Karel Čapek (//; Czech: [ˈkarɛl ˈtʃapɛk] (listen); 9 January 1890 – 25 December 1938) was a Czech writer, playwright and critic. He has become best known for his science fiction, including his novel War with the Newts (1936) and play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots, 1920), which introduced the word robot. He also wrote many politically charged works dealing with the social turmoil of his time. Influenced by American pragmatic liberalism, he campaigned in favor of free expression and strongly opposed the rise of both fascism and communism in Europe.
|Born||9 January 1890|
Malé Svatoňovice, Austria-Hungary (today Czech Republic)
|Died||25 December 1938 (aged 48)|
Prague, Czechoslovakia (today Czech Republic)
|Pen name||K. Č., B. Č.|
|Occupation||Novelist, dramatist, journalist, theorist|
|Alma mater||Charles University in Prague|
|Genre||Science fiction, Political satire|
Válka s mloky (War with the Newts)
Bílá nemoc (The White Disease)
Továrna na absolutno (The Absolute at Large)
|Notable awards||Order of Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk (in memoriam)|
|Relatives||Josef Čapek (brother)|
Helena Čapková (sister)
Though nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature seven times, Čapek never received it. However, several awards commemorate his name, such as the Karel Čapek Prize, awarded every other year by the Czech PEN Club for literary work that contributes to reinforcing or maintaining democratic and humanist values in society. He also played a key role in establishing the Czechoslovak PEN Club as a part of International PEN.
Early life and educationEdit
Karel Čapek was born in 1890 in the Bohemian mountain village of Malé Svatoňovice. However, six months after his birth, the Čapek family moved to their own house in Úpice. His father, Antonín Čapek, worked as a doctor at the local textile factory. Antonín was a very energetic person; apart from his work as a doctor, he also co-funded the local museum and was a member of the town council. Despite opposing his father's materialist and positivist views, Karel Čapek loved and admired his father, later calling him “a good example... of the generation of national awakeners.” Karel's mother, Božena Čapková, was a homemaker. Unlike her husband she did not like life in the country and she suffered from long-term depressions. Despite that, she assiduously collected and recorded local folklore, such as legends, songs or stories. Karel was the youngest of three siblings. He would maintain an especially close relationship with his brother Josef, a highly successful painter, living and working with him throughout his adult life. His sister, Helena, was a talented pianist who later become a writer and published several memoirs about Karel and Josef.
After finishing elementary school in Úpice, he moved with his grandmother to Hradec Králové, where he attended high school. Two years later, he was expelled for taking part in an illegal students' club. Čapek later described the club as a “very non-murderous anarchist society.” After this incident he moved to Brno with his sister and attempted to finish high school there, but two years later he moved again, to Prague, where he finished high school at the Academic Grammar School in 1909. During his teenage years Čapek became enamored with the visual arts, especially Cubism, which influenced his later writing. After graduating from high school, he studied philosophy and aesthetics in Prague at Charles University, but he also spent some time at the Friedrich Wilhelm University in Berlin and at the Sorbonne in Paris. While he was still a university student, he wrote some works on contemporary art and literature. He graduated with a doctorate of philosophy in 1915.
World War I and Interwar periodEdit
Exempted from military service due to the spinal problems that would haunt him his whole life, Čapek observed World War I from Prague. His political views were strongly affected by the war, and as a budding journalist he began to write on topics like nationalism, totalitarianism and consumerism. Through social circles, the young author developed close relationships with many of the political leaders of the nascent Czechoslovak state, including Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, Czechoslovak patriot and the first President of Czechoslovakia, and his son Jan, who would later become foreign secretary. T. G. Masaryk was a regular guest at Čapek's "Friday Men" garden parties for leading Czech intellectuals. Čapek was also a member of Masaryk's Hrad political network. Their frequent conversations on various topics later served as the basis for Čapek's Talks with T. G. Masaryk.
Čapek began his writing career as a journalist. With his brother Josef, he worked as an editor for the Czech paper Národní listy (The National Newspaper) from October 1917 to April 1921. Upon leaving, he and Josef joined the staff of Lidové noviny (The People's Paper) in April 1921.
Čapek's early attempts at fiction were short stories and plays for the most part written with his brother Josef. Čapek's first international success was R.U.R., a dystopian work about a bad day at a factory populated with sentient androids. The play was translated into English in 1922, and was being performed in the UK and America by 1923. Throughout the 1920s, Čapek worked in many writing genres, producing both fiction and non-fiction, but worked primarily as a journalist. In the 1930s, Čapek's work focused on the threat of brutal national socialist and fascist dictatorships; by the mid-1930s, Čapek had become "an outspoken anti-fascist". He also became a member of International PEN and established, and was the first president of, the Czechoslovak PEN Club.
Late life and deathEdit
In 1935 Karel Čapek married actress Olga Scheinpflugová, after a long acquaintance. In 1938 it became clear that the Western allies, namely France and the United Kingdom, would fail to fulfil the pre-war agreements, and they refused to defend Czechoslovakia against Nazi Germany. Although offered the chance to go to exile in England, Čapek refused to leave his country – even though the Nazi Gestapo had named him "public enemy number two". While repairing flood damage to his family's summer house in Stará Huť, he contracted a common cold. As he had suffered all his life from spondyloarthritis and was also a heavy smoker, Karel Čapek died of pneumonia, on 25 December 1938.
Surprisingly, the Gestapo was not aware of his death. Several months later, just after the German invasion of Czechoslovakia, Nazi agents came to the Čapek family house in Prague to arrest him. Upon discovering that he had already been dead for some time, they arrested and interrogated his wife Olga. His brother Josef was arrested in September and eventually died in the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp in April 1945. Karel Čapek and his wife are buried at the Vyšehrad cemetery in Prague. The inscription on the tombstone reads: "Here would have been buried Josef Čapek, painter and poet. Grave far away."
Karel Čapek wrote with intelligence and humor on a wide variety of subjects. His works are known for their interesting and precise description of reality. Čapek is renowned for his excellent work with the Czech language. He is known as a science fiction author, who wrote before science fiction became widely recognized as a separate genre. Many of his works also discuss ethical aspects of industrial inventions and processes already anticipated in the first half of the 20th century. These include mass production, nuclear weapons and intelligent artificial beings such as robots or androids. His most productive years were during The First Republic of Czechoslovakia (1918–1938).
Čapek also expressed fear of social disasters, dictatorship, violence, human stupidity, the unlimited power of corporations, and greed. Čapek tried to find hope, and the way out.
Ivan Klíma, in his biography of Čapek, notes his influence on modern Czech literature, as well as on the development of Czech as a written language. Čapek, along with contemporaries like Jaroslav Hašek, spawned part of the early 20th-century revival in written Czech thanks to their decision to use the vernacular. Klíma writes, "It is thanks to Čapek that the written Czech language grew closer to the language people actually spoke". Čapek was also a translator, and his translations of French poetry into the language inspired a new generation of Czech poets.
His other books and plays include detective stories, novels, fairy tales and theatre plays, and even a book on gardening. His most important works attempt to resolve problems of epistemology, to answer the question: "What is knowledge?" Examples include Tales from Two Pockets, and the first book of the trilogy of novels Hordubal, Meteor, and An Ordinary Life. He also co-wrote (with his brother Josef) the libretto for Zdeněk Folprecht's opera Lásky hra osudná in 1922.
After World War II, Čapek's work was only reluctantly accepted by the communist government of Czechoslovakia, because during his life he had refused to accept communism as a viable alternative. He was the first in a series of influential non-Marxist intellectuals who wrote a newspaper essay in a series called "Why I am not a Communist".
In 2009 (70 years after his death), a book was published containing extensive correspondence by Karel Čapek, in which the writer discusses the subjects of pacifism and his conscientious objection to military service with lawyer Jindřich Groag from Brno. Until then, only a portion of these letters were known.
Arthur Miller wrote in 1990:
I read Karel Čapek for the first time when I was a college student long ago in the Thirties. There was no writer like him...prophetic assurance mixed with surrealistic humour and hard-edged social satire: a unique combination...he is a joy to read.
Etymology of robotEdit
Karel Čapek introduced and made popular the frequently used international word robot, which first appeared in his play R.U.R. in 1920. While it is frequently thought that he was the originator of the word, he wrote a short letter in reference to an article in the Oxford English Dictionary etymology in which he named his brother, painter and writer Josef Čapek, as its actual inventor. In an article in the Czech journal Lidové noviny in 1933, he also explained that he had originally wanted to call the creatures laboři (from Latin labor, work). However, he did not like the word, seeing it as too artificial, and sought advice from his brother Josef, who suggested roboti (robots in English).
The word robot comes from the word robota. The word robota means literally "corvée", "serf labor", and figuratively "drudgery" or "hard work" in Czech. It also means "work", "labor" in Slovak, archaic Czech, and many other Slavic languages (e.g., Bulgarian, Russian, Serbian, Polish, Macedonian, Ukrainian, etc.). It derives from the reconstructed Proto-Slavic word *robota, meaning "(slave) work." (cf. the German word for work, Arbeit.)
Awards and honorsEdit
Čapek received the Order of Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, in memoriam, in 1991.
- 1920 – The Outlaw (Loupežník)
- 1920 – R.U.R. (Rossumovi univerzální roboti) – play with one of the first examples of artificial human-like beings in art and literature.
- 1921 – Pictures from the Insects' Life (Ze života hmyzu), also known as The Insect Play or The Life of the Insects, with Josef Čapek, a satire in which insects stand in for various human characteristics: the flighty, vain butterfly, the obsequious, self-serving dung beetle.
- 1922 – The Makropulos Affair (Věc Makropulos) – play about human immortality, not really from a science-fiction point of view. The celebrated opera by Leoš Janáček is based on it.
- 1927 – Adam the Creator (Adam stvořitel) – The titular hero tries to destroy the world and replace it with a better one. It was adapted into an animated short by Japanese director Mahiro Maeda in 2015.
- 1937 – The White Disease (Bílá nemoc) – earlier translated as Power and Glory. About the conflict between a pacifist doctor and the fascistic Marshal.
- 1938 – The Mother (Matka)
- 1922 – The Absolute at Large (Továrna na absolutno) – novel which can be interpreted as a vision of consumer society.
- 1922 – Krakatit – novel, the plot of which includes a prediction of a nuclear-weapon-like explosive.
- 1933 – Hordubal – First part of the "Noetic Trilogy".
- 1934 – Meteor (Povětroň) – Second part of the "Noetic Trilogy".
- 1934 – An Ordinary Life (Obyčejný život) – Third part of the "Noetic Trilogy".
- 1936 – War with the Newts (Válka s mloky) – satirical dystopian novel.
- 1939 – Life and Work of the Composer Foltýn (Život a dílo skladatele Foltýna) – unfinished, published posthumously
- Letters from Italy (Italské listy, 1923)
- Letters from England (Anglické listy, 1924)
- Letters from Spain (Výlet do Španěl, 1930)
- Letters from Holland (Obrázky z Holandska, 1932)
- Travels in the North (Cesta na Sever, 1936)
- Stories from a Pocket and Stories from Another Pocket (Povídky z jedné a z druhé kapsy) – a common name for a cycle of short detective stories (5–10 pages long) that shared common attitude and characters, including The Last Judgement.
- How it is Made (Jak se co dělá) – satiric novels on the life of theatre, newspaper and film studio.
- The Gardener's Year (Zahradníkův rok, 1929) is exactly what it says it is: a year-round guide to gardening, charmingly written, with illustrations by his brother Josef Čapek.
- Apocryphal Tales (Kniha apokryfů, 1932, 2nd edition 1945) – short stories about literary and historical characters, such as Hamlet, a struggling playwright, Pontius Pilate, Don Juan, Alexander arguing with his teacher Aristotle, and Sarah and Abraham attempting to name ten good people so Sodom can be saved: "What do you have against Namuel? He's stupid but he's pious."
- Nine Fairy Tales: And One More Thrown in for Good Measure (Devatero Pohádek a ještě jedna od Josefa Čapka jako přívažek, 1932) – a collection of fairy tales, aimed at children.
- Dashenka, or the Life of a Puppy (Dášeňka čili Život štěněte, 1933)
- The Shirts (short story)
- The Absolute at Large, 1922 (in Czech), 1927, The Macmillan Company, New York, translator uncredited. Also published June 1975, Garland Publishing ISBN 0-8240-1403-0,
- Apocryphal Tales, 1945 (in Czech), May 1997, Catbird Press Paperback ISBN 0-945774-34-6, Translated by Norma Comrada
- An Atomic Phantasy: Krakatit or simply Krakatit, 1924 (in Czech)
- Believe in People : the essential Karel Čapek : previously untranslated journalism and letters 2010. Faber and Faber, ISBN 9780571231621. Selected and translated with an introduction by Šárka Tobrmanová-Kühnová ; preface by John Carey.
- The Cheat. Allen and Unwin, 1941.
- Cross Roads, 2002, Catbird Press, ISBN 0-945774-55-9 cloth; 0-945774-54-0 trade paperback. Translation by Norma Comrada of "Boží muka" (1917) and "Trapné povídky" (1921).
- I Had a Dog and a Cat. Allen & Unwin, 1940.
- Nine Fairy Tales: And One More Thrown in for Good Measure, October 1996, Northwestern Univ Press Paperback Reissue Edition, ISBN 0-8101-1464-X. Illustrated by Josef Capek, Translated by Dagmar Herrmann
- R.U.R, March 1970, Pocket Books ISBN 0-671-46605-4
- Tales from Two Pockets 1928-9 (in Czech), 1994, Catbird Press Paperback, ISBN 0-945774-25-7. Translation by Norma Comrada.
- Talks With T. G. Masaryk (non-fiction). Biography of T. G. Masaryk, founder of Czechoslovakia.
- Three Novels: Hordubal, Meteor, An Ordinary Life, 1933–34, Translated by M. and R. Weatherall, 1990, Catbird Press
- Toward the Radical Center: A Karel Capek Reader. Collection of stories, plays and columns. Edited by Peter Kussi, Catbird Press ISBN 0-945774-07-9
- War with the Newts 1936 (in Czech), May 1967, Berkley Medallion Edition Paperback. Translated by M. & R. Weatherall, March 1990, Catbird Press paperback, ISBN 0-945774-10-9, October 1996, Northwestern University Press paperback ISBN 0-8101-1468-2. Another English translation by Ewald Osers ISBN 978-0-945774-10-5
- "Čapek". Webster's New World College Dictionary.
- Ort, Thomas (2013). Art and Life in Modernist Prague: Karel Capek and His Generation, 1911-1938. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-349-29532-6.
- Oxford English Dictionary: robot n2
- Hanley, Seán (2008). The New Right in the New Europe: Czech Transformation and Right-Wing. Routledge. p. 169. ISBN 978-0-415-34135-6.
The philosopher Vaclav Belohradsky, one of the few Czech intellectuals supportive of the 'civic' right during the early 1990s, [...] viewed Klaus's thinking as a return to the American-influenced pragmatic liberalism of the Czech essayist and writer Karel Capek [...].
- Misterova, Ivona (2010). "Letters from England: Views on London and Londoners by Karel Capek, the Czech "Gentleman Stroller of London Streets". Literary London: Interdisciplinary Studies in the Representation of London. 8 (2). Retrieved July 20, 2016.
- Ort 2013, p. 3.
- "Nomination Database". The Official Web Site of the Nobel Prize. Retrieved July 20, 2016.
- "Karel Čapek Medal for Translation from a Language of Limited Diffusion". International Federation of Translators. Retrieved July 20, 2016.
- "Cena Karla Čapka (cena fandomu - Mlok)". DatabazeKnih.cz. Retrieved July 20, 2016.
- "Czech PEN Club awards Karel Čapek Prize to Petr Šabach". Ministry of Culture of the Czech Republic. January 19, 2016. Retrieved July 20, 2016.
The prize is awarded every other year for prosaic, dramatic or essayistic work by a Czech author which comprehensibly contributes to reinforcing or maintaining democratic and humanist values in society.
- Derek Sayer, The Coasts of Bohemia: A Czech History. Princeton University Press, 2000 ISBN 069105052X, (p.22-3).
- Strašíková, Lucie. "Čapek stihl zemřít dřív, než si pro něj přišlo gestapo". Česká televize (in Czech). Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- Ort 2013, p. 17.
- "Life of Karel Čapek". Prism: UO Stories, University of Oregon. Retrieved July 20, 2016.
- Jana Ládyová (June 23, 2016). "Božena Čapková, sběratelka, maminka slavných potomků" (in Czech). ŽENA-IN.cz. Retrieved July 28, 2016.
- Ort 2013, p. 19.
- Ort 2013, pp. 17-18.
- Klíma, Ivan (2001). Karel Čapek: Life and Work. New Haven, CT: Catbird Press. pp. 191–199. ISBN 978-0-945774-53-2.
- "Helena Čapková" (in Czech). Město Hronov. Retrieved July 28, 2016.
- Čapek, Karel; Čapek, Josef (1982). "Předmluva autobiografická". Ze společné tvorby: Krakonošova zahrada, Zářivé hlubiny a jiné prózy, Lásky hra osudná, Ze života hmyzu, Adam stvořitel (in Czech). Československý spisovatel. p. 13.
- "Karel Čapek" (in Czech). Osobnosti.cz. Retrieved July 20, 2016.
- Harkins, William (1990). "Introduction". In Čapek, Karel (ed.). Three Novels: Hordubal, Meteor, An Ordinary Life. Catbird Press. ISBN 978-0-945774-08-2.
- Tobranova-Kuhnnova, Sarka (1988). Believe in People: The essential Karel Capek. London: Faber and Faber. pp. xvii , – xxxvi. ISBN 978-0-571-23162-1.
- Ort 2013, p. 21.
- Tracy A. Burns. "The artistic genius of Karel and Josef Čapek". Custom Travel Services s.r.o. (Ltd). Retrieved July 20, 2016.
- James Sallis, Review of Karel Capek: Life and Work by Ivan Klima. The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction, (pp. 37–40).
- Liehm, Antonín J. (2016). Closely Watched Films: The Czechoslovak Experience. Routledge. ISBN 978-1138658059. (p. 56)
- Newsome, Geoffrey (2001). "Introduction". In Čapek, Karel (ed.). Letters from England. Continuum. ISBN 0 8264 8485 9. (p. 3)
- Šedivý, Ivan. "T. G. Masaryk: zrozen k mýtu" (in Czech). Dějiny a současnost. Retrieved July 20, 2016.
- Talks with T. G. Masaryk at Google Books
- "The Life of Karel Čapek". Památník Karla Čapka. February 16, 2015. Retrieved July 20, 2016.
- Sarka Tobrmanova-Kuhnova, "Introduction," to Karel Čapek, "Believe in People: the essential Karel Čapek."London, Faber and Faber 2010, 2010, ISBN 9780571231621 (p.xxiv-xxv).
- "Josef Čapek" (in Czech). aktualne.cz. June 9, 2014. Retrieved July 18, 2016.
- Nick Carey (January 12, 2000). "Karel Čapek". Český rozhlas. Retrieved July 20, 2016.
- Klíma 2001, pp. 200-206.
- "Radio Prague - Mailbox". Český rozhlas. March 3, 2012. Retrieved July 19, 2016.
- "Olga Scheinpflugová" (in Czech). Osobnosti.cz. Retrieved July 20, 2016.
- Adam Roberts, "Introduction", to RUR & War with the Newts. London, Gollancz, 2011, ISBN 0575099453 (p.vi).
- "Karel Čapek - pragmatista a ironik" (in Czech). Slovo a smysl (Word & Sense). Retrieved July 18, 2016.
- Jedlička, Alois (1991). "Jazykové a jazykovědné zájmy Karla Čapka". Naše řeč (in Czech). 74 (1): 6–15. Retrieved July 18, 2016.
- "Karel Čapek" (in Czech). aktualne.cz. April 10, 2014. Retrieved July 18, 2016.
- Darko Suvin, "Capek, Karel" in Twentieth-Century Science-Fiction Writers by Curtis C. Smith. St. James Press, 1986, ISBN 0-912289-27-9 (p.842-4).
- The Gardener's Year, illustrated by Josef Čapek. First published in Prague, 1929. English edition London: George Allen & Unwin, 1931
- "Karel Čapek". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. 2nd edition, Oxford, 2001.
- K. Čapek, Why I am not a Communist? Archived January 5, 2010, at the Wayback Machine Přítomnost December 4, 1924.
- „Vojáku Vladimíre...“: Karel Čapek, Jindřich Groag a odpírači vojenské služby, Nakladatelství Zdeněk Bauer, Prague 2009.
- Miller, Arthur. "Foreword" to Toward the Radical Center: A Karel Capek Reader, edited by Peter Kussi.Catbird Press, 1990, ISBN 0945774079 .
- Karel Capek – Who did actually invent the word "robot" and what does it mean? Archived February 4, 2012, at the Wayback Machine at capek.misto.cz
- Ivan Margolius,'The Robot of Prague', Newsletter, The Friends of Czech Heritage no. 17, Autumn 2017, pp. 3 - 6. https://czechfriends.net/images/RobotsMargoliusJul2017.pdf
- Schmadel, Lutz (2007). "(1931) Čapek". Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1931) Čapek. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 155. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7_1932. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3.
- Letters from Italy at Google Books
- Letters from England at Google Books, translated by Geoffrey Newsome in 2001
- Letters from Spain at Google Books
- Letters from Holland at Google Books
- Travels in the North at Google Books
- The Gardener's Year at Google Books
- Apocryphal Tales at Google Books
- Dashenka, or the Life of a Puppy at Google Books
- Šulcová, Marie. Čapci, Ladění pro dvě struny, Poločas nadějí, Brána věčnosti. Praha: Melantrich 1993-98
- Šulcová, Marie. Prodloužený čas Josefa Čapka. Praha: Paseka 2000
- Harkins, William Edward. Karel Čapek. New York: Columbia University Press, 1962.
- Gabriel, Jiří, ed. Slovník Českých Filozofů. V Brne: Masarykova univerzita, 1998, 79–82 (in Czech).
- Swirski, Peter. "Chapter 4 Karel Čapek and the Politics of Memory" From LowBrow to Nobrow. Montreal, London: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2005.
- Milner, Andrew. "Chapter 6 From Rossums Universal Robots to Buffy the Vampire Slayer" Literature, Culture and Society. London, New York: Routledge, 2005.
- Margolius, Ivan. 'The Robot of Prague', Newsletter, The Friends of Czech Heritage no. 17, Autumn 2017, pp. 3 – 6. https://czechfriends.net/images/RobotsMargoliusJul2017.pdf
- Čapek biographies in English
- Karel Čapek: An Essay by Alexander Matuška, George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1964. Translation from the Slovak by Cathryn Alan of Člověk proti zkáze: Pokus o Karla Čapka.
- Karel Čapek by William E. Harkins, Columbia University Press, 1962.
- Karel Čapek: In Pursuit of Truth, Tolerance and Trust by Bohuslava R. Bradbrook, Sussex Academic Press, 1998, ISBN 1-898723-85-0.
- Karel Čapek: Life and Work by Ivan Klíma, Catbird Press, 2002, ISBN 0-945774-53-2. Translation from the Czech by Norma Comrada of Velký věk chce mít též velké mordy: Život a dílo Karla Čapka.
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- Petri Liukkonen. "Karel Čapek". Books and Writers
- Karel Čapek, 1890—1938 – brief biography, with information about the writer's plays and novels
- Works by Karel Čapek at Project Gutenberg
- Works by Karel Čapek at Faded Page (Canada)
- Wikilivres has original media or text related to this article: public domain in New Zealand) (in the
- Works by or about Karel Čapek at Internet Archive
- Works by Karel Čapek at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
- Karel Čapek page at Catbird Press, a publisher of several Čapek translations
- Karel Čapek at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database
- Čapek in English translation by David Wyllie
- Čapek, Karel: Válka s Mloky Czech version, online book
- Karel Čapek entry at the Literary Encyclopedia
- (in Czech) Complete work of Karel Capek is available in fulltext on the web sites of Municipal library in Prague
- Karel Čapek at Czechoslovak book network Baila.net
- Karel Čapek at Library of Congress Authorities, with 300 catalogue records
- Bratří Čapkové (The Brothers Čapek) at LC Authorities, with 6 records