Death Wish (1974 film)
Death Wish is a 1974 American vigilante action film, loosely based on the 1972 novel of the same title by Brian Garfield. The film was directed by Michael Winner and stars Charles Bronson as Paul Kersey, an architect who becomes a vigilante after his wife is murdered and his daughter sexually assaulted during a home invasion. It was the first of the Death Wish film franchise. It was succeeded by Death Wish II.
Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Michael Winner|
|Screenplay by||Wendell Mayes|
|Based on||Death Wish|
by Brian Garfield
|Music by||Herbie Hancock|
|Cinematography||Arthur J. Ornitz|
|Edited by||Bernard Gribble|
|Distributed by||Paramount Pictures (United States)|
Columbia Pictures (International)
|Box office||$22 million or $20.3 million|
At the time of release, the film was derided by many film critics due to its support of vigilantism and advocating unlimited punishment of criminals. The novel denounced vigilantism, whereas the film embraced the notion. The film was a commercial success and resonated with the public in the United States, which was facing increasing crime rates during the 1970s.
Paul Kersey (Bronson) is an architect living in Manhattan with his wife Joanna and grown daughter Carol. One day, Joanna and Carol are followed home from D'Agostino's by three thugs who invade the apartment, posing as deliverymen. Upon finding that Carol and Joanna only have $7 on them, the thugs proceed to rape Carol and brutally beat Joanna before fleeing. Upon arriving at the hospital, Paul is devastated to learn that Joanna has died from her injuries. After his wife's funeral during a snowstorm in Connecticut, Paul has an encounter with a mugger in a darkened street. Paul fights back with a homemade weapon – an improvised blackjack made from a sock with two rolls of quarters in it – causing the mugger to run away. Paul is shaken and energized by the encounter.
Paul's boss sends him to Tucson, Arizona to see Ames Jainchill (Margolin), a client with a residential development project. A few days later Paul is invited to dinner by Ames at his gun club. Ames is impressed with Paul's accuracy at the target range. Paul reveals that he was a conscientious objector during the Korean War when he served as a combat medic. He had been taught to handle firearms by his father, a hunter, but after he was killed in a hunting accident Paul's mother made him swear never to use guns again. Ames drives Paul back to the Tucson airport, and presents Paul with a gift for his work on the development, which he places into Paul's checked luggage.
Back in Manhattan, Paul learns from his son-in-law, Jack, that his daughter is severely depressed from the trauma of the assault and is now catatonic, and they have Carol committed to a mental hospital. Paul learns that Ames has given him a revolver. He loads it, then takes a late night walk, during which he is mugged at gunpoint. Paul shoots the mugger, and in a state of shock, he runs home and vomits. The next night Paul walks through the city looking for violent criminals. Over the next few weeks, Paul kills several people, some of whom he provokes into attacking him, and others when he sees them attacking others.
NYPD Lt. Frank Ochoa (Gardenia) investigates the vigilante killings. His department narrows it down to a list of men who have had a family member recently killed by muggers and who are war veterans. Ochoa soon suspects Paul and is about to make an arrest when the District Attorney intervenes and tells Ochoa to "let him loose" in another city instead. The D.A. and the Police Commissioner do not want the fact to get out that street crime in New York City has dropped dramatically since Paul became a vigilante, and they fear that if he is not stopped, the whole city will descend into chaos. But they don't want him to be arrested, because they don't want a martyr. Ochoa does not like the idea, but relents.
One night, Paul shoots two more muggers before being wounded in the leg by a third mugger with a pistol, whom he pursues to a warehouse. When Paul corners him, he challenges him to a fast draw, only to faint, with the mugger escaping. His gun is discovered by a young patrolman named Jackson Reilly, who hands it to Ochoa and is told to forget he ever saw it. The press are informed that Paul is just another mugging victim. Hospitalized, Paul is told by Ochoa to have his company transfer him to another city and, in exchange, Ochoa will dispose of Paul's revolver. In addition, Paul is ordered by Ochoa to leave New York permanently.
Paul arrives in Chicago Union Station by train. Being greeted by a company representative, he notices a group of hoodlums harassing a young woman. He excuses himself and helps the woman. The hoodlums make obscene gestures, but Paul makes a finger gun at them and smiles.
- Charles Bronson as Paul Kersey
- Hope Lange as Joanna Kersey
- Vincent Gardenia as NYPD Lt. Frank Ochoa
- William Redfield as Samuel "Sam" Kreutzer
- Steven Keats as Jack Toby
- Stuart Margolin as Ames Jainchill
- Stephen Elliott as Police Commissioner
- Kathleen Tolan as Carol Toby
- Jack Wallace as Hank
- Robert Kya-Hill as Joe Charles
- Jeff Goldblum as Freak #1
- Christopher Guest as Jackson Reilly
- Olympia Dukakis as Cop at precinct
- Paul Dooley as Cop at hospital
- Eric Laneuville as Subway mugger
- Lawrence Hilton-Jacobs as Park mugger
- Sonia Manzano as Grocery clerk
- Tom Hayden as E.R. doctor
- Ciro "Jerry" Palazzo as Moving man
Character actor Robert Miano had a minor role as a mugger in the film. John Herzfeld played the mugger who slashes Paul's newspaper on the subway. Lawrence Hilton-Jacobs, who later co-starred on the television show Welcome Back, Kotter, had an uncredited role as one of the Central Park muggers near the end of the film. It has been rumored that Denzel Washington made his screen debut as an uncredited alley mugger, because, in a long shot, the actor shown appears to resemble him, but according to Washington himself, that is not true. Actress Helen Martin, who had a minor role, subsequently appeared in the television sitcoms Good Times and 227. Sonia Manzano (Maria from Sesame Street), has an uncredited role as a supermarket checkout clerk. Christopher Guest makes one of his earliest film appearances as a young police officer who finds Kersey's gun. The film also marked Jeff Goldblum's screen debut, playing one of the "freaks" who assaulted Kersey's family early in the film.
The film was based on Brian Garfield's 1972 novel of the same name. Garfield was inspired to use the theme of vigilantism following incidents in his personal life. In one incident, his wife's purse was stolen; in another, his car was vandalized. His initial thought each time was that he could kill "the son of a bitch" responsible. He later considered that these were primitive thoughts, contemplated in an unguarded moment. He then thought of writing a novel about a man who entered this way of thinking in a moment of rage and then never emerged from it. The original novel received favorable reviews but was not a best seller. Garfield sold screen rights to both Death Wish and Relentless to the only film producers who approached him, Hal Landers and Bobby Roberts. He was offered the chance to write a screenplay adapting one of the two novels, and chose Relentless. He simply considered it the easier of the two to turn into a film.
Wendell Mayes was then hired to write the screenplay for Death Wish. He preserved the basic structure of the novel and much of the philosophical dialogue. It was his idea to turn police detective Frank Ochoa into a major character of the film. His early drafts for the screenplay had different endings than the final one. In one, he followed an idea from Garfield. The vigilante confronts the three thugs who attacked his family and ends up dead at their hands. Ochoa discovers the dead man's weapon and considers following in his footsteps. In another, the vigilante is wounded and rushed to a hospital. His fate is left ambiguous. Meanwhile, Ochoa has found the weapon and struggles with the decision to use it. His decision is left unclear.
Originally, Sidney Lumet was to have directed Jack Lemmon as Paul and Henry Fonda as Ochoa. Lumet bowed out of the project to direct Serpico (1973), requiring a search for another director. Several were considered, including Peter Medak who wanted Henry Fonda as Paul. United Artists eventually chose Michael Winner, due to his track record of gritty, violent action films. The examples of his work considered included The Mechanic (1972), Scorpio (1973), and The Stone Killer (1973).
The film was rejected by other studios because of its controversial subject matter, and the perceived difficulty of casting someone in the vigilante role. Winner attempted to recruit Bronson, but there were two problems for the actor. First, his agent, Paul Kohner, considered that the film carried a dangerous message. Second, at this point the screenplay followed the original novel in describing the vigilante as a meek accountant—hardly a suitable role for Bronson.
"I was really a miscast person," Bronson said later. "It was more a theme that would have been better for Dustin Hoffman or somebody who could play a weaker kind of man. I told them that at the time."
The film project was dropped by United Artists after budget constraints forced producers Hal Landers and Bobby Roberts to liquidate their rights. The original producers were replaced by Italian film mogul Dino De Laurentiis.
De Laurentiis convinced Charles Bluhdorn to bring the project to Paramount Pictures. Paramount purchased the distribution rights of the film in the United States market, while Columbia Pictures licensed the distribution rights for international markets. De Laurentiis raised the $3 million budget of the film by pre-selling the distribution rights.
With funding secured, screenwriter Gerald Wilson was hired to revise the script. His first task was changing the identity of the vigilante to make the role more suitable for Bronson. "Paul Benjamin" was renamed to "Paul Kersey". His job was changed from accountant to architect. His background changed from a World War II veteran to a Korean War veteran. The reason for him not seeing combat duty changed from serving as an army accountant to being a conscientious objector. Several vignettes from Mayes' script were deemed unnecessary and were therefore deleted.
Winner himself asked for several revisions in the script. Both the novel and the original script had no scenes showing the vigilante interacting with his wife. Winner decided to include a prologue depicting a happy relationship, so the prologue of the film depicts the couple vacationing in Hawaii. The early draft of the script had the vigilante being inspired by seeing a fight scene in the Western film High Noon. Winner decided on a more elaborate scene, involving a fight scene in a recreation of the Wild West, taking place in Tucson, Arizona. The final script had the vigilante making an occasional reference to Westerns. While confronting an armed mugger, he challenges him to draw (Kersey tells him to "fill your hand"—the same challenge issued by Western movie icon John Wayne to his main opponent in the climactic shoot-out in 1969's True Grit). When Ochoa tells him to get out of town, he asks if he has until sundown to do so. The killing in the subway station was supposed to remain off-screen in Mayes' script, but Winner himself decided to turn this into an actual, brutal scene.
A minor argument occurred when it came to a shooting location for the film. Bronson asked for a California-based location so he could visit his family in Bel Air, Los Angeles. Winner insisted on New York City and De Laurentiis agreed. Ultimately, Bronson backed down. Death Wish was shot on location in New York City, during the winter of 1973–1974. Death Wish was first released to American audiences in July 1974. The world premiere took place on July 24 in the Loews Theater of New York City.
Multiple Grammy award-winning jazz musician Herbie Hancock produced and composed the original score for the soundtrack to the movie. This was his third film score, behind the 1966 movie Blow-Up and 1973's The Spook Who Sat By The Door. Michael Winner said, "[Dino] De Laurentiis said 'Get a cheap English band.' Because the English bands were very successful. But I had a girlfriend who was in Sesame Street, a Puerto Rican actress (Sonia Manzano), who played a checkout girl at the supermarket [in Death Wish], and she was a great jazz fan. She said, 'Well, you should have Herbie Hancock. He's got this record out called Head Hunters.' She gave me Head Hunters, which was staggering. And I said, 'Dino, never mind a cheap English band, we'll have Herbie Hancock.' Which we did."
Death Wish received mixed reviews upon its release, due to its support of vigilantism, but it affected U.S. audiences and began widespread debate over how to deal with rampant crime. The film's graphic violence, particularly the brutal rape scene of Kersey's daughter, as well as the explicit portrayal of Kersey's premeditated slayings, was considered exploitative, but realistic in the context of an urban U.S. atmosphere of rising crime rates.
Many critics were displeased with the film, considering it an "immoral threat to society" and an encouragement of antisocial behavior. Vincent Canby of The New York Times was one of the most outspoken writers, condemning Death Wish in two extensive articles. Roger Ebert awarded three stars out of four and praised the "cool precision" of Winner's direction, while not agreeing with the film's philosophy. Gene Siskel gave the film two stars out of four and wrote that its setup "makes no attempt at credibility; its goal is to present a syllogism that argues for vengeance, and to present it so swiftly that one doesn't have time to consider its absurdity." Charles Champlin of the Los Angeles Times called it "a despicable motion picture... It is nasty and demagogic stuff, an appeal to brute emotions and against reason." Gary Arnold of The Washington Post described the film as "simplistic to the point of stasis. Scarcely a single sensible insight into urban violence occurs; the killings just plod one after another as Bronson stalks New York's crime-ridden streets." Clyde Jeavons of The Monthly Film Bulletin wrote, "Superficially, it's not all that far removed from a Budd Boetticher revenge Western ... The difference, of course, is that Michael Winner has none of Boetticher's indigenous sense of allegory or his instinct for what constitutes a good folk-mythology, let alone his relish for three-dimensional villains."
Garfield was also unhappy with the final product, calling the film "incendiary", and stated that the film's sequels are all pointless and rancid, since they advocate vigilantism, unlike his two novels, which make the opposite argument. The film led him to write a follow-up titled Death Sentence, which was published a year after the film's release. In later years, the film would be liked for its disturbing, serious view of one man's violent war on crime. Bronson defended the film: he felt it was intended to be a commentary on violence and was meant to attack violence, not romanticize it. Many critics rate the original film higher than the sequels, which were more exploitative and contrived.
The film is recognized by American Film Institute in these lists:
Impact and influenceEdit
Death Wish was a watershed for Bronson, who was 53 years old at the time, and who was then better known in Europe and Asia for his role in The Great Escape. Bronson became an American film icon, who experienced great popularity over the next twenty years.
- In the series' later years, the Death Wish franchise became a subject of parody for its high level of violence and the advancing age of Bronson (a 1995 episode of The Simpsons named "A Star Is Burns" showed a fictional advertisement for Death Wish 9, consisting of a bed-ridden Bronson saying "I wish I was dead"). However, the Death Wish franchise remained lucrative, and drew support from fans of exploitation cinema. The series continues to have a widespread following on home video, and is occasionally broadcast on various television stations in the US and Europe.
- In an episode of American Dad!, "The One That Got Away", Roger dresses similarly to the protagonist when he plans revenge on an alternate personality of himself. He tells an alternate character that Death Wish was a movie, when his reference via outfit is misconstrued.
- Bronson is mentioned in the 1997 The Notorious B.I.G. classic "Kick in the Door". In the song, Biggie proclaims: "Sold more powder than Johnson and Johnson/Tote steel like Bronson, vigilante/You wanna get on son, you need to ask me."
- In the 1985–1986 Spider-Man comic arc "The Death of Jean DeWolff", Bronson makes a small appearance in one panel, holding a newspaper with the headline "vigilante".
- A clip from the film of Jeff Goldblum's hoodlum-rapist character yelling "Goddamn rich cunt!" was often played on The Opie and Anthony Show.
- In the 2003 release Champion Sound by hiphop duo Jaylib, on the track "The Official", J Dilla says: "I keeps it bouncing when the P.I's wanna wish for death, Im C. Bronson".
- In 2011, Taki's Magazine profiled a white nationalist author and blogger who adopted the pseudonym "Paul Kersey" after the Bronson character.
- In Michael Chabon's 2012 novel Telegraph Avenue, Death Wish is Luther Stalling's favorite film.
- Curtis Sliwa described Bernhard Goetz as "Charles Bronson in Death Wish."
- In the 2013 videogame PAYDAY 2, one of the difficulties is called Death Wish.
- In the 2015 videogame Hotline Miami 2: Wrong Number, a level is called Death Wish.
In March 2016, Paramount and MGM announced that Aharon Keshales and Navot Papushado would direct a remake starring Bruce Willis. In May, Keshales and Papushado quit the project, after the studio failed to allow their script rewrites. In June, Eli Roth signed on to direct. The film was released on March 2, 2018.
- "DEATH WISH (X)". British Board of Film Classification. October 23, 1974. Retrieved September 24, 2014.
- De Laurentiis PRODUCER'S PICTURE DARKENS: KNOEDELSEDER, WILLIAM K, Jr. Los Angeles Times 30 Aug 1987: 1.
- "Death Wish, Box Office Information". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved January 29, 2012.
- "Death Wish, Box Office Information". The Numbers. Retrieved January 29, 2012.
- "Death Wish Movie Reviews". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved October 16, 2018.
- Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s. New York, New York: Basic Books. p. 13. ISBN 0-465-04195-7.
- Shager, Nick (December 22, 2016). "Denzel Washington Shoots Down Rumor He's in 1974 'Death Wish': 'I Wasn't Even an Actor Yet'". Yahoo! Movies. Retrieved February 6, 2017.
- Talbot (2006), p. 1-31
- Nikki Tranter. "Historian: Interview with Brian Garfield".
- p. 23 Ross, Cai Ghost Buster in Cinema Retro Vol 15 Issue #43 Winter 2019
- For Bronson, Piecework Is a Virtue: Movies Piecework a Virtue for Charles Bronson Piecework a Virtue for Bronson Warga, Wayne. Los Angeles Times 2 Nov 1975: o1
- "Death Wish". Chicago Sun Times. Retrieved December 3, 2010.
- "Review: 'Death Wish'". Variety. December 31, 1973. Archived from the original on April 20, 2016. Retrieved July 23, 2017.
- Canby, Vincent (August 4, 1974). "Screen: 'Death Wish' Exploits Fear Irresponsibly; 'Death Wish' Exploits Our Fear". The New York Times. Retrieved November 6, 2011.
- Canby, Vincent (July 25, 1974). "Screen: 'Death Wish' Hunts Muggers:The Cast Story of Gunman Takes Dim View of City". The New York Times. Retrieved November 6, 2011.
- Severo, Richard (September 1, 2003). "Charles Bronson, 81, Movie Tough Guy, Dies". The New York Times. Retrieved January 5, 2010.
- Death Wish, Roger Ebert's Movie Reviews. Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
- Siskel, Gene (August 9, 1974). "'Death' moves at a killing pace to prove its point". Chicago Tribune. Section 2, p. 3.
- Champlin, Charles (July 31, 1974). "Running Amok for Law, Order". Los Angeles Times. Part IV, p. 1.
- Arnold, Gary (August 22, 1974). "'Death Wish': Vigilante Justice". The Washington Post. B13.
- Jeavons, Clyde (January 1975). "Death Wish". The Monthly Film Bulletin. 42 (492): 7.
- "AFI's 100 Years...100 Thrills Nominees" (PDF). Retrieved August 20, 2016.
- "AFI's 100 Years...100 Heroes & Villains Nominees" (PDF). Retrieved August 20, 2016.
- Jaylib – The Official, retrieved July 8, 2016
- Shaidle, Kathy (August 22, 2011). "The Charles Bronson of Race". Taki's Magazine.
- Siegle, Harry (July 12, 2013). "Bernhard Goetz on George Zimmerman: 'The Same Thing Is Happening'". The Daily Beast.
- Webmaster (October 23, 2013). "Death Wish: 40th Anniversary Edition Blu-ray". Blu-ray.com. Retrieved July 28, 2015.
- Fleming, Jr, Mike (March 4, 2016). "'Death Wish' Revamp With Bruce Willis To Be Helmed By 'Big Bad Wolves' Directors Aharon Keshales & Navot Papushado". Deadline Hollywood.
- Fleming Jr., Mike (June 20, 2016). "Eli Roth To Direct Bruce Willis In 'Death Wish' Remake". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
- McNary, Dave (June 8, 2017). "Bruce Willis' 'Death Wish' remake lands November launch with Annapurna". Variety. Retrieved August 11, 2017.
This article needs additional citations for verification. (August 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
- Talbot, Paul (2006), "Death Wish: Vigilante, City Style – Judge, Jury, and Executioner", Bronson's Loose!: The Making of the Death Wish Films, iUniverse, ISBN 978-0595379828