Burton Stephen Lancaster (November 2, 1913 – October 20, 1994) was an American actor and producer. Initially known for playing "tough guys", he went on to achieve success with more complex and challenging roles over a 45-year career in film and, later, television. He was nominated four times for the Academy Award for Best Actor, winning once, and also won two BAFTA Awards and one Golden Globe Award for Best Lead Actor.
Lancaster in Desert Fury (1947)
Burton Stephen Lancaster
November 2, 1913
Manhattan, New York, U.S.
|Died||October 20, 1994 (aged 80)|
Century City, California, U.S.
(m. 1935; div. 1946)
(m. 1946; div. 1969)
|Children||5, including Bill Lancaster|
Lancaster performed as acrobat in a circus in the 1930s. After serving in WWII, the 32-year-old Lancaster landed a role in a Broadway play and drew the attention of a Hollywood agent who landed him a film contract. His second movie filmed, but first released, was the film noir The Killers (1946), alongside Ava Gardner; it was a critical success and launched both of their careers.
In 1953 Lancaster played the elicit lover of Deborah Kerr in the pre-Pearl Harbour attack drama From Here to Eternity (1953). A box office smash, it won eight Academy Awards, including Best Picture, and garnered Lancaster his first nomination for Best Actor. Soon after that, he starred in The Rainmaker (1956), with Katharine Hepburn, earning a Golden Globe nomination for Best Actor, and in Gunfight at the O.K. Corral (1957) with Kirk Douglas, a frequent co-star. During the 1950s his production company Hecht-Hill-Lancaster was highly successful, making films such as: Trapeze (1956), a box office smash where he used his training as an acrobat; Sweet Smell of Success (1957), today considered a classic; Run Silent, Run Deep (1958), a WWII submarine drama with Clark Gable; and Separate Tables (1958), a drama which received seven Oscar nominations.
In the early 1960s Lancaster starred in a series of critically successful films, each in very disparate roles. Playing a charismatic biblical con-man in Elmer Gantry (1960), he won the Academy Award and the Golden Globe for Best Actor. In Judgment at Nuremberg (1961) he played a Nazi war criminal, with the film receiving 11 Oscar nominations. Playing a bird expert prisoner in the Birdman of Alcatraz (1962) he won the BAFTA Award for Best Foreign Actor and earned his third Oscar nomination. In 1963 he traveled to Italy to star as an Italian prince in the epic period drama The Leopard. He then played a Chairman of the United States Joint Chiefs of Staff who tries to overthrow the President in Seven Days in May (1964). The western, The Professionals (1966), was another critical success and also did well at the box office.
In 1970 he starred in the huge box office hit, the air-disaster drama Airport. He experienced a career resurgence with the crime-romance Atlantic City (1980), winning the BAFTA for Best Actor and landing his fourth Oscar nomination. In the 1980s he increasingly appeared in television roles, including several mini-series. He continued acting into his late 70s until a stroke in 1990 forced him to retire; four years later he died from a heart attack. The American Film Institute ranks Lancaster as #19 of the greatest male stars of classic Hollywood cinema.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Circus and military careers
- 3 Acting career
- 4 Personal life
- 5 Health problems
- 6 Death
- 7 Filmography and awards
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Burton Stephen Lancaster was born on November 2, 1913, in Manhattan, New York, at his parents' home at 209 East 106th Street, the son of Elizabeth (née Roberts) and mailman James Henry Lancaster. Both of his parents were Protestants of working-class origin. All four of his grandparents were British immigrants to the United States, from the province of Ulster; his maternal grandparents were from Belfast and were descendants of English immigrants to Ireland.
Lancaster grew up in East Harlem and spent much of his time on the streets, where he developed a great interest and skill in gymnastics while attending DeWitt Clinton High School, where he was a basketball star. Before he graduated from DeWitt Clinton, his mother died of a cerebral hemorrhage. Lancaster was accepted by New York University with an athletic scholarship, but subsequently dropped out.
Circus and military careersEdit
At 19, Lancaster met Nick Cravat, with whom he developed a lifelong partnership. Together they learned to act in local theatre productions and circus arts at Union Settlement, one of the city's oldest settlement houses. They formed the acrobat duo Lang and Cravat in the 1930s and soon joined the Kay Brothers circus. However, in 1939, an injury forced Lancaster to give up the profession, with great regret. He then found temporary work, first as a salesman for Marshall Fields and then as a singing waiter in various restaurants.
World War IIEdit
With the United States having then entered World War II, Lancaster joined the United States Army in 1942 and performed with the Army's 21st Special Services Division, one of the military groups organized to follow the troops on the ground and provide USO entertainment to keep up morale. He served with General Mark Clark's Fifth Army in Italy from 1943 to 1945.
Lancaster returned to New York after his Army service. Although initially unenthusiastic about acting, Lancaster was encouraged to audition for a Broadway play by a producer who saw him while he was visiting his then-girlfriend at work. The audition was successful and Lancaster was cast in Harry Brown's A Sound of Hunting (1945). The show only ran three weeks, but his performance attracted the interest of a Hollywood agent, Harold Hecht. Lancaster had other offers but Hecht promised him the opportunity to produce their own movies within five years of hitting Hollywood.
Through Hecht, Lancaster was brought to the attention of producer Hal B. Wallis, who signed him to a non-exclusive eight-movie contract.
Then producer Mark Hellinger approached him to star in The Killers (1946), which was completed and released prior to Desert Fury. Directed by Robert Siodmak it was a great critical success and launched Lancaster and his co-star Ava Gardner to stardom. It has since come to be regarded as a classic.
Hellinger used Lancaster again on Brute Force (1947), a prison drama written by Richard Brooks and directed by Jules Dassin. It was also well received. Wallis released his films through Paramount, and so Lancaster and other Wallis contractees made cameos in Variety Girl (1947).
Lancaster had a change of pace with the film adaptation of Arthur Miller's All My Sons (1948), made at Universal with Edward G. Robinson. His third film for Wallis was an adaptation of Sorry, Wrong Number (1948) with Barbara Stanwyck.
Hecht kept to his promise to Lancaster to turn producer. The two of them formed a company, Norma Productions, and did a deal with Universal to make a thriller in England, Kiss the Blood Off My Hands (1948) with Joan Fontaine and directed by Norman Foster. It made a profit of only $50,000, but was critically acclaimed.
Back in Hollywood, Lancaster did another film noir with Siodmak, Criss Cross (1949). It was originally going to be produced by Hellinger and when Hellinger died another took over. Tony Curtis made an early appearance.
Lancaster did a fourth for Wallis, Rope of Sand (1949).
Norma Productions signed a three-picture deal with Warner Bros. The first was The Flame and the Arrow (1950), a swashbuckler movie, in which Lancaster drew on his circus skills. Nick Cravat had a support role and the film was a huge commercial success, making of $6 million. It was Warners' most popular film of the year and established an entirely new image for Lancaster.
Lancaster was borrowed by 20th Century Fox for Mister 880 (1950), a comedy with Edmund Gwenn. MGM put him in a popular Western, Vengeance Valley (1951), then he went to Warners to play the title role in the biopic Jim Thorpe -- All-American (1951).
Norma signed a deal with Columbia to make two films through a Norma subsidiary, Halburt. The first film was Ten Tall Men (1951) where Lancaster was a member of the French Foreign Legion. Robert Aldrich worked on the movie as a production manager.
The second was a comedy The First Time (1952), a comedy which was the directorial debut of Frank Tashlin. It was meant to star Lancaster but he wound up not appearing in the film - the first of their productions in which he did not act.)
In 1951 the actor/producer duo changed the company's name to Hecht-Lancaster Productions. The first film under the new name was another swashbuckler: The Crimson Pirate (1952), directed by Siodmak. Co-starring Cravat, it was extremely popular.
Alternating with adventure films, he went into South Sea Woman (1952) at Warners. Part of the Norma-Warners contract was that Lancaster had to appear in some non-Norma films, of which this was one.
For his own company, Lancaster produced and starred in His Majesty O'Keefe (1954), a South Sea island tale shot in Fiji. It was co-written by James Hill who would soon become a part of the Hecht-Lancaster partnership.
United Artists signed Hecht-Lancaster to a multi-picture contract, to make seven films over two years. These included films which Lancaster did not act in. Their first was Marty (1955), based on Paddy Chayefsky's TV play starring Ernest Borgnine and directed by Delbert Mann. It won both the Academy Award for Best Picture and the Palme d'Or award at the Cannes Film Festival. It also earned $2 million on a budget of $350,000. Vera Cruz had been a huge success but Marty secured Hecht-Lancaster as one of the most successful independent production companies in Hollywood at the time.
Without Hill, Hecht and Lancaster produced The Kentuckian (1955) was directed by Lancaster in his directorial debut. He also played a lead role. Lancaster disliked directing and only did it once more, in the 1970s.
Lancaster still had commitments with Wallis, and made The Rose Tattoo (1955) for him, starring with Anna Magnani and directed by Daniel Mann. It was very popular at the box office and critically acclaimed, winning Magnani an Oscar.
In 1955 Hill was made an equal partner in the company and the name was upgraded to Hecht-Hill-Lancaster, releasing their first film in 1956, Trapeze, in which Lancaster performed many of his own stunts. Trapeze, co-starring Tony Curtis and Gina Lollobrigida, went on to become the production company's top box office success. United Artists expanded its deal with HHL.
The "H-H-L" team impressed Hollywood with its success; as Life wrote in 1957, "[a]fter the independent production of a baker's dozen of pictures, it has yet to have its first flop ... (They were also good pictures.)."  In late 1957 they announced they would make ten films worth $14 million in 1958.
Lancaster did two films for Wallis, to complete his eight film commitment for that produce: The Rainmaker (1956) with Katharine Hepburn, which earned Lancaster a Golden Globe nomination for Best Actor; and Gunfight at the O.K. Corral (1957) with Kirk Douglas, directed by John Sturges, which was a huge commercial hit.
Lancaster worked with Tony Curtis again on Sweet Smell of Success (1957), a co-production between Hecht-Hill-Lancaster and Curtis' own company Curtleigh Productions (co-owned with his wife, Janet Leigh). The movie, directed by Alexander Mackendrick, was a critical success but a commercial disappointment. Over the years it has come to be regarded as one of Lancaster's greatest films.
Hecht-Hill-Lancaster produced seven additional films in the late 1950s. Four starred Lancaster: Run Silent, Run Deep (1958), a war film with Clark Gable, directed by Robert Wise, which was mildly popular; Separate Tables (1958), with Kerr and Rita Hayworth (who married James Hill), based on a play by Terence Rattigan which received an Oscar nomination for Best Picture and Oscar awards for David Niven and Wendy Hiller and was both a critical and commercial success; The Devil's Disciple (1959), with Douglas and Laurence Olivier, which lost money (and saw Lancaster fire Mackendirck during shooting); and The Unforgiven (1960), with Audrey Hepburn, which was a critical and commercial disappointment.
Three were made without Lancaster, all of which lost money: The Bachelor Party (1957), from another TV play by Chayefsky, and directed by Delbert Mann; Take a Giant Step (1959), about a black student; and Summer of the Seventeenth Doll (1960), from an Australian play, shot in Australia and Britain.
Additionally, Hecht-Hill-Lancaster served as the production company for the 1960-1961 TV series Whiplash.
The Hecht-Hill-Lancaster Productions company dissolved in 1960 after Hill ruptured his relationship with both Hecht and Lancaster.
Hecht and LancasterEdit
Lancaster played the title role in Elmer Gantry (1960), written and directed by Richard Brooks for United Artists. The film received five Academy Award nominations, including Best Picture and Best Actor. Lancaster won the 1960 Academy Award for Best Actor, a Golden Globe Award, and the New York Film Critics Award for his performance.
Lancaster starred in Judgment at Nuremberg (1961) for Stanley Kramer, alongside Spencer Tracy, Richard Widmark and a number of other iconic stars. The film was both a commercial and critical success, receiving 11 Oscar nominations, including Best Picture. He then did another with Hecht and Frankenheimer (replacing Charles Crichton, Birdman of Alcatraz (1962). The second film earned Lancaster a Best Actor Oscar nomination. Hecht went on to produce five films without Lancaster's assistance, through his company Harold Hecht Films Productions between 1961 and 1967, including another Academy Award winner, Cat Ballou, starring Lee Marvin and Jane Fonda.
Collaborations with younger filmmakersEdit
He went to Italy to star in The Leopard (1963) for Luchino Visconti, co-starring Alain Delon and Claudia Cardinale. It was one of Lancaster's favourite films and was a big hit in France but failed in the US (though the version released was much truncated.)
He had a small role in The List of Adrian Messenger (1963) for producer/star Kirk Douglas, and then did two for Frankenheimer: Seven Days in May (1964), a political thriller with Douglas, and The Train (1964), a World War Two action film (Lancaster had Frankenheimer replace Arthur Penn several days into filming).
In 1966 at the age of 52, Lancaster appeared nude in director Frank Perry's film The Swimmer (1968), in what the critic Roger Ebert called "his finest performance". Prior to working on The Swimmer, Lancaster was terrified of the water because he did not know how to swim. In preparation for the film, he took swimming lessons from UCLA swim coach Bob Horn. Filming was difficult and clashes between Lancaster and Perry led to Sydney Pollack coming in to do some filming. The film was not released until 1968, when it proved to be a commercial failure, though Lancaster remained proud of the movie and his performance.
In 1967, Lancaster formed a new partnership with Roland Kibbee, who had already worked as a writer on five Lancaster projects; Ten Tall Men, The Crimson Pirate, Three Sailors and a Girl (in which Lancaster made a cameo appearance), Vera Cruz and The Devil's Disciple. Through Norlan Productions, Lancaster and Kibbee produced The Scalphunters (1968), directed by Sydney Pollack.
Lancaster had one of the biggest successes of his career with Airport (1970), starring alongside Dean Martin, Jean Seberg and Jacqueline Bisset. The film received 9 academy award nominations, including one for Best Picture. It became one of the biggest box-office hits of 1970 and, at that time, reportedly the highest-grossing film in the history of Universal Pictures.
He went into a series of Westerns: Lawman (1971) directed by Michael Winner; Valdez Is Coming (1971), for Norlan; and Ulzana's Raid (1972), directed by Aldrich and produced by himself and Hecht. None were particularly popular but Ulzana's Raid has become a cult film.
Lancaster returned to directing with The Midnight Man (1974), which he also wrote and produced with Kibee.
Lancaster was one of many names in 1900 (1975), directed by Bernardo Bertolucci, and he had a cameo in Buffalo Bill and the Indians, or Sitting Bull's History Lesson (1976) for Robert Altman.
He played Shimon Peres in the TV movie Victory at Entebbe (1977) and had a support role in The Cassandra Crossing (1976). He made a fourth a final film with Aldrich, Twilight's Last Gleaming (1977) and had the title role in The Island of Dr. Moreau (1978).
Lancaster was top-billed in Go Tell the Spartans (1978), a Vietnam War film; Lancaster admired the script so much he took a reduced fee and donated money to help the movie be completed. He was in Zulu Dawn (1979).
Lancaster began the 1980s with a highly acclaimed performance in Atlantic City (1980), directed by Louis Malle. The film received 5 Oscar nominations, including Best Picture and a Best Actor nomination for Lancaster.
He was in Little Treasure (1985), directed by Alan Sharp who had written Ulzana's Raid; On Wings of Eagles (1986) for TV, as Bull Simons; Barnum (1986) for TV, in the title role; Tough Guys (1986) with Douglas, Fathers and Sons: A German Tragedy (1986) for German TV, Control (1987) in Italy, Rocket Gibraltar (1988), and The Jeweller's Shop (1989).
Lancaster's final performances included The Phantom of the Opera (1990) for TV; Voyage of Terror: The Achille Lauro Affair (1990) as Leon Klinghoffer; and Separate But Equal (1991) with Sidney Poitier.
For his contribution to the motion picture industry, Lancaster has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6801 Hollywood Boulevard.
Lancaster appeared in a total of 17 films produced by his agent Harold Hecht. Eight of these were co-produced by James Hill. He also appeared in eight films produced by Hal B. Wallis and two with producer Mark Hellinger. Although Lancaster's work alongside Kirk Douglas was mostly known as a successful pair of actors, Douglas, in fact, produced four films for the pair, through his production companies Bryna Productions and Joel Productions. Roland Kibbee also produced three Lancaster films. Lancaster was also cast in two Stanley Kramer productions.
John Frankenheimer directed five films with Lancaster: The Young Savages (1961), Birdman of Alcatraz (1962), Seven Days in May (1964), The Train (1964), and The Gypsy Moths (1969). He was directed four times by Robert Aldrich, three times by Robert Siodmak and Sydney Pollack, and twice by Byron Haskin, Daniel Mann, John Sturges, John Huston, Richard Brooks, Alexander Mackendrick, Luchino Visconti, and Michael Winner.
Roland Kibbee wrote for seven Lancaster films. Lancaster used make-up veteran Robert Schiffer in 20 credited films, hiring Schiffer on nearly all the films he produced.
Marriages and relationshipsEdit
Lancaster vigorously guarded his private life. He was married three times. His first two marriages, to June Ernst from 1935 to 1946 and Norma Anderson from 1946 to 1969, ended in divorce. His third marriage, to Susan Martin, lasted from September 1990 until his death in 1994. All five of his children were with Anderson: Bill (who became an actor and screenwriter), James, Susan, Joanna, and Sighle (pronounced "Sheila"). Friends say he claimed he was romantically involved with Deborah Kerr during the filming of From Here to Eternity in 1953. However, Kerr stated that while there was a spark of attraction, nothing ever happened. He reportedly had an affair with Joan Blondell.
In her 1980 autobiography, Shelley Winters claimed to have had a long affair with him. Recent biographers and others suggest that Lancaster was bisexual, and that he had intimate relationships with men as well as women. According to testimony in Kate Buford's Burt Lancaster: An American Life, Lancaster was devotedly loyal to his friends and family. Old friends from his childhood remained his friends for life.
Lancaster was a vocal supporter of liberal political causes, and he frequently spoke out in support of racial minorities, such as when he attended the March on Washington in 1963. He was a vocal opponent of the Vietnam War and right-wing political movements such as McCarthyism, and he helped pay for the successful defense of a soldier accused of "fragging" (murdering) another soldier during that war. In 1968, Lancaster actively supported the presidential candidacy of antiwar Senator Eugene McCarthy of Minnesota, and frequently spoke on his behalf during the Democratic primaries. He campaigned heavily for George McGovern in the 1972 presidential election. In 1985, Lancaster joined the fight against AIDS after his close friend, Rock Hudson, contracted the disease. He campaigned for Michael Dukakis in the 1988 presidential election.
Allegations of child sexual abuseEdit
Actress and comedian Sara Mason alleged that Lancaster violently raped her at a Beverly Hills party when she was 11 years old, as well as her younger brother and another famous actress whose name she withheld. In 2015 and 2016, Mason performed a dark comedy tell-all show titled "Burt Lancaster Pierced My Hymen When I Was 11" at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe, in which she charged no admission fees. Her show related graphic details of sexual abuse at the hands of Lancaster and claimed that all of the events were true. Toward the end of the show, she stated the abuse directly led to her brother's suicide and years of drug abuse and trauma.
The centennial of Lancaster's birth was honored at New York City's Film Society of Lincoln Center in May 2013 with the screening of 12 of the actor's best-known films, from The Killers to Atlantic City.
As Lancaster grew older he became increasingly wracked with atherosclerosis, and barely survived a routine gall bladder operation in January 1980. Following two minor heart attacks, he had to undergo an emergency quadruple coronary bypass in 1983, after which he was extremely weak. However, he still managed to continue acting. In 1988, Lancaster was well enough to attend a Congressional hearing in Washington D.C. with old colleagues such as James Stewart and Ginger Rogers to protest against media magnate Ted Turner's plan to colorize various black-and-white films from the 1930s and 1940s. Lancaster's acting career ended after he suffered a stroke on November 30, 1990, which left him partially paralyzed and largely unable to speak.
Lancaster died at his apartment in Century City, California, after suffering a third heart attack at 4:50 am on October 20, 1994, at the age of 80. His body was cremated, and his ashes were scattered under a large oak tree in Westwood Memorial Park which is located in Westwood Village, California. A small, square ground plaque amidst several others, only inscribed with "BURT LANCASTER 1913–1994", marks the location. Upon his death, as he had previously requested, no memorial or funeral service was held for him.
Filmography and awardsEdit
Box office rankingEdit
For a number of years exhibitors voted Lancaster as among the most popular stars:
- 1950 – 16th (US)
- 1951 – 25th (US)
- 1952 – 24th (US)
- 1953 – 17th (US)
- 1954 – 13th (US), 7th (UK)
- 1955 – 16th (US)
- 1956 – 4th (US), 3rd (UK)
- 1957 – 15th (US), 3rd (UK)
- 1958 – 20th (US)
- 1960 – 19th (US)
- 1961 – 11th (US)
- 1962 – 10th (US)
In other mediaEdit
Spanish music group Hombres G released an album named La cagaste, Burt Lancaster (You messed up, Burt Lancaster) in 1986. Thomas Hart Benton painted a scene from The Kentuckian as part of the film's marketing. Lancaster posed for the painting, also known as The Kentuckian.
- "AFI's 50 GREATEST AMERICAN SCREEN LEGENDS" American Film Institute. Retrieved: December 7, 2016.
- Buford 2008, p. 12.
- Buford 2008, p. 28.
- Andreychuk 2005, p. 3.
- Andreychuk 2005, p. 6.
- Andreychuk 2005, p. 7.
- "Top Grossers of 1947", Variety, 7 January 1948 p 63
- "60 Top Grossers of 1946", Variety 8 January 1947 p8
- "Top Grossers of 1948", Variety 5 January 1949 p 46
- Warner Bros financial information in The William Shaefer Ledger. See Appendix 1, Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television, (1995) 15:sup1, 1-31 p 30 doi:10.1080/01439689508604551
- The Eddie Mannix Ledger, Los Angeles: Margaret Herrick Library, Center for Motion Picture Study
- FILM ACTORS' UNION EXTENDS CONTRACT: Screen Guild Eases Pressure on Producers by Negotiating 6-Month Addition to Pact By THOMAS F. BRADY Special to THE NEW YORK TIMES14 Dec 1950: 51.
- Burt Breaks Mold When Typed: Burt Balks at Typed Film Roles Scheuer, Philip K. Los Angeles Times 14 Dec 1952: D1.
- LANCASTER TO STAR IN SHIPWRECK TALE: Norma Productions Buys 'His Majesty O'Keefe' for the Actor's First '52 Role By THOMAS F. BRADY New York Times 1 Jan 1951: 14.
- BURT LANCASTER MAKES U. A. DEAL: Movie Star and His Partner, Harold Hecht, Find a New Outlet for Productions By THOMAS M. PRYOR New York Times 24 June 1953: 30.
- Looking at Hollywood: Lancaster Gets Indian Role in 'Bronco Apache' Hopper, Hedda. Chicago Daily Tribune2 Dec 1952: a5.
- HOLLYWOOD SURPRISE by THOMAS M. PRYOR. New York Times 14 Feb 1954: X5.
- HOLLYWOOD DOSSIER: 'MARTY' HITS JACKPOT – TEAM – ON THE SET By OSCAR GODBOUT HOLLYWOOD.. New York Times 11 Sep 1955: X7.
- Tino Balio, United Artists: The Company That Changed the Film Industry, University of Wisconsin Press, 1987 p. 82
- ' The Top Box-Office Hits of 1955', Variety Weekly, January 25, 1956
- ' The Top Box-Office Hits of 1956', Variety Weekly, January 2, 1957
- Pryor, Thomas M. (1956). "Hecht-Lancaster Plans New Films: Producing Unit Signs Deal with United Artists—5 Features Are Listed Lancaster to Act". New York Times, 13 April 1956. p. 20.
- "Buzzell Ties with Hecht & Lancaster", Billboard, March 16, 1957, p8
- Hodgins, Eric. "Amid Ruins of an Empire a New Hollywood Arises." Life, June 10, 1957, p. 146. Retrieved: April 22, 2012.
- "Hecht-Hill-Lancaster Planning Record Year: Group Will Produce $14,000,000 Worth of Motion Pictures in 1958". Los Angeles Times, 16 Dec. 1957. p. B9.
- Kate Buford, Burt Lancaster: An American Life, Da Capo 2000 p 183
- "1959: Probable Domestic Take", Variety, 6 January 1960 p 34
- pp. 151-152 Larkins, Bob & Magers, Boyd The Films of Audie Murphy McFarland, 19 Aug. 2009
- Hill went on to produce a single additional film, The Happy Thieves, in a new production company, Hillworth Productions, co-owned with his wife Rita Hayworth.
- Balio, Tino (1987). United Artists: The Company That Changed the Film Industry. University of Wisconsin Press. p. 145.
- Buford, Kate (2000). Burt Lancaster: An American Life. London: Aurum. pp. 222–227. ISBN 1-85410-740-2.
- Glenn Lovell, Escape Artist: The Life and Films of John Sturges, University of Wisconsin Press, 2008 p250
- Ebert, Roger (July 2, 1968). "Review: "The Swimmer"". Chicago Sun-Times. Chicago, Illinois: Sun-Times Media Group. Retrieved October 24, 2018 – via RogerEbert.com.
- Innis, Chris. "The Story of The Swimmer". The Swimmer (Blu-ray/DVD) (2014 ed.). Los Angeles, California: Grindhouse Releasing.
- Stafford, Jeff "The Swimmer" (article) on TCM.com
- "Big Rental Films of 1969", Variety, 7 January 1970 p 15
- "I CAN'T GET JIMMY CARTER TO SEE MY MOVIE!" Aldrich, Robert. Film Comment; New York Vol. 13, Iss. 2, (Mar/Apr 1977): 46-52.
- A Bittersweet Burt Lancaster, Looking Back-and Forward--at 62: A Bittersweet Burt Lancaster By Kenneth Turan. The Washington Post 23 May 1976: 165.
- Kate Buford, Burt Lancaster (Da Capo Press, 2000) ISBN 0-306-81019-0
- Buford 2008, pp. 127–30.
- Goldbeck, MD, Larry O. (August 27, 2016). Their Stars Shone Brightly. Xlibris. ISBN 978-1524532154. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- Winters 1980, p. 259.
- Jeffreys, Daniel (March 18, 2000). "Screen god Burt's sex life set the stage for Hollywood gay scene". The Independent. London, England: Independent Print Limited. Retrieved February 13, 2016.
- Buford, Kate (March 14, 2000). Burt Lancaster: An American Life. Knopf. ISBN 978-0679446033.[page needed]
- Gray, Tim (August 28, 2015). "Hollywood Turned Out for Historic 'I Have a Dream' Speech". Variety. Penske Business Media, LLC. Retrieved August 1, 2018.
- Matthews, David (August 28, 2013). "Kennedy White House had jitters ahead of 1963 March on Washington". CNN Entertainment. Turner Broadcasting System, Inc. Retrieved August 1, 2018.
- Stanfield, Peter; Krutnik, Frank; Neve, Brian; Neale, Steve (December 27, 2007). 'Un-American' Hollywood: Politics and Film in the Blacklist Era. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press. p. 212. ISBN 9780813543970.
- Buford 2008, p. 266.
- Wheeler, Mark (August 5, 2013). Celebrity Politics. Cambridge, England: Polity. p. 48. ISBN 9780745652498.
- "The Daily News from Port Angeles, Washington". Peninsula Daily News. Port Angeles, Washington: Black Press Ltd. July 20, 1976. p. 4. Retrieved August 1, 2018 – via Newspapers.com.
- Schmich, Mary T.; Siskel, Gene (October 3, 1985). "Actor Rock Hudson, 59, Victim Of Aids". Chicago Tribune. Chicago, Illinois: Tronc. p. 2. Retrieved August 1, 2018.
- Fleming, John (June 18, 2015). "Film star Burt Lancaster's sexual attack on comic Sara Mason when she was 11". Retrieved September 3, 2019.
- Mason, Sara, Credits, retrieved September 3, 2019
- Holden, Stephen (May 12, 2013). "Film: lots of Lancaster at Lincoln Center". The New York Times. New York City: New York Times Company. Retrieved October 24, 2018.
- Buford, Kate (2001). Burt Lancaster: An American Life. Boston, Massachusetts: Da Capo Press. p. 277. ISBN 978-0306810190.
- "Oscar Winner Burt Lancaster Dies at 80". Los Angeles Times. October 24, 1994. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
- "6th Berlin International Film Festival: Prize Winners". berlinale.de. Retrieved December 27, 2009.
- Sesame Street - Burt Lancaster (1969), YouTube
- painted by Thomas Hart Benton (1954). "The Kentuckian (painting)". LACMA Collections.
- Andreychuk, Ed. Burt Lancaster: A Filmography And Biography. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers, 2005. ISBN 978-0-7864-2339-2.
- Buford, Kate. Burt Lancaster: An American Life. London: Aurum Press, 2008. ISBN 1-84513-385-4.
- Winters, Shelley. Shelley: Also known as Shirley. New York: Morrow, 1980. ISBN 978-0-688-03638-6.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Burt Lancaster.|
- Burt Lancaster at the Encyclopædia Britannica
- Burt Lancaster on IMDb
- 107800|25098 Burt Lancaster at the TCM Movie Database
- Burt Lancaster at AllMovie
- Burt Lancaster at the Internet Broadway Database
- Burt Lancaster at Find a Grave
- Works by or about Burt Lancaster in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- Literature on Burt Lancaster
- The Rainmaker