Action film is a film genre in which the protagonist or protagonists are thrust into a series of events that typically include violence, extended fighting, physical feats and frantic chases. Action films tend to feature a resourceful hero struggling against incredible odds, which include life-threatening situations, a villain or a pursuit which usually concludes in victory for the hero (though a small number of films in this genre have ended in the victory for the villain instead). Advancements in CGI have made it cheaper and easier to create action sequences and other visual effects that required the efforts of professional stunt crews in the past. However, reactions to action films containing significant amounts of CGI have been mixed, as films that use computer animations to create unrealistic, highly unbelievable events are often met with criticism. While action has long been a recurring component in films, the "action film" genre began to develop in the 1970s along with the increase of stunts and special effects. Common action scenes in films are generally, but not limited to, explosions, car chases, fistfights and shootouts.
Screenwriter and scholar Eric R. Williams identifies Action Film as one of eleven super-genres in his screenwriters’ taxonomy, claiming that all feature length narrative films can be classified by these super-genres. The other ten super-genres are Crime, Fantasy, Horror, Romance, Science Fiction, Slice of Life, Sports, Thriller, War and Western.
Early action filmsEdit
Some historians consider The Great Train Robbery (1903) to be the first action film. During the 1920s and 1930s, action-based films were often "swashbuckling" adventure films in which actors, such as Douglas Fairbanks, wielded swords in period pieces or Westerns. Indian action films in this era were known as stunt films.
The 1940s and 1950s saw "action" in a new form through war and cowboy movies. Alfred Hitchcock ushered in the spy-adventure genre while also establishing the use of action-oriented "set pieces" like the famous crop-duster scene and the Mount Rushmore finale in North by Northwest (1959). The film, along with a war-adventure called The Guns of Navarone (1961), inspired producers Albert R. Broccoli and Harry Saltzman to invest in their own spy-adventure, based on the novels of Ian Fleming.
In Japanese cinema, the 1950s saw the emergence of jidaigeki action films, particularly samurai cinema, popularized by filmmaker Akira Kurosawa. His 1954 film Seven Samurai is considered one of the greatest action films of all time, and was highly influential, often seen as one of the most "remade, reworked, referenced" films in cinema. It popularized the "assembling the team" trope, which has since become a common trope in many action movies and heist films. Its visuals, plot and dialogue inspired a wide range of filmmakers, ranging from George Lucas and John Landis to Quentin Tarantino and George Miller. Kurosawa's Yojimbo (1961) was also remade as Sergio Leone's A Fistful of Dollars (1964), which in turn established the "Spaghetti Western" action genre of Italian cinema, while Kurosawa's The Hidden Fortress (1958) later inspired Star Wars (1977).
The long-running success of the James Bond films or series (which dominated the action films of the 1960s) introduced a staple of the modern-day action film: the resourceful hero. Such larger-than-life characters were a veritable "one-man army"; able to dispatch villainous masterminds after cutting through their disposable henchmen in increasingly creative ways. Such heroes are ready with one-liners, puns, and dry quips. The Bond films also used fast cutting, car chases, fist fights, a variety of weapons and gadgets, and elaborate action sequences.
Producer-Director John Sturges' 1963 film The Great Escape, featuring Allied prisoners of war attempting to escape a German POW camp during World War II, and featuring future icons of the action genre including Steve McQueen and Charles Bronson, is an example of an action film prototype.
During the 1970s, gritty detective stories and urban crime dramas began to evolve and fuse themselves with the new "action" style, leading to a string of maverick police officer films, such as Bullitt (1968), The French Connection (1971) and The Seven-Ups (1973). Dirty Harry (1971) essentially lifted its star, Clint Eastwood, out of his cowboy typecasting, and framed him as the archetypal hero of the urban action film. In many countries, restrictions on language, adult content, and violence had loosened up, and these elements became more widespread.
In the 1970s, martial arts films from Hong Kong became popular with worldwide audiences, as Hong Kong action cinema had an international impact with kung fu films and most notably Bruce Lee films. The "chopsocky" or "kung fu craze" began in 1973, with a wave of Hong Kong martial arts films topping the North American box office, starting with Five Fingers of Death (1972) starring Indonesian-born actor Lo Lieh, followed soon after by Bruce Lee's The Big Boss (1971) and Fist of Fury (1972). This inspired the first major Hong Kong and Hollywood co-production, Bruce Lee's Enter the Dragon (1973). Lee's death the same year led to a wave of "Bruceploitation" films in Asian cinema, a trend that eventually came to an end with the success of several kung fu action-comedy films released in 1978: Jackie Chan's Snake in the Eagle's Shadow and Drunken Master, and Sammo Hung's Enter the Fat Dragon.
The success of Hong Kong martial arts cinema inspired a wave of Western martial arts films and television shows starting in the 1970s, and later the more general integration of Asian martial arts into Western action films and television shows since the 1980s. The first major American martial arts star was Chuck Norris, who initially made his film debut as the antagonist in Lee's Way of the Dragon (1972), before he went on to blend martial arts with 'cops and robbers' in films such as Good Guys Wear Black (1978) and A Force of One (1979).
From Japan, Sonny Chiba starred in his first martial arts movie in 1973 called the Karate Kiba. His breakthrough international hit was The Street Fighter series (1974 debut), which established him as the reigning Japanese martial arts actor in international cinema. He also played the role of Mas Oyama in Champion of Death, Karate Bearfighter, and Karate for Life (1975–1977). Chiba's action films were not only bounded by martial arts, but also action thriller (Doberman Cop and Golgo 13: Assignment Kowloon - both from 1977), jidaigeki (Shogun's Samurai - 1978, Samurai Reincarnation - 1981), and science fiction (G.I. Samurai - 1979).
In the 1980s, Hollywood produced many big budget action blockbusters with actors such as Harrison Ford, Sylvester Stallone, Arnold Schwarzenegger, Lorenzo Lamas, Michael Dudikoff, Charles Bronson and Bruce Willis. Steven Spielberg and George Lucas paid their homage to the Bond-inspired style with Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981). In 1982, veteran actor Nick Nolte and rising comedian Eddie Murphy broke box office records with the action-comedy 48 Hrs., credited as the first "buddy-cop" movie. That same year, Sylvester Stallone starred in First Blood, the first installment in the Rambo film series which made the character John Rambo a pop culture icon.
In Hong Kong action cinema, Jackie Chan developed into his own distinct style of action movie in the early 1980s, starting with Dragon Lord (1982) and Project A (1983), involving a mixture of martial arts, physical comedy, and dangerous stuntwork, including Chan performing many of his own stunts. This culminated in Chan's action-crime film Police Story (1985), which is considered one of the greatest action films of all time. It contains a number of large-scale action scenes with elaborate stunts, including a car chase through a shanty town, Chan being dragged along by a double-decker bus, and a climactic fight scene in a shopping mall featuring many breaking glass panes, the latter ending with a dangerous stunt where Chan slides down a pole covered with dangling lights from several stories up, which is considered one of the greatest stunts in the history of action cinema.
1984 saw the beginning of the Terminator franchise starring Linda Hamilton and Arnold Schwarzenegger. This story provides one of the grittiest roles for a woman in action and Hamilton was required to put in extensive effort to develop a strong physique. 1987's Lethal Weapon starring Mel Gibson, Danny Glover, and Darlene Love was another significant action film hit of the decade, and another "buddy-cop" genre classic, launching a franchise that spawned 3 sequels.
The 1988 film, Die Hard, was particularly influential on the development of the action genre. In the film, Bruce Willis plays a New York police detective who inadvertently becomes embroiled in a terrorist take-over of a Los Angeles office building high-rise. The use of a maverick, resourceful lone hero has always been a common thread from James Bond to John Rambo, but John McClane in Die Hard is much more of an 'everyday' person whom circumstance turns into a reluctant hero. The film set a pattern for a host of imitators, like Under Siege (1992) and Sudden Death, which used the same formula in a different setting.
By the end of the 1980s, the influence of the successful action film could be felt in almost every genre.
Like the Western genre, spy-movies, as well as urban-action films, were starting to parody themselves, and with the growing revolution in CGI (computer generated imagery), the "real-world" settings began to give way to increasingly fantastic environments. This new era of action films often had budgets unlike any in the history of motion pictures. The success of the many Dirty Harry and James Bond sequels had proven that a single successful action film could lead to a continuing action franchise. Thus, the 1980s and 1990s saw a rise in both budgets and the number of sequels a film could generally have. This led to an increasing number of filmmakers to create new technologies that would allow them to beat the competition and take audiences to new heights. The success of Tim Burton's Batman (1989) led to a string of financially successful sequels. Within a single decade, they proved the viability of a novel subgenre of action film: the comic-book movie.
Another important development in action cinema came from Hong Kong during the late 1980s to early 1990s: the heroic bloodshed genre (including the "gun fu" and "girls with guns" sub-genres). John Woo's breakthrough film A Better Tomorrow (1986) largely set the template for the heroic bloodshed genre, which went on to have a considerable impact on Hollywood. The action, style, tropes and mannerisms established in 1980s Hong Kong heroic bloodshed films were later widely adopted by Hollywood in the 1990s, popularized by Hong Kong inspired Hollywood action filmmakers such as Quentin Tarantino, Luc Besson, and eventually John Woo himself (following his transition to Hollywood).
The direct-to-video action movie is easy to spot on store shelves because it usually has "Dead," "Death," "Future" or "Blood" in its title. The cover of the video box habitually features a rugged man snuggling some sort of semi-automatic weapon amid a backdrop of high-tech destruction. The plots are virtually interchangeable: Tough cop tracks down brutal serial killer; tough FBI or DEA agent battles South American drug kingpins; tough CIA agent takes on Middle Eastern terrorists; tough cyborg cop squares off with sadistic cyborg villain in the 25th Century. In short, bargain-basement Schwarzenegger.
While action films continued to flourish as the medium-budget genre movie,[example needed] it also fused with tent-pole pictures in other genres. For example, 2009's Star Trek had several science fiction tropes and concepts like time travel through a black hole. However, most of the film was structured around action sequences, many of them quite conventional (hand-to-hand, shooting). While the original Star Wars featured some of this kind of fighting, there was just as much emphasis on star-ship chases and dogfights in outer space. The newer films featured more lightsaber duels, sometimes more intense and acrobatic than the originals. Some fan films also have similar duel scenes like those the prequel trilogy. It was action with a science fiction twist. The trend with films such as The Matrix and The Dark Knight series, is that hand-to-hand fighting and Asian martial-arts techniques are now widely used in science fiction and superhero movies.
The cross-over of action with science fiction continues with many Marvel Comics characters and settings being used for big budget films. Traditional action films like The Fast and the Furious series also remain popular.
Hong Kong action cinemaEdit
This section does not cite any sources. (January 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Currently, action films requiring extensive stunt work and special effects tend to be expensive. As such, they are regarded as mostly a large-studio genre in Hollywood, although this is not the case in Hong Kong action cinema, where action films are often modern variations of martial arts films. Because of their roots and lower budgets, Hong Kong action films typically center on physical acrobatics, martial arts fight scenes, stylized gun-play, and dangerous stunt work performed by leading stunt actors. On the other hand, American action films typically feature big explosions, car chases, stunt doubles and CGI special effects.
Hong Kong action cinema was at its peak from the 1970s to 1990s, when its action movies were experimenting with and popularizing various new techniques that would eventually be adopted by Hollywood action movies. This began in the early 1970s with the martial arts movies of Bruce Lee, which led to a wave of Bruceploitation movies that eventually gave way to the comedy kung fu films of Jackie Chan by the end of the decade. During the 1980s, Hong Kong action cinema re-invented itself with various new movies. These included the modern martial arts action movies featuring physical acrobatics and dangerous stunt work of Jackie Chan and his stunt team, as well as Yuen Biao and Sammo Hung; the wire fu and wuxia films of Jet Li, Donnie Yen, Yuen Woo-Ping and Tsui Hark; the gun fu, heroic bloodshed and Triad films of Chow Yun-Fat, Ringo Lam and John Woo; and the girls with guns films of Michelle Yeoh and Moon Lee.
This style of film is split into two styles, with one involving "faraway, exotic lands" where the villains and the action become unpredictable. A second style that emerged of this genre in the 1980s involved the Rambo and Missing in Action film series where the hero is a Vietnam war veteran who returns to Vietnam to rescue war veterans.
A subgenre involving action and humour. The subgenre became a popular trend in the 1980s, when actors who were known for their background in comedy, such as Eddie Murphy, began to take roles in action films. Comedy films such as Dumb & Dumber and Big Momma's House, that contain action-laden sub-plots, are not considered part of this combined genre. Action scenes have a more integral role in action comedies. A common strata of action comedy is the buddy cop film, including 48 Hrs. (1982), Beverly Hills Cop (1984), Lethal Weapon (1987), Midnight Run (1988), Bad Boys (1995), Rush Hour (1998), The Rundown (2003), Hot Fuzz (2007), The Nice Guys (2016), and the animated Zootopia (2016). Another common strata of action comedy is the martial arts comedy, which became popular in Hong Kong action cinema since the 1980s, with Jackie Chan being the most famous example, along with Sammo Hung and Stephen Chow.
An obscure genre, that was described by writer on Flickering Myth as difficult to define.These films combined the intensity of a horror film with the fighting or brutality of an action film.
Featuring guns, explosions and elaborate set pieces, this movie type first developed in the 1970s in such films as Dirty Harry and The French Connection, and became the exemplar of the Hollywood mega-blockbuster in the 1980s in such works as Die Hard and Lethal Weapon. These films often feature a race against the clock, lots of violence, and a clear—often flamboyantly evil—antagonist. Though they may involve elements of crime or mystery films, those aspects take a back seat to the action. Other significant works include Hard Boiled, True Romance, Point Break, The Warriors, Bullitt, The Seven-Ups, Cobra, Taken and John Wick. The Die Hard subgenre, in which the story takes place in limited location; a single building, plane, or vessel - which is seized or under threat by enemy agents, but are opposed by a single hero who fights an extended battle within the location using stealth and cunning to attempt to defeat them,
Having elements of thriller and sometimes science fiction films, the main conflict of this genre is some sort of natural or artificial disaster, such as floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, volcanoes, pandemics, etc. Examples include Independence Day, Daylight, Earthquake, Geostorm, 2012, The Day After Tomorrow,
A subgenre of the action film, martial arts films contain numerous hand-to-hand combats between characters. They are usually the films' primary appeal and entertainment value and are often the method of storytelling, character expression, and development. Martial arts films contain many characters who are martial artists. These roles are often played by actors who are real martial artists. If not, actors usually fervently train in preparation for their roles. Another method of going around this issue is that the action director may rely more on stylized action or filmmaking tricks. Examples include Hong Kong action films such as the Police Story franchise, Kung Fu Hustle, Fearless, Fist of Legend, Drunken Master, Enter the Dragon, Shanghai Noon, Iron Monkey, Flash Point, and Shaolin Soccer, as well as The Karate Kid, A Force of One, Ninja Assassin, Ong-Bak, The Octagon, Kill Bill, Lone Wolf McQuade, Mortal Kombat, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, The Raid: Redemption, Champion of Death, Karate Bearfighter, Doberman Cop, Golgo 13: Assignment Kowloon, Big Trouble in Little China, Charlie's Angels, and The Street Fighter series.
Sharing many of the conventions of a science fiction film, science fiction action films emphasize gun-play, space battles, invented weaponry, and other sci-fi elements weaved into action film premises. Examples include G.I. Samurai, Terminator 2: Judgment Day, The Matrix, Total Recall, Minority Report, Inception, The Island, Star Wars, the Men in Black franchise, Aliens, I Robot, Transformers, The Hunger Games, Equilibrium, District 9, Serenity, Akira, Paycheck, Predator, RoboCop, Avatar, Mad Max 2, Divergent, They Live, Escape from New York, Demolition Man, Virtuosity and The Fifth Element.
In which the hero is generally a government agent who must take violent action against agents of a rival government or (in recent years) terrorists. They often revolve around spies who are involved in investigating various events, often on a global scale. This subgenre deals with the subject of fictional espionage, either in a realistic way (such as the adaptations of John Le Carré) or as a basis for fantasy (such as James Bond). It is a significant aspect of British cinema, with leading British directors, such as Alfred Hitchcock and Carol Reed, making notable contributions and many films set in the British Secret Service. The subgenre showcases a combination of exciting escapism, heavy action, stylized fights, technological thrills, and exotic locales. Not all spy films fall in the action genre, only those showcasing heavy action such as frequent shootouts and car chases fall in action, spy films with lesser action would be in the thriller genre (see the spy entry in the subgenres of thriller film). Action films of this subgenre include Casino Royale, the Mission: Impossible franchise, Ronin, True Lies, Salt, From Paris with Love, The International, Patriot Games, xXx, Miss Congeniality, and Jason Bourne in The Bourne series.
An action subgenre featuring adventurous and heroic characters known as swashbucklers. These films are usually set in the past period and feature swordfighting scenes. The amount of actual violence is usually limited as the bad guys are thrown aside or knocked by the hilt of the swords and not really killed, except for the lead antagonist.
This section does not cite any sources. (January 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Actors from the 1950s and 1960s, such as John Wayne, Steve McQueen, and Lee Marvin, passed the torch in the 1970s to actors such as Bruce Lee, Tom Laughlin, Charles Bronson, Chuck Norris, Clint Eastwood, and Sonny Chiba. In the 1980s, Mel Gibson and Danny Glover had a popular string of "buddy cop" films in the Lethal Weapon franchise. Beginning in the mid-1980s, actors such as ex-bodybuilder Arnold Schwarzenegger and Sylvester Stallone wielded automatic weapons in a number of action films. Stern-faced martial artists Steven Seagal and Jean-Claude Van Damme made a number of films. Bruce Willis played a Western-inspired hero in the popular Die Hard series of action films.
In the 1990s and 2000s, Asian actors Chow Yun-fat, Jet Li, and Jackie Chan appeared in a number of different types of Hollywood action films, and American actors Wesley Snipes and Vin Diesel both had many roles.
While Keanu Reeves and Harrison Ford both had major roles in science fiction action films (The Matrix and Blade Runner, respectively), they later branched out into a number of other action sub-genres, such as action-adventure films. American actor Matt Damon, who was nominated for an Academy Award for his sensitive portrayal of a math genius working as a janitor in Good Will Hunting, later morphed into an action hero with the car-chase-and-gunfire-filled Jason Bourne franchise. Same thing happened to star Tom Cruise, who turned into a mature action star with the Mission: Impossible series, Jack Reacher, and other films. Leonardo DiCaprio is another good example of it, but without a film franchise as the previous. European action actors such as Belgian Jean-Claude Van Damme (Bloodsport, Hard Target, Timecop), French Jean Reno (Ronin and Mission: Impossible), Swedish Dolph Lundgren (Showdown in Little Tokyo, Universal Soldier, The Expendables), Irish Colin Farrell (SWAT, Daredevil, Miami Vice), and English Jason Statham (The Transporter, The Expendables, Crank) appeared in a number of action films in the 1990s and 2000s.
Female characters and actorsEdit
Female actors with major, active roles in action films include Gal Gadot, Brie Larson, Elizabeth Olsen, Michelle Yeoh, Lucy Liu, Cynthia Rothrock, Michelle Rodriguez, Milla Jovovich, Kate Beckinsale, Angelina Jolie, Scarlett Johansson, Uma Thurman, Sandra Bullock, Zoe Saldana, Sigourney Weaver, Linda Hamilton, Sanaa Lathan, Geena Davis, Halle Berry, Emily Blunt, Zhang Ziyi, Maggie Q, Keira Knightley, Charlize Theron, Demi Moore, Cameron Diaz, Drew Barrymore, Jennifer Lawrence, Annette O'Toole, Jennifer Connelly, Brigitte Nielsen, Carrie-Anne Moss, Lori Petty, Jessica Alba, and Jamie Lee Curtis. After a successful career in stunts, Zoë Bell has recently crossed over to become an action star in her own right and Ronda Rousey and Gina Carano have both come from a mixed martial arts background to action roles.
Increasing numbers of films starring women as the action heroes are being produced. These are celebrated by Artemis Women In Action Film Festival which honours women who work as actors, stuntwomen, and directors in action films. Geena Davis Institute on Gender in Media works to document the onscreen time and representation in women in all film types with a view to improving the equality of work for actresses. Analysis of the lines spoken in action films shows many recent films in this genre are dominated by male dialogue. Analysis of the lines in 2016's biggest blockbusters show that despite much hype about the lead female in Rogue One, and the female characters in Suicide Squad and Captain America: Civil War, these characters still had limited share of dialogue.
Some male actors appear to champion the cause of women in action films. Tom Cruise has been applauded for his asexual onscreen relationships with recent female co-stars, Cobie Smulders in Jack Reacher: Never Go Back and Emily Blunt in Edge of Tomorrow. Tom Cruise has been honoured with an Artemis Action Rebel Award for his work in championing strong female heroes in film.
Notable action film directors from the 1960s and 1970s include Sam Peckinpah, whose 1969 Western The Wild Bunch was controversial for its bloody violence and nihilist tone. Influential and popular directors from the 1980s to 2000s include James Cameron (for the first two Terminator films, Aliens, True Lies); Andrew Davis (Code of Silence, Above the Law, Under Siege, The Fugitive); John Woo (Hong Kong action films such as Hard Boiled and US-made English-language films such as Hard Target, Broken Arrow and Face/Off); John McTiernan (the first and third Die Hard films, Predator, The Last Action Hero); Ridley Scott (Black Rain, Black Hawk Down); The Wachowskis (The Matrix trilogy), Andrzej Bartkowiak (Romeo Must Die, Exit Wounds, Cradle 2 the Grave, Street Fighter: The Legend of Chun-Li), Robert Rodriguez (Mexico trilogy, From Dusk till Dawn, Machete), and Michael Bay (the first two Bad Boys films, The Rock, Transformers pentalogy); Louis Leterrier (the first two Transporter films, Unleashed). For a longer list, see the List of action film directors article.
- Avi Lerner (born 13 October 1947) is a film producer, primarily of American action movies.
- Boaz Davidson (Hebrew: בועז דוידזון, born 8 November 1943) is an Israeli film director, producer, and screenwriter. He was born in Tel Aviv, Israel and studied film in London.
- Bob Weinstein (born October 18, 1954) is an American film producer. He is the founder and head of Dimension Films, former co-chairman of Miramax Films, and current head, with his brother Harvey Weinstein, of The Weinstein Company.
- Don Simpson (October 29, 1943 – January 19, 1996) was an American film producer, screenwriter, and actor. Simpson, along with his producing partner Jerry Bruckheimer, produced such hit films as Flashdance (1983), Beverly Hills Cop (1984), Top Gun (1986), and The Rock (1996). Their films would go on to earn $3 billion.
- Harvey Weinstein (born March 19, 1952) is an American film producer and film studio executive. He is best known as co-founder of Miramax Films. He and his brother Bob have been co-chairmen of The Weinstein Company, their film production company, since 2005. He won an Academy Award for producing Shakespeare in Love and garnered seven Tony Awards for producing a variety of winning plays and musicals including The Producers, Billy Elliot the Musical, and August: Osage County.
- Jerry Bruckheimer (born September 21, 1945) is an American film and television producer. He is known as the producer with many machine guns in his films and has achieved great success in the genres of action, drama, and science fiction. His best-known television series are CSI: Crime Scene Investigation, CSI: Miami, CSI: NY, Without a Trace, Cold Case, and The Amazing Race. Some of his best-known films include Beverly Hills Cop, Flashdance, Top Gun, The Rock, Con Air, Armageddon, Bad Boys, Enemy of the State, Black Hawk Down, Pearl Harbor, Pirates of the Caribbean, and the National Treasure franchise. He also serves as a Director at ZeniMax Media.
- Jerry Weintraub (born September 26, 1937 – July 6, 2015) is an American film producer and former chairman and CEO of United Artists. He lived in Palm Desert, California.
- Joel Silver (born July 14, 1952) is an American film producer, known for action films like Lethal Weapon and Die Hard. He is owner of Silver Pictures and co-founder of Dark Castle Entertainment.
- Kathryn Bigelow (b. 27 November 1951) is considered a queen of female action directors having directed Point Break, Zero Dark Thirty, Strange Days and the Hurt Locker.
- Menahem Golan (born May 31, 1929 – August 8, 2014) (Hebrew: מנחם גולן) is an Israeli director and producer. He has produced movies for stars such as Sean Connery, Sylvester Stallone, Chuck Norris, Jean-Claude Van Damme, and Charles Bronson, and was known for a period as a producer of comic book-style movies like Masters of the Universe, Superman IV: The Quest for Peace, Captain America, and his aborted attempt to bring Spider-Man to the silver screen. Using the pen name of Joseph Goldman, Golan has also written and "polished" film scripts. He was co-owner of Golan-Globus with his cousin Yoram Globus. Golan produced about 200 films, directed 44, and won 8 times the Violin David Awards and The Israel Prize in Cinema.
- Yoram Globus (born 21 October 1941), is an Israeli film producer who is famous for his association with Cannon Films Inc., a company he ran with his cousin Menahem Golan.
- The Wachowskis—Lana Wachowski (born June 21, 1965) and Lilly Wachowski (born December 29, 1967), known together professionally as the Wachowskis, are Polish-American film directors, screenwriters, and producers.
- "Action Top rated Most Viewed - AllMovie". Allrovi.com. Archived from the original on 2012-04-21. Retrieved 2013-01-31.
- Rainer, Peter (June 27, 1993). "FILM COMMENT : Endangered Species : The American action-fantas epic is in danger of becoming terminally musclebound and knuckle-headed". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2010-10-27.
- Williams, Eric R. (2017). The screenwriters taxonomy : a roadmap to collaborative storytelling. New York, NY: Routledge Studies in Media Theory and Practice. ISBN 978-1-315-10864-3. OCLC 993983488.
- "The Great Train Robbery". Rottentomatoes.com. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
- "What's the First Action Movie Ever Made? | The Action Elite". theactionelite.com. Retrieved 2017-09-06.
- Valicha, Kishore (1999). The Moving Image: A Study of Indian Cinema. Orient Blackswan. p. 123.
- "The 100 best action movies". Time Out. April 29, 2016.
- Desser, David (Nov 1998). "Reviewed Work: The Films of Akira Kurosawa by Donald Richie". The Journal of Asian Studies. 57 (4): 1173. doi:10.2307/2659350. JSTOR 2659350.
- Billson, Anne (30 October 2018). "Why is Seven Samurai so good?". BBC Culture. BBC. Retrieved 31 May 2020.
- Winfrey, Graham (2 May 2017). "'Seven Samurai': How Akira Kurosawa's Masterpiece Continues to Influence Filmmakers Today — Watch". IndieWire. Penske Media Corporation. Retrieved 31 May 2020.
- Karkare, Aakash (September 19, 2016). "What keeps drawing filmmakers to Akira Kurosawa's decades-old 'Seven Samurai'?". Scroll.in. Retrieved 1 June 2020.
- Desser, David (2002). "The Kung Fu Craze: Hong Kong Cinema's First American Reception". In Fu, Poshek; Desser, David (eds.). The Cinema of Hong Kong: History, Arts, Identity. Cambridge University Press. pp. 19–43. ISBN 978-0-521-77602-8.
- Green, Thomas A.; Svinth, Joseph R. (2010). "Martial Media". Martial Arts of the World: An Encyclopedia of History and Innovation. ABC-CLIO. pp. 527–64. ISBN 978-1-59884-244-9.
- Broeske, Pat H. (January 10, 1993). "FILM; Wanted: New Action Stars". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-01-12.
- "New Hunks Move Over, Arnold. A New Bread of Tough-talking Hero Is Ready To Take on the Bad Guys - And For Less Money". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved 2010-12-31.
- Sager, Dane. "What The Film!? - RAIDERS OF THE LOST ARK". Under The Gun Review. Archived from the original on 9 June 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
- "48 Hrs. (1982) - Financial Information". The Numbers. Retrieved 2017-09-06.
- Seitz, Matt Zoller (6 March 2018). "Police Story Movie Review & Film Summary (1985)". RogerEbert.com. Ebert Digital LLC. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
- "The transformation of Linda Hamilton". www.terminatorfiles.com. Retrieved 2017-09-06.
- "Die Hard". Rotten Tomatoes.
- Shone, Tom (19 July 2013). "How Die Hard set the stage for 25 years of action films". Guardian.
- Greydanus, Steven D. "Die Hard (1988) | Decent Films - SDG Reviews". Decent Films. Retrieved 2017-09-06.
- VREESWIJK, Simon. "A History of CGI in Movies". Stikky Media. Archived from the original on 2013-05-04. Retrieved 2013-05-09.
- "Film History of the 1990s". www.filmsite.org. Retrieved 2017-09-06.
- Robbins, Shawn. "Analysis: Why Action Franchises Really Do 'Die Hard'". Box Office: The Business of Movies. Archived from the original on 2013-05-08.
- Anders, Charlie Jane. "What's the next technology that will change the way you watch movies?". io9. Retrieved 2017-09-06.
- Bowes, Danny. "Big Screen Batman: Batman (1989)". Tor.com.
- Morton, Lisa (2001). The Cinema of Tsui Hark. McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-0990-8.
- Volodzko, David (13 June 2015). "30 Years Later, This Chinese Film Still Echoes in Hollywood". The Diplomat.
- "Heroic Bloodshed: How Hong Kong's style was swiped by Hollywood". British Film Institute. 11 July 2019. Retrieved 9 September 2019.
- Spicer, Andrew (2010). Historical Dictionary of Film Noir. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780810873780.
- Ingham, Michael (2009). Johnnie To Kei-Fung's PTU. Hong Kong University Press. p. 115. ISBN 9789622099197.
- Fang, Karen (2004). John Woo's A Better Tomorrow: Autobiographical Stories by Modern Chinese Women Writers. Hong Kong University Press. p. 85. ISBN 9789622096523.
- Alvarez, Max J. (1994-12-30). "Big Names Look For Bright Lights in Videoland". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2018-07-22.
- Matzer, Marla (1997-04-16). "Direct-to-Video Family Films Are Hitting Home". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 4 June 2011.
- Binder, Jack. "Summer 2012 Studio Tentpole Film Budget List". Film Budget Inc. Blog. Archived from the original on 2013-06-16.
- Webster, Andy (January 18, 2013). "Action Star With Savoir-Faire and a Killer Kick". New York Times.
- "Action Movies". Pickthemovie.com. Retrieved 30 October 2019.
- Croteau, David; Hoynes, William (2003). Media/Society: Industries, Images, and Audiences. Pine Forge Press. p. 173. ISBN 0-7619-8773-8.
- Croteau, David; Hoynes, William (2003). Media/Society: Industries, Images, and Audiences. Pine Forge Press. p. 175. ISBN 0-7619-8773-8.
- Sarno, Gregory G. (2005). "Chapter 1: Elements of Action Comedy". Lights! Camera! Action!: Crafting an Action Script. iUniverse. pp. 3–5. ISBN 978-0-595-36057-4. Retrieved September 22, 2009.
- "Subgenre – Action Comedy | AllMovie". AllMovie. Retrieved 2017-09-06.
- "Action >> Action Comedy". Allmovie. Macrovision Inc. Retrieved February 5, 2013.
- "Jackie Chan's 9 Principles of Action Comedy". No Film School. 2 December 2014.
- Stokes, Lisa Odham; Hoover, Michael (1999). City on Fire: Hong Kong Cinema. Verso Books. p. 122. ISBN 978-1-85984-203-4.
- "From Predator to Upgrade: The Best Action Horror Films". Flickering Myth. 9 September 2018. Retrieved 6 July 2020.
- "Subgenre - Action Thriller - AllMovie". AllMovie.
- Broeske, Pat H.; Wells, Jeffrey (December 1, 1995). "The 'Hard' Stuff". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved July 20, 2010.
- "2012 - Cast, Reviews, Summary, and Awards - AllRovi". Allmovie.com. 2009-11-13. Retrieved 2011-08-03.
- "The Day After Tomorrow - Cast, Reviews, Summary, and Awards - AllRovi". Allmovie.com. 2004-05-28. Retrieved 2011-08-03.
- "Street Fighter (1994) - Trailers, Reviews, Synopsis, Showtimes and Cast". AllMovie. Retrieved 2013-01-31.
- "The Fifth Element (1997) - Trailers, Reviews, Synopsis, Showtimes and Cast". AllMovie. 1997-05-07. Retrieved 2013-01-31.
- "The Spying Game: British Cinema and the Secret State", 2009 Cambridge Film Festival, pp54-57 of the festival brochure. Archived 2011-07-20 at the Wayback Machine
- "Geoffrey Macnab, "Spy movies - The guys who came in from the cold"". The Independent. 2009-10-02. Retrieved 2013-01-31.
- "Thriller and Suspense Films". Filmsite.org. Retrieved 2013-01-31.
- "The Bourne Ultimatum (2007) - Trailers, Reviews, Synopsis, Showtimes and Cast". AllMovie. 2007-08-03. Retrieved 2013-01-31.
- "Subgenre - Swashbuckler". AllMovie.
- Broeske, Pat H. (January 10, 1993). "FILM; Wanted: New Action Stars". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-12-20.
- "Women only said 27% of the words in 2016's biggest movies". 12 January 2017. Retrieved 7 September 2017.
- "The best place for women in action movies is next to Tom Cruise". SBS Movies. Retrieved 2017-09-06.
- "Tom Cruise - Artemis Women in Action Film Festival". Artemis Women in Action Film Festival. Retrieved 2017-09-06.
- "Sam Peckinpah". IMDb. Retrieved 2017-09-06.
- Inness, Sherrie, ed. (2004). Action chicks: new images of tough women in popular culture. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9781403963963.
- Kim, L.S. (Winter 2006). "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon: making women warriors – a transnational reading of Asian female action heroes". Jump Cut:A Review of Contemporary Media. 48.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Osgerby, Bill; Gough-Yates, Anna; Wells, Marianne (2001). Action TV: tough guys, smooth operators and foxy chicks. London New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415226219.
- Tasker, Yvonne (2002). Spectacular bodies: gender, genre, and the action cinema. London New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780203221846.
- Tasker, Yvonne (2004). Action and adventure cinema. London New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780203645154.
- Heldman, Caroline; Frankel, Laura Lazarus; Holmes, Jennifer (April–June 2016). ""Hot, black leather, whip" The (de)evolution of female protagonists in action cinema, 1960–2014". Sexualization, Media, and Society. 2 (2): 237462381562778. doi:10.1177/2374623815627789.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
|Look up action movie in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|