fiction the message and intellectual significance of the work is contained within the story itself and, therefore, there need not be stylistic gimmicks or literary games.[220]

Science fiction author and physicist Gregory Benford has stated: "SF is perhaps the defining genre of the twentieth century, although its conquering armies are still camped outside the Rome of the literary citadels."[221] Jonathan Lethem, in an essay published in the Village Voice entitled "Close Encounters: The Squandered Promise of Science Fiction," suggested that the point in 1973 when Thomas Pynchon's Gravity's Rainbow was nominated for the Nebula Award and was passed over in favor of Arthur C. Clarke's Rendezvous with Rama, stands as "a hidden tombstone marking the death of the hope that SF was about to merge with the mainstream."[222]

David Barnett has pointed out that there are books such as The Road (2006) by Cormac McCarthy, Cloud Atlas (2004) by David Mitchell, The Gone-Away World (2008) by Nick Harkaway, The Stone Gods (2007) by Jeanette Winterson, and Oryx and Crake (2003) by Margaret Atwood, which use recognizable science fiction tropes, but whose authors and publishers do not market them as science fiction.[223] Doris Lessing, who was later awarded the Nobel Prize in literature, wrote a series of five SF novels, Canopus in Argos: Archives (1979-1983), which depict the efforts of more advanced species and civilizations to influence those less advanced, including humans on Earth.[224][225][226][227]

CommunityEdit

AuthorsEdit

Science fiction is being written, and has been written, by diverse authors from around the world. According to 2013 statistics by the science fiction publisher Tor Books, men outnumber women by 78% to 22% among submissions to the publisher.[228] A controversy about voting slates in the 2015 Hugo Awards highlighted tensions in the science fiction community between a trend of increasingly diverse works and authors being honored by awards, and reaction by groups of authors and fans who preferred what they considered more "traditional" science fiction.[229]

AwardsEdit

Among the most respected and well-known awards for science fiction are the Hugo Award for literature, presented by the World Science Fiction Society at Worldcon, and voted on by fans;[230] the Nebula Award for literature, presented by the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America, and voted on by the community of authors;[231] the John W. Campbell Memorial Award for Best Science Fiction Novel, presented by a jury of writers;[232] and the Theodore Sturgeon Memorial Award for short fiction, presented by a jury.[233] One notable award for science fiction films and TV programs is the Saturn Award, which is presented annually by The Academy of Science Fiction, Fantasy, and Horror Films.[234]

There are other national awards, like Canada's Prix Aurora Awards,[235] regional awards, like the Endeavour Award presented at Orycon for works from the U.S. Pacific Northwest,[236] and special interest or subgenre awards such as the Chesley Award for art, presented by the Association of Science Fiction & Fantasy Artists,[237] or the World Fantasy Award for fantasy.[238] Magazines may organize reader polls, notably the Locus Award.[239]

Conventions, clubs, and organizationsEdit

 
Pamela Dean reading at the Minneapolis convention known as Minicon in 2006

Conventions (in fandom, often shortened as "cons," such as "comic-con") are held in cities around the world, catering to a local, regional, national, or international membership.[240][241][242] General-interest conventions cover all aspects of science fiction, while others focus on a particular interest like media fandom, filking, and so on.[243][244] Most science fiction conventions are organized by volunteers in non-profit groups, though most media-oriented events are organized by commercial promoters.[245] The convention's activities are called the program, which may include panel discussions, readings, autograph sessions, costume masquerades, and other events.[246] Additional activities occur throughout the convention that are not part of the program.[246] These commonly include a dealer's room, art show, and hospitality lounge (or "con suites").[246]

Conventions may host award ceremonies. For instance, Worldcon presents the Hugo Awards each year.[247] SF societies, referred to as "clubs" except in formal contexts, form a year-round base of activities for science fiction fans.[248][249][250][251] They may be associated with an ongoing science fiction convention, or have regular club meetings, or both.[252] Long-established groups like the New England Science Fiction Association and the Los Angeles Science Fantasy Society have clubhouses for meetings and storage of convention supplies and research materials.[253] The Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America (SFWA) was founded by Damon Knight in 1965 as a non-profit organization to serve the community of professional science fiction authors.[254]

Fandom and fanzinesEdit

Science fiction fandom is the "community of the literature of ideas[,] . . . the culture in which new ideas emerge and grow before being released into society at large."[2] Members of this community ("fans"), as discussed above, are often in contact with each other at conventions or clubs, through print or online fanzines, or on the Internet using websites, mailing lists, and other resources. SF fandom emerged from the letters column in Amazing Stories magazine: soon fans began writing letters to each other, and then grouping their comments together in informal publications that became known as fanzines.[255] Once they were in regular contact, fans wanted to meet each other, and they organized local clubs.[255][256] In the 1930s, the first science fiction conventions gathered fans from a wider area.[256]

The earliest organized online fandom was the SF Lovers Community, originally a mailing list in the late 1970s with a text archive file that was updated regularly.[257] In the 1980s, Usenet groups greatly expanded the circle of fans online.[258] In the 1990s, the development of the World-Wide Web exploded the community of online fandom by orders of magnitude, with thousands and then millions of websites devoted to science fiction and related genres for all media.[253] Most such sites are relatively small, ephemeral, and/or narrowly focused,[259][260] though sites like SF Site and SFcrowsnest offer a broad range of references and reviews.[261][262]

The first science fiction fanzine, The Comet, was published in 1930 by the Science Correspondence Club in Chicago, Illionois.[263][264] Fanzine printing methods have changed over the decades, from the hectograph, the mimeograph, and the ditto machine, to modern photocopying.[265] Distribution volumes rarely justify the cost of commercial printing.[266] Contemporary fanzines are largely printed on computer printers or at local copy shops, or they may only be sent as email (termed "Ezines") or otherwise made available online (termed "webzines").[267] One of the best known fanzines today is Ansible, edited by David Langford, winner of numerous Hugo awards.[268][269] Other notable fanzines to win one or more Hugo awards include File 770, Mimosa, and Plokta.[270] Artists working for fanzines have frequently risen to prominence in the field, including Brad W. Foster, Teddy Harvia, and Joe Mayhew; the Hugos include a category for Best Fan Artists.[270]

ElementsEdit

 
A person reading from a futuristic wraparound display screen

Science fiction elements can include, among others:

International examplesEdit

SubgenresEdit

Related genresEdit

Alternative termsEdit

Forrest J Ackerman is credited with first using the term "Sci-Fi" (analogous to the then-trendy "hi-fi") in 1954.[279] As science fiction entered popular culture, writers and fans active in the field came to associate the term with low-budget, low-tech "B-movies," and with low-quality pulp science fiction.[280][281][282] By the 1970s, critics within the field, such as Damon Knight and Terry Carr, were using "sci fi" to distinguish hack-work from serious science fiction.[283] Peter Nicholls writes that "SF" (or "sf") is "the preferred abbreviation within the community of sf writers and readers."[284] Robert Heinlein found even "science fiction" insufficient for certain types of works in this genre, and suggested the term speculative fiction to be used instead for those that are more "serious" or "thoughtful."[285]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Marg Gilks; Paula Fleming & Moira Allen (2003). "Science Fiction: The Literature of Ideas". WritingWorld.com.
  2. ^ a b von Thorn, Alexander (August 2002). "Aurora Award acceptance speech". Calgary, Alberta.
  3. ^ James Blish, More Issues at Hand, Advent: Publishers, 1970. Pg. 99. Also in Jesse Sheidlower, "Dictionary citations for the term «hard science fiction»". Jessesword.com. Last modified 6 July 2008.
  4. ^ Asimov, "How Easy to See the Future!", Natural History, 1975
  5. ^ Heinlein, Robert A.; Cyril Kornbluth; Alfred Bester; Robert Bloch (1959). The Science Fiction Novel: Imagination and Social Criticism. University of Chicago: Advent Publishers.
  6. ^ Shippey, Tom (1991) Fictional Space. Essays on Contemporary Science Fiction, page 2, Humanities Press International, Inc., NJ
  7. ^ Suvin, Darko (1979) Metamorphoses of Science Fiction: On the Poetics and History of a Literary Genre, New Haven, pp. 63–84.
  8. ^ Del Rey, Lester (1980). The World of Science Fiction 1926–1976. Ballantine Books. ISBN 978-0-345-25452-8.
  9. ^ Knight, Damon Francis (1967). In Search of Wonder: Essays on Modern Science Fiction. Advent Publishing, Inc. p. xiii. ISBN 978-0-911682-31-1.
  10. ^ Glassy, Mark C. (2001). The Biology of Science Fiction Cinema. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-0998-3.
  11. ^ 378 U.S. 184, 197 (1964).
  12. ^ "Out of This World". www.news.gatech.edu. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  13. ^ Fredericks, S.C.: "Lucian's True History as SF", Science Fiction Studies, Vol. 3, No. 1 (March 1976), pp. 49–60
  14. ^ Georgiadou, Aristoula & Larmour, David H.J.: "Lucian's Science Fiction Novel True Histories. Interpretation and Commentary", Mnemosyne Supplement 179, Leiden 1998, ISBN 90-04-10667-7, Introduction
  15. ^ Grewell, Greg: "Colonizing the Universe: Science Fictions Then, Now, and in the (Imagined) Future", Rocky Mountain Review of Language and Literature, Vol. 55, No. 2 (2001), pp. 25–47 (30f.)
  16. ^ Gunn, James E., The New Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, Viking, 1988, ISBN 978-0-670-81041-3, p. 249, calls it "Proto-Science Fiction."
  17. ^ Swanson, Roy Arthur: "The True, the False, and the Truly False: Lucian's Philosophical Science Fiction", Science Fiction Studies, Vol. 3, No. 3 (Nov. 1976), pp. 227–239
  18. ^ Irwin, Robert (2003). The Arabian Nights: A Companion. Tauris Parke Paperbacks. pp. 209–13. ISBN 978-1-86064-983-7.
  19. ^ a b Richardson, Matthew (2001). The Halstead Treasury of Ancient Science Fiction. Rushcutters Bay, New South Wales: Halstead Press. ISBN 978-1-875684-64-9. (cf. "Once Upon a Time". Emerald City (85). September 2002. Retrieved 17 September 2008.)
  20. ^ Dr. Abu Shadi Al-Roubi (1982), "Ibn al-Nafis as a philosopher", Symposium on Ibn al-Nafis, Second International Conference on Islamic Medicine: Islamic Medical Organization, Kuwait (cf. Ibnul-Nafees As a Philosopher, Encyclopedia of Islamic World [1])
  21. ^ Creator and presenter: Carl Sagan (12 October 1980). "The Harmony of the Worlds". Cosmos: A Personal Voyage. PBS.
  22. ^ White, William (September 2009). "Science, Factions, and the Persistent Specter of War: Margaret Cavendish's Blazing World". Intersect: The Stanford Journal of Science, Technology and Society. 2 (1): 40–51. Retrieved 7 March 2014.
  23. ^ Murphy, Michael (2011). A Description of the Blazing World. Broadview Press. ISBN 978-1-77048-035-3.
  24. ^ "Margaret Cavendish's The Blazing World (1666)". Skulls in the Stars. 2 January 2011. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
  25. ^ Robin Anne Reid (2009). Women in Science Fiction and Fantasy: Overviews. ABC-CLIO. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-313-33591-4.
  26. ^ a b c Sterling, Bruce (17 January 2019). "Science Fiction". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  27. ^ Khanna, Lee Cullen. "The Subject of Utopia: Margaret Cavendish and Her Blazing-World." Utopian and Science Fiction by Women: World of Difference. Syracuse: Syracuse UP, 1994. 15–34.
  28. ^ "Carl Sagan on Johannes Kepler's persecution". YouTube. Retrieved 24 July 2010.
  29. ^ Asimov, Isaac (1977). The Beginning and the End. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-13088-2.
  30. ^ Clute, John & Nicholls, Peter (1993). "Mary W. Shelley". Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. Orbit/Time Warner Book Group UK. Retrieved 17 January 2007.
  31. ^ Wingrove, Aldriss (2001). Billion Year Spree: The History of Science Fiction (1973) Revised and expanded as Trillion Year Spree (with David Wingrove)(1986). New York: House of Stratus. ISBN 978-0-7551-0068-2.
  32. ^ Tresch, John (2002). "Extra! Extra! Poe invents science fiction". In Hayes, Kevin J. The Cambridge Companion to Edgar Allan Poe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 113–132. ISBN 978-0-521-79326-1.
  33. ^ Poe, Edgar Allan. The Works of Edgar Allan Poe, Volume 1, "The Unparalleled Adventures of One Hans Pfaal". Archived from the original on 27 June 2006. Retrieved 17 January 2007.
  34. ^ Roberts, Adam (2000), Science Fiction, London: Routledge, p. 48
  35. ^ Renard, Maurice (November 1994), "On the Scientific-Marvelous Novel and Its Influence on the Understanding of Progress", Science Fiction Studies, 21 (64), retrieved 25 January 2016
  36. ^ Thomas, Theodore L. (December 1961). "The Watery Wonders of Captain Nemo". Galaxy Science Fiction. pp. 168–177.
  37. ^ Margaret Drabble (8 May 2014). "Submarine dreams: Jules Verne's Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Seas". New Statesman. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
  38. ^ La obra narrativa de Enrique Gaspar: El Anacronópete (1887), María de los Ángeles Ayala, Universidad de Alicante. Del Romanticismo al Realismo : Actas del I Coloquio de la S. L. E. S. XIX , Barcelona, 24–26 October 1996 / edited by Luis F. Díaz Larios, Enrique Miralles.
  39. ^ El anacronópete, English translation (2014), www.storypilot.com, Michael Main, accessed 13 April 2016
  40. ^ Adam Charles Roberts (2000), "The History of Science Fiction", page 48. In Science Fiction, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-19204-8.
  41. ^ Siegel, Mark Richard (1988). Hugo Gernsback, Father of Modern Science Fiction: With Essays on Frank Herbert and Bram Stoker. Borgo Pr. ISBN 978-0-89370-174-1.
  42. ^ Wagar, W. Warren (2004). H.G. Wells: Traversing Time. Wesleyan University Press. p. 7.
  43. ^ "HG Wells: A visionary who should be remembered for his social predictions, not just his scientific ones". The Independent. 8 October 2017.
  44. ^ Porges, Irwin (1975). Edgar Rice Burroughs. Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University Press. ISBN 0-8425-0079-0.
  45. ^ Originally published in the April 1926 issue of Amazing Stories
  46. ^ Quoted in [1993] in: Stableford, Brian; Clute, John; Nicholls, Peter (1993). "Definitions of SF". In Clute, John; Nicholls, Peter (eds.). Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. London: Orbit/Little, Brown and Company. pp. 311–314. ISBN 978-1-85723-124-3.
  47. ^ Edwards, Malcolm J.; Nicholls, Peter (1995). "SF Magazines". In John Clute and Peter Nicholls. The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction (Updated ed.). New York: St Martin's Griffin. p. 1066. ISBN 0-312-09618-6.
  48. ^ Dozois, Gardner; Strahan, Jonathan (2007). The New Space Opera (1st ed.). New York: Eos. p. 2. ISBN 9780060846756.
  49. ^ Roberts, Garyn G. (2001). "Buck Rogers". In Browne, Ray B.; Browne, Pat (eds.). The Guide To United States Popular Culture. Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green State University Popular Press. p. 120. ISBN 978-0-87972-821-2.
  50. ^ Taormina, Agatha (19 January 2005). "A History of Science Fiction". Northern Virginia Community College. Archived from the original on 26 March 2004. Retrieved 16 January 2007.
  51. ^ Codex, Regius (2014). From Robots to Foundations. Wiesbaden/Ljubljana. ISBN 978-1499569827.
  52. ^ Asimov, Isaac (1980). In Joy Still Felt: The Autobiography of Isaac Asimov, 1954–1978. Garden City, New York: Doubleday. chapter 24. ISBN 978-0-385-15544-1.
  53. ^ Nicholls, Peter (1981) The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, Granada, p. 258
  54. ^ Murphy, Bruce (1996). Benét's reader's encyclopedia. New York: Harper Collins. p. 734. ISBN 978-0061810886. OCLC 35572906.
  55. ^ Aaronovitch, David (8 February 2013). "1984: George Orwell's road to dystopia". BBC News. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
  56. ^ "Time and Space", Hartford Courant, 7 February 1954, p.SM19
  57. ^ "Reviews: November 1975", Science Fiction Studies, November 1975
  58. ^ Aldiss & Wingrove, Trillion Year Spree, Victor Gollancz, 1986, p.237
  59. ^ "Ivan Efremov's works". Serg's Home Page. Archived from the original on 29 April 2003. Retrieved 8 September 2006.
  60. ^ "OFF-LINE интервью с Борисом Стругацким" [OFF-LINE interview with Boris Strugatsky] (in Russian). Russian Science Fiction & Fantasy. December 2006. Retrieved 29 February 2016.
  61. ^ Gale, Floyd C. (October 1960). "Galaxy's 5 Star Shelf". Galaxy Science Fiction. pp. 142–146.
  62. ^ McMillan, Graeme (3 November 2016). "Why 'Starship Troopers' May Be Too Controversial to Adapt Faithfully". Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 8 May 2017.
  63. ^ Liptak, Andrew (3 November 2016). "Four things that we want to see in the Starship Troopers reboot". The Verge. Retrieved 9 May 2017.
  64. ^ Slusser, George E. (1987). Intersections: Fantasy and Science Fiction Alternatives. Carbondale, Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press. pp. 210–220. ISBN 9780809313747.
  65. ^ Mikołajewska, Emilia; Mikołajewski, Dariusz (May 2013). "Exoskeletons in Neurological Diseases – Current and Potential Future Applications". Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine. 20 (2): 228 Fig. 2.
  66. ^ Weiss, Peter. "Dances with Robots". Science News Online. Archived from the original on 16 January 2006. Retrieved 4 March 2006.
  67. ^ "Unternehmen Stardust – Perrypedia". www.perrypedia.proc.org (in German). Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  68. ^ "Der Unsterbliche – Perrypedia". www.perrypedia.proc.org (in German). Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  69. ^ Mike Ashley; Michael Ashley (14 May 2007). Gateways to Forever: The Story of the Science-Fiction Magazines from 1970–1980. Liverpool University Press. p. 218. ISBN 978-1-84631-003-4.
  70. ^ McGuirk, Carol (1992). "The 'New' Romancers". In Slusser, George Edgar; Shippey, T. A. (eds.). Fiction 2000. University of Georgia Press. pp. 109–125. ISBN 9780820314495.
  71. ^ Caroti, Simone (2011). The Generation Starship in Science Fiction. McFarland. p. 156. ISBN 9780786485765.
  72. ^ Peter Swirski (ed), The Art and Science of Stanislaw Lem, McGill-Queen's University Press, 2008, ISBN 0-7735-3047-9
  73. ^ Stanislaw Lem, Fantastyka i Futuriologia, Wedawnictwo Literackie, 1989, vol. 2, p. 365
  74. ^ Benét's Reader's Encyclopedia, fourth edition (1996), p. 590.
  75. ^ Roberts, Adam (2000). Science Fiction. New York: Routledge. pp. 85–90. ISBN 978-0-415-19204-0.
  76. ^ Sammon, Paul M. (1996). Future Noir: the Making of Blade Runner. London: Orion Media. p. 49. ISBN 0-06-105314-7.
  77. ^ Wolfe, Gary K. "'Blade Runner 2049': How does Philip K. Dick's vision hold up?". chicagotribune.com. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  78. ^ Stover, Leon E. "Anthropology and Science Fiction" Current Anthropology, Vol. 14, No. 4 (Oct. 1973)
  79. ^ Reid, Suzanne Elizabeth (1997). Presenting Ursula Le Guin. New York, New York, USA: Twayne. ISBN 978-0-8057-4609-9, pp=9, 120
  80. ^ Spivack, Charlotte (1984). Ursula K. Le Guin (1st ed.). Boston, Massachusetts, USA: Twayne Publishers. ISBN 978-0-8057-7393-4.,pp=44–50
  81. ^ "C. J. Cherryh, Science Fiction, and the Soft Sciences". Dancing Badger. Retrieved 18 June 2007.
  82. ^ "Brilliant Literature is Unearthed in Cherryh's Novels". Los Angeles Daily News. 29 November 1987. Retrieved 10 April 2012. CJ Cherryh will be the guest of honor at LOSCON 14, this year's annual convention for Los Angeles-area science fiction and fantasy fans.
  83. ^ Cherryh, C. J. "Progress Report". Cherryh.com. Retrieved 9 February 2009.
  84. ^ "Brave New World of Chinese Science Fiction".
  85. ^ "Science Fiction, Globalization, and the People's Republic of China". www.concatenation.org.
  86. ^ Fitting, Peter (July 1991). "The Lessons of Cyberpunk". In Penley, C.; Ross, A. Technoculture. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. pp. 295–315
  87. ^ Schactman, Noah (23 May 2008). "26 Years After Gibson, Pentagon Defines 'Cyberspace'". Wired.
  88. ^ Hayward, Philip (1993). Future Visions: New Technologies of the Screen. British Film Institute. pp. 180–204. Retrieved 17 January 2007.
  89. ^ Walton, Jo (31 March 2009). "Weeping for her enemies: Lois McMaster Bujold's Shards of Honor". Tor.com. Retrieved 9 September 2014.
  90. ^ Loud Achievements: Lois McMaster Bujold's Science Fiction in New York Review of Science Fiction, October 1998 (Number 122)
  91. ^ Mustich, James (13 October 2008). "Interviews – Neal Stephenson: Anathem – A Conversation with James Mustich, Editor-in-Chief of the Barnes & Noble Review". barnesandnoble.com. Retrieved 6 August 2014. I’d had a similar reaction to yours when I’d first read The Origin of Consciousness and the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind, and that, combined with the desire to use IT, were two elements from which Snow Crash grew.
  92. ^ "Three Body". Ken Liu, Writer. 23 January 2015. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  93. ^ says, Ed Benson (31 March 2015). "2015 Hugo Awards".
  94. ^ Chen, Andrea. "Out of this world: Chinese sci-fi author Liu Cixin is Asia's first writer to win Hugo award for best novel." South China Morning Post. Monday 24 August 2015. Retrieved on 27 August 2015.
  95. ^ Anders, Charlie Jane. "10 Recent Science Fiction Books That Are About Big Ideas". io9. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  96. ^ "Science fiction in the 21st century". www.studienet.dk. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  97. ^ Bebergal, Peter (26 August 2007). "The age of steampunk:Nostalgia meets the future, joined carefully with brass screws". Boston Globe.
  98. ^ Pulver, David L. (1998). GURPS Bio-Tech. Steve Jackson Games. ISBN 978-1-55634-336-0.
  99. ^ Paul Taylor. "Fleshing Out the Maelstrom: Biopunk and the Violence of Information". Journal of Media and Culture.
  100. ^ "How sci-fi moves with the times". BBC News. 18 March 2009.
  101. ^ Walter, Damien (2 May 2008). "The really exciting science fiction is boring". The Guardian.
  102. ^ Dixon, Wheeler Winston; Foster, Gwendolyn Audrey (2008), A Short History of Film, Rutgers University Press, p. 12, ISBN 978-0-8135-4475-5
  103. ^ Kramer, Fritzi (29 March 2015). "A Trip to the Moon (1902) A Silent Film Review". Movies Silently. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  104. ^ Eagan, Daniel. "A Trip to the Moon as You've Never Seen it Before". Smithsonian. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  105. ^ Schneider, Steven Jay (1 October 2012), 1001 Movies You Must See Before You Die 2012, Octopus Publishing Group, p. 20, ISBN 978-1-84403-733-9
  106. ^ Dixon, Wheeler Winston; Foster, Gwendolyn Audrey (1 March 2008). A Short History of Film. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 9780813544755.
  107. ^ SciFi Film History - Metropolis (1927)Though most agree that the first science fiction film was Georges Méliès' A Trip to the Moon (1902), Metropolis (1926) is the first feature length outing of the genre. (scififilmhistory.com, retrieved 15 May 2013)
  108. ^ "Metropolis". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  109. ^ "The 100 Best Films of World Cinema". empireonline.com. Archived from the original on 23 November 2015. Retrieved 17 February 2016.
  110. ^ "The Top 100 Silent Era Films". silentera.com. Archived from the original on 23 August 2000. Retrieved 17 February 2016.
  111. ^ "The Top 50 Greatest Films of All Time". Sight & Sound September 2012 issue. British Film Institute. 1 August 2012. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
  112. ^ "Introduction to Kaiju [in Japanese]". dic-pixiv. Retrieved 9 March 2017.
  113. ^ 中根, 研一 (September 2009). "A Study of Chinese monster culture – Mysterious animals that proliferates in present age media [in Japanese]". 北海学園大学学園論集. Hokkai-Gakuen University. 141: 91–121. Retrieved 9 March 2017.
  114. ^ Kazan, Casey (10 July 2009). "Ridley Scott: "After 2001 -A Space Odyssey, Science Fiction is Dead"". Dailygalaxy.com. Archived from the original on 21 March 2011. Retrieved 22 August 2010.
  115. ^ In Focus on the Science Fiction Film, edited by William Johnson. Englewood Cliff, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1972.
  116. ^ DeMet, George D. "2001: A Space Odyssey Internet Resource Archive: The Search for Meaning in 2001". Palantir.net (originally an undergrad honors thesis). Retrieved 22 August 2010.
  117. ^ "This Day in Science Fiction History – 2001: A Space Odyssey | Discover Magazine". Blogs.discovermagazine.com. 2 April 2009. Retrieved 22 August 2010.
  118. ^ Russo, Joe; Landsman, Larry; Gross, Edward (2001). Planet of the Apes Revisited: The Behind-The Scenes Story of the Classic Science Fiction Saga (1st ed.). New York: Thomas Dunne Books/St. Martin's Griffin. ISBN 0312252390.
  119. ^ Star Wars: Episode IV - A New Hope (1977) - IMDb, retrieved 30 March 2019
  120. ^ Bibbiani, William (24 April 2018). "The Best Space Operas (That Aren't Star Wars)". IGN. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
  121. ^ "Star Wars – Box Office History". The Numbers. Retrieved 17 June 2010.
  122. ^ "Star Wars Episode 4: A New Hope | Lucasfilm.com". Lucasfilm. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  123. ^ a b "Movie Franchises and Brands Index". www.boxofficemojo.com. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  124. ^ Escape Velocity: American Science Fiction Film, 1950–1982, Bradley Schauer, Wesleyan University Press, 3 January 2017, page 7
  125. ^ Science Fiction Film: A Critical Introduction, Keith M. Johnston, Berg, 9 May 2013, pages 24–25. Some of the examples are given by this book.
  126. ^ Science Fiction TV, J. P. Telotte, Routledge, 26 March 2014, pages 112, 179
  127. ^ Telotte, J. P. (2008). The essential science fiction television reader. University Press of Kentucky. p. 210. ISBN 978-0-8131-2492-6.
  128. ^ Suzanne Williams-Rautiolla (2 April 2005). "Captain Video and His Video Rangers". The Museum of Broadcast Communications. Retrieved 17 January 2007.
  129. ^ "The Twilight Zone [TV Series] [1959–1964]". Allmovie. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
  130. ^ Stanyard, Stewart T. (2007). Dimensions Behind the Twilight Zone : A Backstage Tribute to Television's Groundbreaking Series ([Online-Ausg.] ed.). Toronto: ECW press. p. 18. ISBN 978-1550227444.
  131. ^ "TV Guide Names Top 50 Shows". CBS News. CBS Interactive. 26 April 2002. Retrieved 13 April 2016.
  132. ^ "101 Best Written TV Series List". Retrieved 13 April 2016.
  133. ^ O'Reilly, Terry (24 May 1014). "21st Century Brands". Under the Influence. Season 3. Episode 21. Event occurs at time 2:07. CBC Radio One. Transcript of the original source. Retrieved 7 June 2014. The series had lots of interesting devices that marveled us back in the 60s. In episode one, we see wife Jane doing exercises in front of a flatscreen television. In another episode, we see George Jetson reading the newspaper on a screen. Can anyone say computer? In another, Boss Spacely tells George to fix something called a "computer virus." Everyone on the show uses video chat, foreshadowing Skype and Face Time. There is a robot vacuum cleaner, foretelling the 2002 arrival of the iRobot Roomba vacuum. There was also a tanning bed used in an episode, a product that wasn't introduced to North America until 1979. And while flying space cars that have yet to land in our lives, the Jetsons show had moving sidewalks like we now have in airports, treadmills that didn't hit the consumer market until 1969, and they had a repairman who had a piece of technology called... Mac.
  134. ^ "BBC - Doctor Who Classic Episode Guide - An Unearthly Child - Details". www.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  135. ^ Deans, Jason; editor, broadcasting (21 June 2005). "Doctor Who finally makes the Grade". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  136. ^ "The end of Olde Englande: A lament for Blighty". The Economist. 14 September 2006. Retrieved 18 September 2006.
    "ICONS. A Portrait of England". Archived from the original on 3 November 2007. Retrieved 10 November 2007.
  137. ^ Moran, Caitlin (30 June 2007). "Doctor Who is simply masterful". The Times. London. Retrieved 1 July 2007. [Doctor Who] is as thrilling and as loved as Jolene, or bread and cheese, or honeysuckle, or Friday. It's quintessential to being British.
  138. ^ "Special Collectors' Issue: 100 Greatest Episodes of All Time". TV Guide (28 June – 4 July). 1997.
  139. ^ British Science Fiction Television: A Hitchhiker's Guide, John R. Cook, Peter Wright, I.B.Tauris, 6 January 2006, page 9
  140. ^ Gowran, Clay. "Nielsen Ratings Are Dim on New Shows." Chicago Tribune. 11 October 1966: B10.
  141. ^ Gould, Jack. "How Does Your Favorite Rate? Maybe Higher Than You Think." New York Times. 16 October 1966: 129.
  142. ^ Hilmes, Michele; Henry, Michael Lowell (1 August 2007). NBC: America's Network. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520250796.
  143. ^ "A First Showing for 'Star Trek' Pilot". The New York Times. 22 July 1986. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  144. ^ Roddenberry, Gene (11 March 1964). Star Trek Pitch, first draft. Accessed at LeeThomson.myzen.co.uk.
  145. ^ "STARTREK.COM: Universe Timeline". Startrek.com. Archived from the original on 3 July 2009. Retrieved 14 July 2009.
  146. ^ Okada, Michael; Okadu, Denise (1 November 1996). Star Trek Chronology: The History of the Future. ISBN 978-0-671-53610-7.
  147. ^ "The Milwaukee Journal - Google News Archive Search". news.google.com. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  148. ^ Star Trek: The Next Generation, retrieved 30 March 2019
  149. ^ Andrew Whalen On 12/5/18 at 11:39 AM EST (5 December 2018). "'Star Trek' Picard series won't premiere until late 2019, after 'Discovery' Season 2". Newsweek. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  150. ^ "New Trek Animated Series Announced". www.startrek.com. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  151. ^ "Patrick Stewart to Reprise 'Star Trek' Role in New CBS All Access Series". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  152. ^ Bedell, Sally (1983-05-04). "'V' SERIES AN NBC HIT". The New York Times. p. 27
  153. ^ Susman, Gary (17 November 2005). "Mini Splendored Things". Entertainment Weekly. EW.com. Retrieved 7 January 2010.
  154. ^ "Worldwide Press Office – Red Dwarf on DVD". BBC. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
  155. ^ Bischoff, David (December 1994). "Opening the X-Files: Behind the Scenes of TV's Hottest Show". Omni. 17 (3).
  156. ^ Goodman, Tim (18 January 2002). "'X-Files' Creator Ends Fox Series". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 27 July 2009.
  157. ^ "Gillian Anderson Confirms She's Leaving The X-Files | TV Guide". TVGuide.com. 10 January 2018. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  158. ^ Andreeva, Nellie; Andreeva, Nellie (24 March 2015). "'The X-Files' Returns As Fox Event Series With Creator Chris Carter And Stars David Duchovny & Gillian Anderson". Deadline. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  159. ^ Sumner, Darren (10 May 2011). "Smallville bows this week – with Stargate's world record". GateWorld. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
  160. ^ *Richardson, David (July 1997). "Dead Man Walking". Cult Times. Retrieved 17 January 2007. Nazarro, Joe. "The Dream Given Form". TV Zone Special (#30).
  161. ^ "The 20 Best SyFy TV Shows of All Time". pastemagazine.com. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  162. ^ "About Us". SYFY. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  163. ^ Hines, Ree (27 April 2010). "So long, nerds! Syfy doesn't need you". TODAY.com.
  164. ^ Astounding Wonder: Imagining Science and Science Fiction in Interwar America, John Cheng, University of Pennsylvania Press, 19 March 2012 pages 1–12.
  165. ^ "When Science Fiction Predicts the Future". Escapist Magazine. 1 November 2018. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  166. ^ Kotecki, Peter. "15 wild fictional predictions about future technology that came true". Business Insider. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  167. ^ Munene, Alvin (23 October 2017). "Eight Ground-Breaking Inventions That Science Fiction Predicted". Sanvada. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
  168. ^ The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy: Themes, Works, and Wonders, Volume 2, Gary Westfahl, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2005
  169. ^ Handwerk, Brian. "The Many Futuristic Predictions of H.G. Wells That Came True". Smithsonian. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  170. ^ a b "Science and Technology: Public Attitudes and Public Understanding. Science Fiction and Pseudoscience". Science and Engineering Indicators–2002 (Report). Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics. April 2002. NSB 02-01. Archived from the original on 16 June 2016.
  171. ^ Bainbridge, William Sims (1982). "The Impact of Science Fiction on Attitudes Toward Technology". In Emme, Eugene Morlock (ed.). Science fiction and space futures: past and present. Univelt. ISBN 978-0-87703-173-4.
  172. ^ Sagan, Carl (28 May 1978). "Growing up with Science Fiction". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  173. ^ Aldiss, Brian; Wingrove, David (1986). Trillion Year Spree. London: Victor Gollancz. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-575-03943-8.
  174. ^ Menadue, Christopher Benjamin; Cheer, Karen Diane (2017). "Human Culture and Science Fiction: A Review of the Literature, 1980–2016". SAGE Open. 7 (3): 215824401772369. doi:10.1177/2158244017723690. ISSN 2158-2440.
  175. ^ Miller, Bettye (6 November 2014). "George Slusser, Co-founder of Renowned Eaton Collection, Dies". UCR Today. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  176. ^ Gross, Terry (18 February 2010). "James Cameron: Pushing the limits of imagination". National Public Radio. Retrieved 27 February 2010.
  177. ^ Science Fiction Film, Television, and Adaptation: Across the Screens, Jay Telotte, Gerald Duchovnay, Routledge, 2 August 2011
  178. ^ Kelley, Sonaiya. "As a Trump protest, theaters worldwide will screen the film version of Orwell's '1984'". latimes.com. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  179. ^ "Nineteen Eighty-Four and the politics of dystopia". The British Library. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  180. ^ Androids, Humanoids, and Other Science Fiction Monsters: Science and Soul in Science Fiction Films, Per Schelde, NYU Press, 1994, pages 1–10
  181. ^ Elyce Rae Helford, in Westfahl, Gary. The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy: Greenwood Press, 2005: 289–290.
  182. ^ Hauskeller, Michael; Carbonell, Curtis D.; Philbeck, Thomas D. (13 January 2016). The Palgrave handbook of posthumanism in film and television. Hauskeller, Michael,, Philbeck, Thomas Drew, 1976-, Carbonell, Curtis D. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire. ISBN 9781137430328. OCLC 918873873.
  183. ^ Raymond, Eric. "A Political History of SF". Retrieved 4 December 2007.
  184. ^ Glass, Rodge (31 May 2013). "Global Warning: The Rise of 'Cli-fi'" retrieved 3 March 2016
  185. ^ Bloom, Dan (10 March 2015). "'Cli-Fi' Reaches into Literature Classrooms Worldwide". Inter Press Service News Agency. Retrieved 23 March 2015.
  186. ^ PÉREZ-PEÑA, RICHARD. "College Classes Use Arts to Brace for Climate Change". New York Times (1 April 2014 pg A12). Retrieved 31 March 2015.
  187. ^ Tuhus-Dubrow, Rebecca (Summer 2013). "Cli-Fi: Birth of a Genre". Dissent. Retrieved 23 March 2015.
  188. ^ The Animal Fable in Science Fiction and Fantasy, Bruce Shaw, McFarland, 2010, page 19
  189. ^ "Comedy Science Fiction". Sfbook.com. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 2 March 2016.
  190. ^ Hartwell, David. Age of Wonders (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1985, page 42)
  191. ^ Sagan, Carl (28 May 1978). "Growing up with Science Fiction". The New York Times. p. SM7. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
  192. ^ Asimov, Isaac. ‘Forward 1 – The Second Revolution’ in Ellison, Harlan (ed.). Dangerous Visions (London: Victor Gollancz, 1987)
  193. ^ "Critical Approaches to Science Fiction". www.sfcenter.ku.edu. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  194. ^ "What Is The Purpose of Science Fiction Stories? | Project Hieroglyph". hieroglyph.asu.edu. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  195. ^ "Index". www.depauw.edu. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  196. ^ "Science Fiction Studies on JSTOR". Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  197. ^ "Science Fiction Research Association - About". www.sfra.org. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  198. ^ "About: Science Fiction Foundation". Science Fiction Foundation. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
  199. ^ "English: Science Fiction Studies MA - Overview - Postgraduate Taught Courses - University of Liverpool". www.liverpool.ac.uk. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  200. ^ "Gunn Center for the Study of Science Fiction". Gunn Center for the Study of Science Fiction. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  201. ^ "BCLS: Hard Versus Soft Science Fiction".
  202. ^ a b "Ten Authors on the 'Hard' vs. 'Soft' Science Fiction Debate". 20 February 2017.
  203. ^ Wilde, Fran (21 January 2016). "How Do You Like Your Science Fiction? Ten Authors Weigh In On 'Hard' vs. 'Soft' SF". Tor.com. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  204. ^ "Ursula K. Le Guin Proved That Sci-Fi is for Everyone". 24 January 2018.
  205. ^ Browne, Max. "Holst, Theodor Richard Edward von (1810–1844)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/28353.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  206. ^ Bennett, An Introduction, ix–xi, 120–21; Schor, Introduction to Cambridge Companion, 1–5; Seymour, 548–61.
  207. ^ Ludwig von Mises (1944). Bureaucracy, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, p 110
  208. ^ "100 Best Novels". Random House. 1999. Retrieved 23 June 2007. This ranking was by the Modern Library Editorial Board of authors.
  209. ^ McCrum, Robert (12 October 2003). "100 greatest novels of all time". Guardian. London. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
  210. ^ "BBC – The Big Read". BBC. April 2003, Retrieved 26 October 2012
  211. ^ Allen, William R. "A Brief Biography of Kurt Vonnegut". Kurt Vonnegut Memorial Library. Archived from the original on 18 January 2015. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
  212. ^ Allen, William R. (1991). Understanding Kurt Vonnegut. University of South Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0-87249-722-1.
  213. ^ Banach, Je (11 April 2013). "Laughing in the Face of Death: A Vonnegut Roundtable". The Paris Review. Retrieved 13 August 2015.
  214. ^ Jonas, Gerald (6 June 2012). "Ray Bradbury, Master of Science Fiction, Dies at 91". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 June 2012.
  215. ^ Barlowe, Wayne Douglas (1987). Barlowe's Guide to Extraterrestrials. Workman Publishing Company. ISBN 0-89480-500-2.
  216. ^ Baxter, John (1997). "Kubrick Beyond the Infinite". Stanley Kubrick: A Biography. Basic Books. pp. 199–230. ISBN 0-7867-0485-3.
  217. ^ Gary K. Wolfe and Carol T. Williams, "The Majesty of Kindness: The Dialectic of Cordwainer Smith", Voices for the Future: Essays on Major Science Fiction Writers, Volume 3, Thomas D. Clareson editor, Popular Press, 1983, pages 53–72.
  218. ^ Le Guin, Ursula K. (1976) "Science Fiction and Mrs Brown," in The Language of the Night: Essays on Fantasy and Science Fiction, Perennial HarperCollins, Revised edition 1993; in Science Fiction at Large (ed. Peter Nicholls), Gollancz, London, 1976; in Explorations of the Marvellous (ed. Peter Nicholls), Fontana, London, 1978; in Speculations on Speculation. Theories of Science Fiction (eds. James Gunn and Matthew Candelaria), The Scarecrow Press, Inc. Maryland, 2005.
  219. ^ "Orson Scott Card | Authors | Macmillan". US Macmillan. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  220. ^ Card, O. (2006). "Introduction". Ender's Game. Macmillan. ISBN 9780765317384.
  221. ^ Benford, Gregory (1998) "Meaning-Stuffed Dreams:Thomas Disch and the future of SF", New York Review of Science Fiction, September, Number 121, Vol. 11, No. 1
  222. ^ Lethem, Jonathan (1998), "Close Encounters: The Squandered Promise of Science Fiction", Village Voice, June. Also reprinted in a slightly expanded version under the title "Why Can't We All Live Together?: A Vision of Genre Paradise Lost" in the New York Review of Science Fiction, September 1998, Number 121, Vol 11, No. 1.
  223. ^ Barnett, David (28 January 2009). "Science fiction: the genre that dare not speak its name". The Guardian. London.
  224. ^ Hazelton, Lesley (25 July 1982). "Doris Lessing on Feminism, Communism and 'Space Fiction'". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 March 2011.
  225. ^ Galin, Müge (1997). Between East and West: Sufism in the Novels of Doris Lessing. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-7914-3383-6.
  226. ^ Lessing, Doris (1994) [1980]. "Preface". The Sirian Experiments. London: Flamingo. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-00-654721-1.
  227. ^ Donoghue, Denis (22 September 1985). "Alice, The Radical Homemaker". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
  228. ^ Crisp, Julie (10 July 2013). "SEXISM IN GENRE PUBLISHING: A PUBLISHER'S PERSPECTIVE". Tor Books. Archived from the original on 30 April 2015. Retrieved 29 April 2015. (See full statistics)
  229. ^ McCown, Alex (6 April 2015). "This year's Hugo Award nominees are a messy political controversy". The A.V. Club. The Onion. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
  230. ^ "Awards". The World Science Fiction Society. 10 May 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  231. ^ "Nebula Awards". www.fantasticfiction.com. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  232. ^ "The John W. Campbell Award". www.sfcenter.ku.edu. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  233. ^ "The Theodore Sturgeon Award". www.sfcenter.ku.edu. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  234. ^ "The Academy of Science Fiction Fantasy and Horror Films". www.saturnawards.org. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  235. ^ "Aurora Awards | Canadian Science Fiction and Fantasy Association". Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  236. ^ "The Endeavour Award Home Page". osfci.org. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  237. ^ "ASFA". www.asfa-art.org. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  238. ^ "Awards | World Fantasy Convention". Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  239. ^ "Awards – Locus Online". Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  240. ^ "Conventions". Locus Online. 29 August 2017. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
  241. ^ "science fiction | Definiton, Examples, & Characteristics". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
  242. ^ Kelly, Kevin. "A History Of The Science Fiction Convention". io9. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
  243. ^ "ScifiConventions.com - Worldwide SciFi and Fantasy Conventions Directory - About Cons". www.scificonventions.com. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
  244. ^ "FenCon XVI - September 20-22, 2019". www.fencon.org. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
  245. ^ Mark A. Mandel, Conomastics: The Naming of Science Fiction Conventions ( 7–9 Jan. 2010), https://www.ldc.upenn.edu/sites/www.ldc.upenn.edu/files/ads2010-conomastics.pdf
  246. ^ a b c Lawrence Watt-Evans (15 March 1988). "What Are Science Fiction Conventions Like?". Retrieved 17 January 2007.
  247. ^ "The Hugo Awards". Worldcon 75. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
  248. ^ "NESFA - New England Science Fiction Association". www.nesfa.org. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
  249. ^ "The Science Fiction Book Club (London, United Kingdom)". Meetup. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
  250. ^ "Denver Science Fiction and Fantasy Book Club". www.denversfbookclub.com. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
  251. ^ "Los Angeles Science Fantasy Society". Atlas Obscura. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
  252. ^ "Science Fiction Club". lowercolumbia.edu. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
  253. ^ a b Glyer, Mike (November 1998). "Is Your Club Dead Yet?". File 770 (127).
  254. ^ "Information About SFWA". Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America, Inc. Archived from the original on 24 December 2005. Retrieved 16 January 2006.
  255. ^ a b Wertham, Fredric (1973). The World of Fanzines. Carbondale & Evanston: Southern Illinois University Press.
  256. ^ a b "Fancyclopedia I: C – Cosmic Circle". fanac.org. 12 August 1999. Retrieved 17 January 2007.
  257. ^ Lynch, Keith (14 July 1994). "History of the Net is Important". Retrieved 17 January 2007.
  258. ^ "Usenet Fandom - Crisis on Infinite Earths". Retrieved 5 April 2019.
  259. ^ "Vincent Docherty Discusses Online Hugo Eligibility". File 770. 8 December 2009. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
  260. ^ Jackson, Matthew (4 June 2013). "11 of the best online sci-fi communities you should join now". SYFY WIRE. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
  261. ^ "The SF Site: The Best in Science Fiction and Fantasy". www.sfsite.com. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
  262. ^ "SFcrowsnest". sfcrowsnest.blogspot.com. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
  263. ^ Hansen, Rob (13 August 2003). "British Fanzine Bibliography". Retrieved 17 January 2007.
  264. ^ Latham, Rob; Mendlesohn, Farah (1 November 2014), "Fandom", The Oxford Handbook of Science Fiction, Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199838844.013.0006, ISBN 9780199838844
  265. ^ A Word About Zines and Printing, University of Georgia Library, https://www.libs.uga.edu/hargrett/pexhibit/brooks/a%20word%20about%20zines%20and%20printing.pdf
  266. ^ "Zines, E-Zines: The History and Characteristics of Zines, Part I". zinebook.com. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
  267. ^ "History · Fanzines Archive". fanzines.lmc.gatech.edu. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
  268. ^ "Ansible Home/Links". news.ansible.uk. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
  269. ^ "Culture : Fanzine : SFE : Science Fiction Encyclopedia". www.sf-encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
  270. ^ a b "Hugo Awards by Year". The Hugo Awards. 19 July 2007. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
  271. ^ Bunzl, Martin (June 2004). "Counterfactual History: A User's Guide". American Historical Review. Archived from the original on 13 October 2004. Retrieved 2 June 2009.
  272. ^ a b Westfahl, Gary (2005). "Aliens in Space". In Gary Westfahl (ed.). The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy: Themes, Works, and Wonders. Vol. 1. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. pp. 14–16. ISBN 978-0-313-32951-7.
  273. ^ Parker, Helen N. (1977). Biological Themes in Modern Science Fiction. UMI Research Press.
  274. ^ Card, Orson Scott (1990). How to Write Science Fiction and Fantasy. Writer's Digest Books. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-89879-416-8.
  275. ^ Peter Fitting (2010), "Utopia, dystopia, and science fiction", in Gregory Claeys (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Utopian Literature, Cambridge University Press, pp. 138–139
  276. ^ Hartwell, David G. (1996). Age of Wonders: Exploring the World of Science Fiction. Tor Books. pp. 109–131. ISBN 978-0-312-86235-0.
  277. ^ Ashley, M. (April 1989). The Immortal Professor, Astro Adventures No.7, p.6.
  278. ^ H. G. Stratmann (14 September 2015). Using Medicine in Science Fiction: The SF Writer's Guide to Human Biology. Springer, 2015. p. 227. ISBN 9783319160153.
  279. ^ "Forrest J Ackerman, 92; Coined the Term 'Sci-Fi'". Washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
  280. ^ Whittier, Terry (1987). Neo-Fan's Guidebook.
  281. ^ Scalzi, John (2005). The Rough Guide to Sci-Fi Movies.
  282. ^ Ellison, Harlan (1998). "Harlan Ellison's responses to online fan questions at ParCon". Retrieved 26 April 2006.
  283. ^ Clute, John (1993). ""Sci fi" (article by Peter Nicholls)". In Nicholls, Peter (ed.). Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. Orbit/Time Warner Book Group UK.
  284. ^ Clute, John (1993). ""SF" (article by Peter Nicholls)". In Nicholls, Peter (ed.). Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. Orbit/Time Warner Book Group UK.
  285. ^ Fi, in Sci; September 29th, Writing |; Comments, 2016 2. "Sci-Fi Icon Robert Heinlein Lists 5 Essential Rules for Making a Living as a Writer". Open Culture. Retrieved 30 March 2019.

SourcesEdit

External linksEdit