A feuilleton (French pronunciation: [fœjtɔ̃]; a diminutive of French: feuillet, the leaf of a book) was originally a kind of supplement attached to the political portion of French newspapers, consisting chiefly of non-political news and gossip, literature and art criticism, a chronicle of the latest fashions, and epigrams, charades and other literary trifles. The term feuilleton was invented by the editors of the French Journal des débats; Julien Louis Geoffroy and Bertin the Elder, in 1800. The feuilleton has been described as a "talk of the town", and a contemporary English-language example of the form is the "Talk of the Town" section of The New Yorker. In English newspapers, the term instead came to refer to an installment of a serial story printed in one part of a newspaper.
The feuilleton was the literary consequence of the Coup of 18 Brumaire (Dix-huit-Brumaire). A consular edict of January 17, 1800, made a clean sweep of the revolutionary press, and cut down the number of Paris newspapers to thirteen. Under the Consulate, and later on, the Empire, Le Moniteur Universel, which served as a propaganda mouthpiece for Napoleon Bonaparte, basically controlled what the other twelve Parisian publications could run. Julien Louis Geoffroy found that what might not be written in an editorial column might appear with perfect impunity on a lower level on the rez-de-chaussée, the "ground floor" of a journal. Geoffroy started the first feuilleton in the Journal des Débats. The idea caught on at once. The feuilleton, which dealt ostensibly with literature, the drama and other harmless topics, but which, nevertheless, could make political capital out of the failure of a book or a play, became quite powerful under the Napoleonic nose. The original feuilletons were not usually printed on a separate sheet, but merely separated from the political part of the newspaper by a line, and printed in smaller type.
Geoffroy's own feuilleton dealt with the theatre, being a trenchant critic. By the time of his death in 1814, several other feuilletonists had made their mark, with Janin taking over from him. Feuilletonists featured in other papers included Théophile Gautier, Paul de St. Victor, Edmond de Biéville, Louis Ulbach and Francisque Sarcey, who occupied the "ground floor" of the Temps. Adolphe Adam, Hector Berlioz, and Coutil-Blaze wrote music-laden feuilletons. Babinet, Louis Figuier and Meunier focused on science. Bibliographical feuilletons were done by Armand de Pontmartin, Gastave Flanche, and Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve.
However, the feuilleton would only become a phenomenon with the appearance of serialised novels. For instance, Alexandre Dumas' The Count of Monte Cristo, The Three Musketeers and Vingt Ans Apres all filled the "ground floors" of the Siècle. Eugène Sue's Mysteres de Paris ran in the Débate, and his Juif Errant (The Wandering Jew) appeared in the Constitutionnel.
The feuilleton was a common genre in Russia, especially during the Government reforms of Alexander II of Russia. Fyodor Dostoevsky wrote feuilletons. The feuilletonistic tendency of his work has been explored by Zhernokleyev. By 1870 Dostoevsky parodied the feuilleton for its celebration of ephemeral culture.
Reference in Hesse novelEdit
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- Conway, Daniel W.; Gover, K. E., Søren Kierkegaard, p. 248
- Walter Benjamin meets Monsieur Hulot, James Buchan, The Guardian, 8 March 2003
- "The Feuilleton: Its Effect Upon Journalism in France". The Buffalo Commercial. November 3, 1900. p. 7. Retrieved 2021-08-06.
- Dianina, Katia: ‘The Feuilleton: An Everyday Guide to Public Culture in the Age of the Great Reforms’, Slavic and East European Journal, 47, 2003, 2, pp. 187–210.
- Fanger, Donald: “Dostoevsky’s Early Feuilletons: Approaches to a Myth of the City.” Slavic Review 22, no. 3 (1963): 469–82.
Chances, Ellen: “Dostoevsky’s Journalism and Fiction.” In Dostoevsky in Context, 272–79. Cambridge University Press, 2015.
- Zhernokleyev , Denis: “Dostoevskii, the Feuilleton and the Confession.” The Slavonic and East European Review 99, no. 1 (2021): 71–97
- Dianina, Katia: “Passage to Europe: Dostoevskii in the St. Petersburg Arcade.” Slavic Review 62, no. 2 (2003): 237–57.
- Hesse, Hermann. Das Glasperlenspiel: Versuch einer Lebensbeschreibung des Magister Ludi Josef Knecht samt Knechts hinterlassenen Schriftens. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 2003. ISBN 3-518-41335-X. p. 16-17. "Die geistige Bewegung, deren Früchte unter vielen anderen die Einrichtung des Ordens und das Glasperlenspiel sind, hat ihre Anfänge in einer Geschichtsperiode, welcher seit der grundlegenden Untersuchungen des Literarhistorikers Plinius Ziegenhals den von ihm geprägten Namen 'Das Feuilletonistische Zeitalter' trägt."
- Dianina, Katia. "The Feuilleton: An Everyday Guide to Public Culture in the Age of the Great Reforms,", The Slavic and East European Journal, Vol. 47, No. 2 (Summer, 2003), pp. 187–210.