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The Palme d'Or (French pronunciation: ​[palm(ə) dɔʁ]; English: Golden Palm) is the highest prize awarded at the Cannes Film Festival.[1] It was introduced in 1955 by the festival's organizing committee. Previously, from 1939 to 1954, the highest prize at the festival was the Grand Prix du Festival International du Film.[1] In 1964, The Palme d'Or was replaced again by the Grand Prix, before being reintroduced in 1975.[1]

Palme d'Or
Palme dor.png
LocationCannes
CountryFrance
Presented byFestival International du Film de Cannes
First awarded1955
Currently held byParasite (2019)
Websitehttp://www.festival-cannes.com

The Palme d'Or is widely considered to be one of the most prestigious awards in the film industry.[2][3][4]

History

 
The Commune of Cannes coat of arms

In 1954, the festival decided to present an award annually, titled the Grand Prix of the International Film Festival, with a new design each year from a contemporary artist. The festival's board of directors invited several jewellers to submit designs for a palm, in tribute to the coat of arms of the city of Cannes.[1] The original design by the jeweller Lucienne Lazon had the bevelled lower extremity of the stalk forming a heart, and the pedestal a sculpture in terracotta by the artist Sébastien.[5]

In 1955, the first Palme d'Or was awarded to Delbert Mann for Marty. From 1964 to 1974, the Festival temporarily resumed a Grand Prix.[1] In 1975, the Palme d'Or was reintroduced and has since remained the symbol of the Cannes Film Festival, awarded every year to the director of the winning film, and presented in a case of pure red Morocco leather lined with white suede.[1]

As of 2018, Jane Campion is the only female director to have won the Palme d'Or, for her work on The Piano. However, in 2013, when Blue Is the Warmest Color won the Palme d'Or, the Steven Spielberg-headed jury awarded it to the film's director Abdellatif Kechiche, as well as the film's actresses Adèle Exarchopoulos and Léa Seydoux.[6] This marks the first time multiple Palme d'Or trophies were given out in the festival's history.[7]

 
Palme d'Or awarded to Apocalypse Now at the 1979 Cannes Film Festival

The jury decided to award the actresses alongside the director due to a Cannes policy that forbids the Palme d'Or-winning film from receiving any additional awards, thereby preventing the jury from rewarding both the film and the film's actresses separately.[8] Of the unorthodox decision, Spielberg said that "had the casting been 3% wrong, it wouldn't have worked like it did for us".[9] Kechiche later auctioned off his Palme d'Or trophy to fund his new feature film, and expressed dissatisfaction about the festival having given out multiple trophies in an interview with The Hollywood Reporter, saying that he felt they had "publicly insulted" him by doing it, and that "liberating myself from this Palme d’Or is a way of washing my hands of this sorry affair."[7]

Since its reintroduction, the prize has been redesigned several times. At the beginning of the 1980s, the rounded shape of the pedestal, bearing the palm, gradually transformed to become pyramidal in 1984. In 1992, Thierry de Bourqueney redesigned the Palme and its pedestal in hand-cut crystal.

In 1997, a new design, created by Caroline Scheufele from Chopard, was created; a single piece of cut crystal forms a cushion for the 24-carat gold palm, which was hand-cast into a wax mould and presented in a case of blue Morocco leather.[10]

The winner of the 2014 Palme d'Or, Winter Sleep—a Turkish film by Nuri Bilge Ceylan—occurred during the same year as the 100th anniversary of Turkish cinema. Upon receiving the award, Ceylan dedicated the prize to both the "young people" involved in the ongoing political unrest in Turkey and the workers who were killed in the Soma mine disaster, which occurred on the day prior to the commencement of the awards event.[11]

In 2017, the award was re-designed to celebrate the festival's 70th anniversary.[1] The diamonds were provided by an ethical supplier certified by the Responsible Jewellery Council.[1]

Award winners

Year Film Original title Director(s) Country
1930s
Awarded as "Grand Prix du Festival International du Film"
1939  Union Pacific Cecil B. DeMille   USA
1940s
1940–1945 No awards due to World War II.
1946 The Turning Point Velikij perelom / Великий перелом Fridrikh Ermler   USSR
Men Without Wings Muži bez křídel František Čáp   Czechoslovakia
The Last Chance Die Letzte Chance Leopold Lindtberg   Switzerland
Torment Hets Alf Sjöberg   Sweden
Portrait of Maria María Candelaria Emilio Fernández   Mexico
Rome, Open City Roma, città aperta Roberto Rossellini   Italy
Neecha Nagar (Lowly City) Nīcā nagar / नीचा नगर Chetan Anand   India
Brief Encounter David Lean   United Kingdom
Pastoral Symphony La symphonie pastorale Jean Delannoy   France
The Lost Weekend Billy Wilder   USA
The Red Meadows De røde enge Bodil Ipsen and Lau Lauritzen, Jr.   Denmark
1949 The Third Man Carol Reed   United Kingdom
1950s
1951 Miss Julie Fröken Julie Alf Sjöberg   Sweden
Miracle in Milan Miracolo a Milano Vittorio De Sica   Italy
1952 The Tragedy of Othello: The Moor of Venice Orson Welles   USA
Two Cents Worth of Hope Due soldi di speranza Renato Castellani   Italy
1953 The Wages of Fear Le salaire de la peur Henri-Georges Clouzot   France
  Italy
1954 Gate of Hell Jigoku-mon / 地獄門 Teinosuke Kinugasa   Japan
Awarded as "Palme d'Or"
1955 Marty § Delbert Mann   USA
1956 The Silent World Le monde du silence Jacques Cousteau and Louis Malle   France
1957 Friendly Persuasion William Wyler   USA
1958 The Cranes Are Flying Letyat zhuravli / Летят журавли Mikhail Kalatozov   USSR
1959 Black Orpheus § Orfeu Negro Marcel Camus   France
  Italy
  Brazil
1960s
1960 The Sweet Life § La dolce vita Federico Fellini   Italy
  France
1961 The Long Absence § Une aussi longue absence Henri Colpi   France
Viridiana § Luis Buñuel   Mexico
  Spain
1962 Keeper of Promises § O Pagador de Promessas Anselmo Duarte   Brazil
1963 The Leopard § Il gattopardo Luchino Visconti   Italy
Awarded as "Grand Prix du Festival International du Film"
1964 The Umbrellas of Cherbourg Les parapluies de Cherbourg Jacques Demy   France
  West Germany
1965 The Knack ...and How to Get It Richard Lester   United Kingdom
1966 A Man and a Woman Un homme et une femme Claude Lelouch   France
The Birds, the Bees and the Italians Signore e signori Pietro Germi   Italy
  France
1967 Blowup Michelangelo Antonioni   United Kingdom
  USA
  Italy
1968 No awards this year because of the May 1968 events in France.
1969 If.... Lindsay Anderson   United Kingdom
1970s
1970 MASH Robert Altman   USA
1971 The Go-Between Joseph Losey   United Kingdom
1972 The Working Class Goes to Heaven § La classe operaia va in paradiso Elio Petri   Italy
The Mattei Affair § Il caso Mattei Francesco Rosi   Italy
1973 The Hireling Alan Bridges   United Kingdom
Scarecrow Jerry Schatzberg   USA
1974 The Conversation Francis Ford Coppola   USA
Awarded as "Palme d'Or"
1975 Chronicle of the Years of Fire Chronique des années de braise Mohammed Lakhdar-Hamina   Algeria
1976 Taxi Driver Martin Scorsese   USA
1977 Padre Padrone Paolo and Vittorio Taviani   Italy
1978 The Tree of Wooden Clogs § L'albero degli zoccoli Ermanno Olmi   Italy
1979 Apocalypse Now Francis Ford Coppola   USA
The Tin Drum Die Blechtrommel Volker Schlöndorff   West Germany
  Poland
  France
1980s
1980 All That Jazz Bob Fosse   USA
Kagemusha Kagemusha / 影武者 Akira Kurosawa   Japan
1981 Man of Iron Człowiek z żelaza Andrzej Wajda   Poland
1982 Missing § Costa-Gavras   USA
The Way § Yol Yılmaz Güney and Şerif Gören   Turkey
1983 The Ballad of Narayama Narayama bushikō / 楢山節考 Shohei Imamura   Japan
1984 Paris, Texas § Wim Wenders   West Germany
  France
  United Kingdom
  USA
1985 When Father Was Away on Business § Otats na službenom putu / Отац на службеном путу Emir Kusturica   SFR Yugoslavia
1986 The Mission Roland Joffé   United Kingdom
1987 Under the Sun of Satan § Sous le soleil de Satan Maurice Pialat   France
1988 Pelle the Conqueror Pelle erobreren Bille August   Denmark
  Sweden
1989 Sex, Lies, and Videotape Steven Soderbergh   USA
1990s
1990 Wild at Heart David Lynch   USA
1991 Barton Fink § Joel and Ethan Coen   USA
1992 The Best Intentions Den goda viljan Bille August   Sweden
1993 Farewell My Concubine Bàwáng bié jī / 霸王別姬 Chen Kaige   China
The Piano Jane Campion   New Zealand
  Australia
  France
1994 Pulp Fiction Quentin Tarantino   USA
1995 Underground Podzemlje / Подземље Emir Kusturica   FR Yugoslavia
  Germany
  France
  Hungary
  Czech Republic
  Bulgaria
1996 Secrets & Lies Mike Leigh   United Kingdom
  France
1997 Taste of Cherry Ta'm-e gīlās / طعم گيلاس Abbas Kiarostami   Iran
The Eel Unagi / うなぎ Shohei Imamura   Japan
1998 Eternity and a Day § Mia aio̱nióti̱ta kai mia méra / Μια αιωνιότητα και μια μέρα Theodoros Angelopoulos   Greece
1999 Rosetta § Jean-Pierre Dardenne and Luc Dardenne   Belgium
  France
2000s
2000 Dancer in the Dark Lars von Trier   Denmark
2001 The Son's Room La stanza del figlio Nanni Moretti   Italy
2002 The Pianist Roman Polanski   France
  Germany
  Poland
  United Kingdom
2003 Elephant Gus Van Sant   USA
2004 Fahrenheit 9/11 Michael Moore   USA
2005 The Child L'enfant Jean-Pierre Dardenne and Luc Dardenne   Belgium
2006 The Wind That Shakes the Barley § Ken Loach   Ireland
  United Kingdom
  Germany
  Italy
  Spain
  France
  Belgium
  Switzerland
2007 4 Months, 3 Weeks and 2 Days 4 luni, 3 săptămâni şi 2 zile Cristian Mungiu   Romania
2008 The Class § Entre les murs Laurent Cantet   France
2009 The White Ribbon Das weiße Band, Eine deutsche Kindergeschichte Michael Haneke   Austria
  France
  Germany
  Italy
2010s
2010 Uncle Boonmee Who Can Recall His Past Lives Lung Bunmi Raluek Chat / ลุงบุญมีระลึกชาติ Apichatpong Weerasethakul   Thailand
2011 The Tree of Life Terrence Malick   USA
2012 Amour Michael Haneke   France
  Austria
  Germany
2013 Blue Is the Warmest Colour § La Vie d'Adèle: Chapitres 1 et 2 Abdellatif Kechiche and Adèle Exarchopoulos and Léa Seydoux   France
  Belgium
  Spain
2014 Winter Sleep Kış Uykusu Nuri Bilge Ceylan   Turkey
2015 Dheepan Jacques Audiard   France
2016 I, Daniel Blake Ken Loach   United Kingdom
  France
2017 The Square Ruben Östlund   Sweden
  Germany
  France
  Denmark
2018 Shoplifters Manbiki kazoku / 万引き家族 Hirokazu Kore-eda   Japan
2019 Parasite § Gisaengchung / 기생충 Bong Joon-ho   South Korea
§ Denotes unanimous win
The Palme d'Or for Union Pacific was awarded in retrospect at the 2002 festival. The festival's debut was to take place in 1939, but it was cancelled due to World War II.[12] The organisers of the 2002 festival presented part of the original 1939 selection to a professional jury of six members. The films were: Goodbye Mr. Chips, La Piste du Nord, Lenin in 1918, The Four Feathers, The Wizard of Oz, Union Pacific, and Boefje.

Multiple award winners

Eight directors or co-directors have won the award twice:[13]

Multiple nominations

Honorary Palme d'Or

In 1997, on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Festival, the Cannes jury awarded a "Palme des Palmes" for the first time.[14]

Year Recipient Profession Nationality of recipient
1997 Ingmar Bergman[14] Director/Screenwriter Sweden

In 2002 the festival began to sporadically award a non-competitive Honorary Palme d'Or to directors or actors who had achieved a notable body of work but who had never won a competitive Palme d'Or.[15]

Year Recipient Profession Nationality of recipient
2002 Woody Allen Director/Actor/Screenwriter United States
2003 Jeanne Moreau Actress France
2005 Catherine Deneuve Actress France
2007 Jane Fonda Actress United States
2008 Manoel de Oliveira Director/Screenwriter Portugal
2009 Clint Eastwood Actor/Director United States
2011 Jean-Paul Belmondo Actor France
Bernardo Bertolucci Director/Screenwriter Italy
2015 Agnès Varda[16][17] Director/Screenwriter France
2016 Jean-Pierre Léaud[18] Actor France
2017 Jeffrey Katzenberg[19] Producer United States
2019 Alain Delon[20] Actor France

In 2018, the Cannes jury also awarded a "Special Palme d'Or" for the first time.[21]

Year Film Original title Director(s) Country Ref(s)
2018 The Image Book Le Livre d'image Jean-Luc Godard   Switzerland
  France
[21]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "A brief history of the Palme d'or". Festival-cannes.com. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
  2. ^ "Why the Cannes Film Festival matters (and how to pronounce it)". Vox. Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  3. ^ "Cannes 2017: Sweden's Ruben Östlund wins Palme d'Or for 'The Square' - France 24". France 24. 2017-05-28. Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  4. ^ Hammond, Pete (2016-05-11). "Cannes Vs Oscar: Why The Palme d'Or And Best Picture Academy Award Don't Make A Perfect Match". Deadline. Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  5. ^ "Histoire de la Palme d'or, de Lucienne Lazon à Chopard" (in French). Retrieved 2017-05-31.
  6. ^ "Cannes: 5 unforgettable Palme d'Or winners". 2015-05-24. Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  7. ^ a b "Director Abdellatif Kechiche: Why I'm Selling My Palme d'Or (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  8. ^ "Festival de Cannes - Regulations". Festival-cannes.fr. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
  9. ^ "Conference of the Jury of 66th Festival de Cannes". Festival de Cannes. 2013. Archived from the original on 30 December 2013. Retrieved 27 May 2013.(video unavailable)
  10. ^ "A brief history of the Palme d'Or - Festival de Cannes 2013 (International Film Festival)". Festival-cannes.com. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016.
  11. ^ Xan Brooks (25 May 2014). "Cannes festival ready for shut-eye after Winter Sleep wins Palme d'Or". The Guardian. Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
  12. ^ McCarthy, Todd (May 26, 2002). "'Pianist' tickles Cannes". Variety. Retrieved May 24, 2018.
  13. ^ Lodge, Guy; Gleiberman, Owen (22 May 2016). "Cannes: Ken Loach Wins His Second Palme d'Or for 'I, Daniel Blake'". Variety. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
  14. ^ a b Rooney, David (9 April 1997). "Bergman to get special Cannes salute". Variety. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
  15. ^ "A Honorary Palme at the opening ceremony of the Festival de Cannes". Cannes Film Festival. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
  16. ^ "Director Agnes Varda to receive honorary Palme d'Or". BBC. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
  17. ^ "Agnes Varda to receive honorary Palme d'Or". RogerEbert.com. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
  18. ^ Szalai, Georg. "Cannes: Jean-Pierre Leaud to Get Honorary Palme d'Or". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
  19. ^ Richford, Rhonda (19 May 2017). "Cannes: Jeffrey Katzenberg Feted With Honorary Palme d'Or". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 26 May 2017.
  20. ^ "Cannes: Alain Delon to Receive Honorary Palme d'Or". Variety. 17 April 2019. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
  21. ^ a b Steve, Pond (19 May 2018). "'Shoplifters' Wins Palme d'Or at 2018 Cannes Film Festival". SF Gate. Retrieved 19 May 2018.

External links