Louis Marie Malle (French: [lwi mal]; 30 October 1932 – 23 November 1995) was a French film director, screenwriter, and producer who worked in both French cinema and Hollywood. Described as "eclectic" and "a filmmaker difficult to pin down", Malle made documentaries, romances, period dramas, and thrillers. He often depicted provocative or controversial subject matter.
Louis Marie Malle
30 October 1932
|Died||23 November 1995 (aged 63)|
Beverly Hills, California, U.S.
|Alma mater||Sciences Po|
Malle's most famous works include the crime thriller Elevator to the Gallows (1958), the romantic drama The Lovers (1958), the World War II drama Lacombe, Lucien (1974), the period drama Pretty Baby (1978), the romantic crime film Atlantic City (1980), the dramedy My Dinner with Andre (1981), and the autobiographical Au revoir les enfants (1987). He also co-directed the landmark underwater documentary The Silent World with Jacques Cousteau, which won the 1956 Palme d'Or and the 1957 Academy Award for Best Documentary.
Malle is one of only four directors to have won the Golden Lion twice. His other accolades include three Césars, two BAFTAs, and three Oscar nominations. He was made a Fellow of the British Academy of Film and Television Arts in 1991.
Early life edit
During World War II, Malle attended a Catholic boarding school near Fontainebleau. As an 11-year-old he witnessed a Gestapo raid on the school, in which three Jewish students, including his close friend, and a Jewish teacher were rounded up and deported to Auschwitz. The school's headmaster, Père Jacques, was arrested for harboring them and sent to the concentration camp at Mauthausen. Malle depicted these events in his autobiographical film Au revoir les enfants (1987).
Malle worked as co-director and cameraman with Jacques Cousteau on the documentary The Silent World (1956), which won an Oscar and the Palme d'Or at the 1956 Academy Awards and Cannes Film Festival, respectively. He assisted Robert Bresson on A Man Escaped (Un condamné à mort s'est échappé ou Le vent souffle où il veut, 1956) before making his first feature, Ascenseur pour l'échafaud in 1957 (released in the U.K. as Lift to the Scaffold and in the U.S. originally as Frantic, later as Elevator to the Gallows). A taut thriller featuring an original score by Miles Davis, Ascenseur pour l'échafaud made an international film star of Jeanne Moreau, at the time a leading stage actress of the Comédie-Française. Malle was 24 years old.
Malle's The Lovers (Les Amants, 1958), which also starred Moreau, caused major controversy due to its sexual content, leading to a landmark U.S. Supreme Court case about the legal definition of obscenity. In Jacobellis v. Ohio, a theater owner was fined $2,500 for obscenity. The Supreme Court overturned the decision, finding that the film was not obscene and hence constitutionally protected. But the court could not agree on a definition of "obscene", with Justice Potter Stewart famously saying, "I know it when I see it".
Malle is sometimes associated with the nouvelle vague, but his work does not directly fit in with or correspond to the auteurist theories that apply to the work of Jean-Luc Godard, François Truffaut, Claude Chabrol, Éric Rohmer and others, and he had nothing to do with Cahiers du cinéma. But Malle's work does exemplify some of the movement's characteristics, such as using natural light and shooting on location, and his film Zazie dans le Métro (Zazie in the Metro, 1960, an adaptation of the Raymond Queneau novel) inspired Truffaut to write Malle an enthusiastic letter.
Other films also tackled taboo subjects: The Fire Within centers on a man about to commit suicide, Le souffle au cœur (1971) deals with an incestuous relationship between mother and son, and Lacombe, Lucien (1974), co-written with Patrick Modiano, is about collaboration with the Nazis in Vichy France during World War II. The second of these earned Malle his first (of three) Oscar nominations for "Best Writing, Story and Screenplay Based on Factual Material or Material Not Previously Published or Produced".
Documentary on India edit
Malle visited India in 1968, and made the seven-part documentary series L'Inde fantôme: Reflexions sur un voyage and the documentary film Calcutta, which was released in cinemas. Concentrating on real India, its rituals and festivities, Malle fell afoul of the Indian government, which disliked his portrayal of the country, in its fascination with the pre-modern, and consequently banned the BBC from filming in India for several years. Malle later said his documentary on India was his favorite film.
Move to the U.S. edit
Malle later moved to the United States and continued to direct there. His later films include Pretty Baby (1978), Atlantic City (1980), My Dinner with Andre (1981), Crackers (1984), Alamo Bay (1985), Damage (1992) and Vanya on 42nd Street (1994, an adaptation of Anton Chekhov's play Uncle Vanya) in English; and Au revoir les enfants (1987) and Milou en Mai (May Fools in the U.S., 1990) in French. Just as his earlier films such as The Lovers helped popularize French films in the U.S., My Dinner with Andre was at the forefront of the rise of American independent cinema in the 1980s.
Towards the end of his life, cultural correspondent Melinda Camber Porter interviewed Malle extensively for The Times. In 1993, the interviews were included in her book Through Parisian Eyes: Reflections On Contemporary French Arts And Culture.
Personal life edit
Malle was married to actress Anne-Marie Deschodt from 1965 to 1967. He later had a son, Manuel Cuotemoc Malle (born 1971), with German actress Gila von Weitershausen, and a daughter, filmmaker Justine Malle (born 1974), with Canadian actress Alexandra Stewart. From mid-1977 until early 1980, he was in a relationship with Susan Sarandon.
Malle married actress Candice Bergen in 1980. They had one child, Chloé Françoise Malle, on 8 November 1985. Malle died of lymphoma, aged 63, at their home in Beverly Hills, California, on November 23, 1995.
Feature films edit
|1954||Station 307||Yes||Yes||Yes||Short film; Also cinematographer|
|1958||Elevator to the Gallows||Yes||Yes|
|1960||Zazie in the Metro||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|1962||A Very Private Affair||Yes||Yes||Yes||Appeared as a journalist|
|1963||The Fire Within||Yes||Yes|
|1967||The Thief of Paris||Yes||Yes|
|1968||Spirits of the Dead||Yes||Yes||Segment: "William Wilson"|
|1969||A Very Curious Girl||Yes||Appeared as Jésus|
|1971||Murmur of the Heart||Yes||Yes|
|1981||My Dinner with Andre||Yes|
|1987||Au revoir les enfants||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|1992||La Vie de Bohème||Yes||Appeared in a cameo|
|1994||Vanya on 42nd Street||Yes||Yes|
Documentary films edit
|1956||The Silent World||Yes||Co-directed with Jacques Cousteau|
|1962||Vive le Tour||Yes||Yes||Yes||Also cinematographer|
|1973||Human, Too Human||Yes|
|1974||Place de la République||Yes||Yes||Appeared as himself|
|1976||Close Up||Yes||Short film|
|1986||And the Pursuit of Happiness||Yes||Yes||Also cinematographer and narrator|
|1964||Bons baisers de Bangkok||Yes||Short film|
|1969||Phantom India||Yes||Yes||Miniseries; Also narrator|
|1985||God's Country||Yes||Yes||Also cinematographer and narrator|
|1994||Murphy Brown||Yes||Appeared as himself; Episode: "My Movie with Louis"|
Awards and nominations edit
- Le Monde du silence (1956)
- The Lovers (1958)
- Venice Film Festival Special Jury Prize Winner
- Le Feu follet (1963)
- The Thief of Paris (1967)
- Calcutta (1969)
- Murmur of the Heart (1971)
- Lacombe, Lucien (1974)
- Pretty Baby (1978)
- Cannes Film Festival Technical Grand Prize Winner
- Atlantic City (1981)
- Crackers (1984)
- Goodbye, Children (1987)
- Venice Film Festival Golden Lion Winner
- Venice Film Festival OCIC Award Winner
- Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film Nomination
- Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay Nomination
- Golden Globes Best Foreign Film Nomination
- BAFTA Best Director Winner
- BAFTA Best Film Nomination
- BAFTA Best Screenplay Nomination
- Cesar Awards Best Film Winner
- Cesar Awards Best Director Winner
- Cesar Awards Best Screenplay Winner
- European Film Awards Best Screenwriter Winner
- European Film Awards Best Film Nomination
- European Film Awards Best Director Nomination
- May Fools (1990)
- British Academy of Film and Television Arts Best Foreign Film Nomination
-  Archived February 8, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
- "Where to begin with Louis Malle". BFI. Retrieved 2021-11-04.
- "1991 Film Fellowship | BAFTA Awards". awards.bafta.org. Retrieved 2021-11-04.
- Matsen, Brad (October 5, 2010). Jacques Cousteau: The Sea King. New York: Vintage Books. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-307-27542-4.
-  Archived April 16, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
- "BBC iPlayer". Bbc.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2004-09-17. Retrieved 2015-12-01.
- "Louis Malle – Films & Bio". newwavefilm.com. Retrieved 22 July 2015.
- Smith, Liz. "Love's Magic Spell". The Baltimore Sun. p. 25.
- Bergen, Candice (7 April 2015). A Fine Romance. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-684-80827-7.
- Severo, Richard (25 November 1995). "Louis Malle, Film Director Equally at Home in France and America, Is Dead at 63". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 July 2015.
- "5th Moscow International Film Festival (1967)". MIFF. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
- "The 47th Academy Awards (1975) Nominees and Winners". oscars.org. Retrieved 10 December 2011.
- "Berlinale: 1984 Programme". berlinale.de. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
Further reading edit
- Billard, Pierre (2003). Louis Malle: Le rebel solitaire. Paris: Plon. ISBN 2-259-19243-2.
- French, Philip, ed. (1992). Malle on Malle. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-16237-1.
- Frey, Hugo (2004). Louis Malle. Manchester: Manchester University Press. ISBN 0-719-06456-2.
- Southern, Nathan; Weissgerber, Jacques (2005). The Films of Louis Malle: A Critical Analysis. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland. ISBN 0-786-42300-5.