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Media are the collective communication outlets or tools used to store and deliver information or data. It is either associated with communication media, or the specialized mass media communication businesses such as print media and the press, photography, advertising, cinema, broadcasting (radio and television), publishing and point of sale.
Origin and definitionEdit
The term media is defined as "one of the means or channels of general communication in society, as newspapers, radio, television etc.."
The Persian Empire (centred on present-day Iran) played an important role in the field of communication. It has the first real mail or postal system, which is said to have been developed by the Persian emperor Cyrus the Great (c. 550 BC) after his conquest of Media. The role of the system as an intelligence gathering apparatus is well documented, and the service was (later) called angariae, a term that in time turned to indicate a tax system. The Old Testament (Esther, VIII) makes mention of this system: Ahasuerus, king of Medes, used couriers for communicating his decisions.
The word communication is derived from the Latin root communicare. This was due to the Roman Empire also devising what might be described as a mail or postal system, in order to centralize control of the empire from Rome. This allowed for personal letters and for Rome to gather knowledge about events in its many widespread provinces. More advanced postal systems later appeared in the Islamic Caliphate and the Mongol Empire during the Middle Ages.
The term media in its modern application relating to communication channels is traced back to its first use as such by Canadian communications theorist Marshall McLuhan, who stated in Counterblast (1954): "The media are not toys; they should not be in the hands of Mother Goose and Peter Pan executives. They can be entrusted only to new artists, because they are art forms." By the mid-1960s, the term had spread to general use in North America and the United Kingdom. (Mass media, in contrast, was, according to H.L. Mencken, used as early as 1923 in the United States.)
In the last century, a revolution in telecommunications has greatly altered communication by providing new media for long distance communication. The first transatlantic two-way radio broadcast occurred in 1906 and led to common communication via analog and digital media:
- Analog telecommunications include some radio systems, historical telephony systems, and historical television broadcasts.
- Digital telecommunications allow for computer-mediated communication, telegraphy, and computer networks.
The difference between analog and digital photography is that digital photography is easier to edit and have a lot of choices after taking photos, but analog photography is more simple and you have to accept the photo if you don't like it. In digital photography you can edit the photo even before taking it, unlike analog which had limited amount of time.
Modern communication media now allow for intense long-distance exchanges between larger numbers of people (many-to-many communication via e-mail, Internet forums, and teleportation). On the other hand, many traditional broadcast media and mass media favor one-to-many communication (television, cinema, radio, newspaper, magazines, and also social media).
Electronic media usage is growing, although concern has arisen that it distracts youth from face-to-face contact with friends and family. Research on the social engagement effect is mixed. One study by Wellman finding that "33% of Internet users said that the Internet had improved their connections to friends 'a lot', and 23% said it had increased the quality of their communication with family members by a similar amount. Young people in particular took advantage of the social side of the Internet. Nearly half (49%) of the 18- to 29-year-olds said that the Internet had improved their connections to friends a lot. On the other hand, 19% of employed Internet users said that the Internet had increased the amount of time they spent working in home" (Lee, Leung, Lo, Xiong, & Wu p. 377 & 378).
Electronic media now comes in the forms tablets, laptops, desktops, cell phones, mp3 players, DVDs, game systems, radios, and television. Technology has spiked to record highs within the last decade, thus changing the dynamic of communication. The spike in electronic media really started to grow in 2007 when the release of the first iPhone came out. The meaning of electronic media, as it is known in various spheres, has changed with the passage of time. The term media has achieved a broader meaning nowadays as compared to that given it a decade ago. Earlier, there was multimedia, once only a piece of software (application software) used to play audio (sound) and video (visual object with or without sound). Following this, it was CD (Compact Disc) and DVD (Digital Versatile Disc), then camera of 3G (third generation) applications in the field. In modern terms, the media includes all the software which are used in PC (computer) or laptop or mobile phone installed for normal or better performance of the system; today, however, hard discs (used to increase the installation capacity of data) of computer is an example of electronic media. This type of hard disc is becoming increasingly smaller in size. The latest inclusion in the field is magnetic media (magnetic stripe) whose application is common, in the fastest growing Information Technology field. Modern day, IT media is commonly used in the banking sector and by the Income Tax Department for the purpose of providing the easiest and fastest possible services to the consumers. In this magnetic strip, account information linking to all the data relating to a particular consumer is stored. The main features of these types of media are prepared unrecorded (blank form), and data is normally stored at a later stage as per the requirement of its user or consumer.
Media technology has made viewing increasingly easier as time has passed throughout history. Children today are encouraged to use media tools in school and are expected to have a general understanding of the various technologies available. The internet is arguably one of the most effective tools in media for communication tools such as e-mail, Skype, and Facebook have brought people closer together and created new online communities. However, some may argue that certain types of media can hinder face-to-face. Therefore it is an important source of communication.
In a large consumer-driven society, electronic media (such as television) and print media (such as newspapers) are important for distributing advertisement media. More technologically advanced societies have access to goods and services through newer media than less technologically advanced societies. In addition to this "advertising" role, media is nowadays a tool to share knowledge all around the world. Analysing the evolution of medium within the society, Popkin assesses the important role of media, by building connection between politics, culture and economic life and the society: for instance periodical newspaper has been an opportunity to first advertise and second to be up-to-date with current foreign affairs or the nation economic situation. In the mean time, Willinsky was promoting the role of modern technology as a way to come across cultural, gender, national barriers. He saw in internet an opportunity to establish a fair and equal system of knowledge: as internet may be accessible to anyone, any published information may be read and consulted by anyone. Therefore, internet is a sustainable solution to overcome the "gap" between developed and developing countries as both will get a chance to learn from each other. Canagarajah is addressing the issue of unbalanced relations between the North and South countries, asserting that Western countries tend to impose their own ideas on developing countries.Therefore, internet is way to re-establish balance, by for instance enhance publication of newspaper, academic journal from developing countries. Christen is the one who created a system that provide access to knowledge and protect people's customs and culture. Indeed, in some traditional societies, some genders cannot have access to a certain type of knowledge therefore respecting these customs limit the scope of dissemination but still allow the diffusion of knowledge. Within this process of dissemination, media would play a role of "intermediaries", that is say translation an academic research into a journalistic format, accessible by lay audience ( Levin). Consequently, media is a modern form of communication aiming at spreading knowledge within the whole world, regardless any form of discrimination.
Media, through media and communications psychology, has helped to connect diverse people from far and near geographical location. It has also helped in the aspect of on-line or Internet businesses and other activities that have an on-line version. All media intended to affect human behavior is initiated through communication and the intended behavior is couched in psychology. Therefore, understanding media and communications psychology is fundamental in understanding the social and individual effects of media. The expanding field of media and communications psychology combines these established disciplines in a new way.
Timing change based on innovation and efficiency may not have a direct correlation with technology. The information revolution is based on modern advancements. During the 19th century, the information "boom" rapidly advanced because of postal systems, increase in newspaper accessibility, as well as schools "modernizing". These advancements were made due to the increase of people becoming literate and educated. The methodology of communication although has changed and dispersed in numerous directions based on the source of its sociocultural impact. Biases in the media that affects religious or ethnic minorities takes the form of racism in the media and religious bias in the media.
Games as a medium for communicationEdit
Games are a medium used to transfer messages. Apart from the usual graphic, auditory and narrative elements in video games, the game mechanics make it unique in the media field. Following Marshal McLuhan’s[better source needed] quote ‘the medium is the message’, Earnest Adams and Joris Dormans make a point in their book “Game Mechanics: Advanced Game Design” that:
“To use a game to communicate, you don’t just produce a clever signal to convey your message. Instead, you construct a machine—the game’s mechanics—that produces the signal for you.”— Marshal Mcluhan, Book Quote
The players interact with the game and infer the message by observing the game’s output. The game mechanics can discriminate against particular actions while encouraging others, thus leading the players to conclude that a certain behavior is more likely to produce the desired outcomes. Although this is commonly and successfully used for entertainment purposes it can also be used as a tool for public relations – for example as advergaming.[better source needed] Gamification has been used to communicate in other areas as well. The game design video lessons show Extra Credits has criticized China’s Sesame Credit for gamifying “being an obedient citizen”. Using tools that are commonly used in games to incentivize a specific behavior to increase one’s credit.[better source needed][better source needed]
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- Martin Lister; Jon Dovey; Seth Giddings; Iain Grant; Kieran Kelly. New Media: A Critical Introduction (PDF) (2nd ed.).
- "The definition of medium". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 2015-08-10.
- Colombo's All-Time Great Canadian Quotations, 1994, John Robert Colombo, Stoddart Publishing, ISBN 0-7737-5639-6, p. 176.
- Cohen, Peter. "Macworld Expo Keynote Live Update: Introducing the iPhone". Macworld. PCWorld. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
- Popkin, Dewald (2004). Journalism, Newspaper and newsheets. Europe 1450-1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World.
- Willinsky, Frank (2005). The Access Principle: The Case for Open Access to Research and Scholarship.
- Canagarajah, Suresh (2010). "'Internationalizing Knowledge Construction and Dissemination.'". The Modern Language Journal.
- Christen, Kim (2012). "Does information really want to be free?". International Journal of Communication.
- Levin, Ben (February 2013). "To know is not enough: research knowledge and its use".
- Marshall McLuhan
- McLuhan, Marshal (June 25, 2012). Game Mechanics: Advanced Game Design. US: New Riders. p. 147. ISBN 0321820274.
- Advertising in video games
- Extra Credits (16 December 2015). "Propaganda Games: Sesame Credit - The True Danger of Gamification - Extra Credits". Retrieved 6 February 2018 – via YouTube.
- Extra Credits
- Sesame Credit
|Look up media in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- McQuail, Denis (2001) McQuail's
- Mass Communication Theory (fourth edition), Sage, London, pp. 16–34. MAS
- Biagi, S. (2004). Media Impact. Wadsworth Pub Co, 7th edition.
- Caron, A. H. and Caronia, L. (2007). Moving cultures: mobile communication in everyday life. McGill-Queen's University Press.