Cannes (/kæn, kɑːn/ KAN, KAHN, French: [kan] , locally [ˈkanə]; Occitan: Canas) is a city located on the French Riviera. It is a commune located in the Alpes-Maritimes department, and host city of the annual Cannes Film Festival, Midem, and Cannes Lions International Festival of Creativity.[3] The city is known for its association with the rich and famous, its luxury hotels and restaurants, and for several conferences.

Cannes
Canas (Occitan)
A view of Cannes
A view of Cannes
Flag of Cannes
Coat of arms of Cannes
Location of Cannes
Map
Cannes is located in France
Cannes
Cannes
Cannes is located in Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
Cannes
Cannes
Coordinates: 43°33′05″N 7°00′46″E / 43.5513°N 7.0128°E / 43.5513; 7.0128
CountryFrance
RegionProvence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
DepartmentAlpes-Maritimes
ArrondissementGrasse
CantonCannes-1 and 2
IntercommunalityCA Cannes Pays de Lérins
Government
 • Mayor (2020–2026) David Lisnard[1] (LR)
Area
1
19.62 km2 (7.58 sq mi)
Population
 (2021)[2]
73,255
 • Density3,700/km2 (9,700/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Cannois (masculine)
Cannoise (feminine)
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
06029 /06400
Elevation0–260 m (0–853 ft)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

History edit

By the 2nd century BC, the Ligurian Oxybii established a settlement here known as Aegitna (Ancient Greek: Αἴγιτνα).[4] Historians are unsure what the name means, but the connection to Greek αἴγες "waves, surf" seems evident. The second element could be compared to the Cretan and Thessalian towns of Itanos (Ἴτανος) and Iton (Ἴτων); also phonetically close is the Aetolian town of Aegitium (Αἱγἱτιον).[5] The area was a fishing village used as a port of call between the Lérins Islands.

 
Cannes seen from Spot Satellite

In 154 BC, it became the scene of violent but quick conflict between the troops of Quintus Opimius and the Oxybii.[6]

In the 10th century, the town was known as Canua.[7] The name may derive from "canna", a reed. Canua was probably the site of a small Ligurian port, and later a Roman outpost on Le Suquet hill, suggested by Roman tombs discovered here. Le Suquet housed an 11th-century tower, which overlooked the swamps where the city now stands. Most of the ancient activity, especially protection, was on the Lérins Islands, and the history of Cannes is closely tied to the history of the islands.

An attack by the Saracens in 891, who remained until the end of the 10th century, devastated the country around Canua. The insecurity of the Lérins islands forced the monks to settle on the mainland, at the Suquet. Construction of a castle in 1035 fortified the city then known as Cannes, and at the end of the 11th century construction was started on two towers on the Lérins islands. One took a century to build.

Around 1530, Cannes detached from the monks who had controlled the city for hundreds of years and became independent.

During the 18th century, both the Spanish and British tried to gain control of the Lérins Islands but were chased away by the French. The islands were later controlled by many, such as Jean-Honoré Alziary and the Bishop of Fréjus. They had many different purposes: in the middle of the 19th century, one served as a hospital for soldiers wounded in the Crimean War.

Henry Brougham, 1st Baron Brougham and Vaux bought land at the Croix des Gardes "about the year 1838, when it was little more than a fishing village on a picturesque coast" and constructed the villa Eleonore-Louise; Brougham's work to improve living conditions attracted the English aristocracy, who also built winter residences.[8][9]

The 19th century saw the modernization of Cannes, spearheaded by Marie de Lametz and her son Prince Charles III to follow the successes of nearby Nice and the successful gambling industry in Bad Homburg. After several failures in 1850s, the late 1860s saw an expansion of casino, villas, hotels, roads and railway (the distance from Paris to Cannes reduced to 23 hours).[10]

At the end of the 19th century, several more railways were completed, which prompted the arrival of streetcars. In Cannes, projects such as the Boulevard Carnot and the rue d'Antibes were carried out. After the closure of the Casino des Fleurs (hôtel Gallia), a luxury establishment was built for the rich winter clientele, the Casino Municipal next to the pier Albert-Edouard. This casino was demolished and replaced by the new Palace in 1979.

In the 20th century, new luxury hotels such as the Carlton, Majestic, Martinez, and JW Marriott Cannes were built. The city was modernised with a sports centre, a post office, and schools. There were fewer British and German tourists after the First World War, but more Americans. Winter tourism gave way to summer tourism, and the summer casino at Palm Beach was constructed.

In 1931, Karan Singh the crown prince of Jammu and Kashmir was born at the Martinez Hotel.[11]

The city council had the idea of starting an international film festival shortly after World War II.[12]

On 3 November 2011, it hosted the 2011 G20 summit.[13]

In 2021, Cannes was designated as the City of Film by the UNESCO Creative Cities Network.[14]

Climate edit

Cannes has a subtropical Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification Csa) and the city enjoys 11 hours of sunshine per day during summer (July), while in winter (December to February) the weather is mild. Both seasons see a relatively low rainfall and most rain occurs during October and November when over 100 mm (3.9 in) falls.

Cannes summers are long and warm, with summer daytime temperatures regularly hitting 30 °C (86 °F), while average temperatures are about 25 °C (77 °F). Temperatures remain high from June to September, the busiest time of the year.

Mean temperatures drop below 10 °C (50 °F) for only three months of the year (December to February). The spring and autumn are also warm, although more suited to those who prefer slightly cooler weather.

The record high temperature was 39.2 °C (102.6 °F) on 19 July 2023, while the record low temperature was −12.0 °C (10.4 °F) on 9 January 1985.[15]

Climate data for Cannes (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1949–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 22.9
(73.2)
26.0
(78.8)
27.9
(82.2)
27.6
(81.7)
31.7
(89.1)
37.3
(99.1)
39.2
(102.6)
38.3
(100.9)
35.0
(95.0)
31.4
(88.5)
25.8
(78.4)
23.4
(74.1)
39.2
(102.6)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 13.6
(56.5)
13.9
(57.0)
16.0
(60.8)
18.2
(64.8)
21.9
(71.4)
25.5
(77.9)
28.2
(82.8)
28.6
(83.5)
25.3
(77.5)
21.3
(70.3)
17.1
(62.8)
14.3
(57.7)
20.3
(68.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 8.6
(47.5)
8.8
(47.8)
11.0
(51.8)
13.5
(56.3)
17.2
(63.0)
20.9
(69.6)
23.5
(74.3)
23.7
(74.7)
20.3
(68.5)
16.7
(62.1)
12.5
(54.5)
9.4
(48.9)
15.5
(59.9)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 3.7
(38.7)
3.7
(38.7)
6.0
(42.8)
8.7
(47.7)
12.6
(54.7)
16.3
(61.3)
18.7
(65.7)
18.8
(65.8)
15.4
(59.7)
12.1
(53.8)
7.9
(46.2)
4.6
(40.3)
10.7
(51.3)
Record low °C (°F) −12.0
(10.4)
−9.2
(15.4)
−9.9
(14.2)
−0.5
(31.1)
2.3
(36.1)
7.4
(45.3)
8.8
(47.8)
10.5
(50.9)
5.3
(41.5)
0.9
(33.6)
−3.4
(25.9)
−5.6
(21.9)
−12.0
(10.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 82.5
(3.25)
57.0
(2.24)
60.2
(2.37)
78.2
(3.08)
51.8
(2.04)
32.5
(1.28)
18.7
(0.74)
23.9
(0.94)
92.1
(3.63)
134.3
(5.29)
145.4
(5.72)
104.6
(4.12)
881.2
(34.7)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 5.9 5.3 5.7 6.3 5.4 3.6 1.8 2.7 4.8 7.5 8.5 6.4 63.9
Average relative humidity (%) 72 70 70 70 73 74 72 72 74 75 74 72 72.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 148.1 164.0 216.7 227.3 274.6 312.5 346.5 320.1 254.2 192.7 149.6 136.5 2,742.7
Source 1: Meteociel[15]
Source 2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity 1961–1990)[16][17]

Population edit

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1793 2,626—    
1800 2,896+1.41%
1806 2,804−0.54%
1821 3,982+2.37%
1831 3,994+0.03%
1836 3,997+0.02%
1841 3,381−3.29%
1846 4,720+6.90%
1851 5,557+3.32%
1856 5,860+1.07%
1861 7,557+5.22%
1866 9,618+4.94%
1872 10,144+0.89%
1876 14,022+8.43%
1881 19,385+6.69%
1886 19,959+0.59%
1891 19,983+0.02%
1896 22,959+2.82%
1901 30,420+5.79%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1906 29,365−0.70%
1911 29,656+0.20%
1921 30,907+0.41%
1926 42,427+6.54%
1931 47,259+2.18%
1936 49,032+0.74%
1946 45,548−0.73%
1954 50,192+1.22%
1962 58,079+1.84%
1968 67,152+2.45%
1975 70,527+0.70%
1982 72,259+0.35%
1990 68,676−0.63%
1999 67,304−0.22%
2007 70,829+0.64%
2012 73,603+0.77%
2017 73,868+0.07%
2021 73,255−0.21%
Source: EHESS[18] and INSEE (1968-2021)[19][20]

Landmarks edit

The Promenade de la Croisette is the waterfront avenue with palm trees. La Croisette is known for picturesque beaches, restaurants, cafés, boutiques, and luxury hotels. Le Suquet, the old town, provides a good view of La Croisette. The fortified tower and the Chapelle Sainte-Anne house the Musée des Explorations du monde. A distinctive building in Cannes is the Russian Orthodox church.

Hotels edit

Villas edit

Cannes of the 19th century can still be seen in its grand villas, built to reflect the wealth and standing of their owners and inspired by anything from medieval castles to Roman villas. They are not open to the public. Lord Brougham's Italianate Villa Eléonore Louise (one of the first in Cannes) was built between 1835 and 1839. Also known as the Quartier des Anglais, this is the oldest residential area in Cannes. Another landmark is the Villa Fiésole (known today as the Villa Domergue) designed by Jean-Gabriel Domergue in the style of Fiesole, near Florence, which may be visited on appointment.

Île Sainte-Marguerite edit

 
St. Marguerite Island

It took the Man in the Iron Mask 11 years to leave the tiny, forested St Marguerite Island. The mysterious individual was believed to be of noble blood, but his identity has never been proven. His cell can be visited in the Fort of St Marguerite, now renamed the Musée de la Mer (Museum of the Sea). This museum also houses discoveries from shipwrecks off the island, including Roman (1st century BC) and Saracen (10th century AD) ceramics.

Île Saint-Honorat edit

 
St. Honorat Island

Cistercian monks are the only inhabitants of the smaller, southern St Honorat Island. Monks have inhabited the island since AD 410 and, at the height of their powers, owned Cannes, Mougins, and Vallauris. Medieval vestiges remain in the stark church, which is open to the public, and in the ruins of the 11th-century monastery on the seashore. The monks inhabit the Lérins Abbey and divide their time between prayer and producing red and white wines.

Museums edit

The Musée d'Art et d'Histoire de Provence houses artifacts from prehistoric to present, in an 18th-century mansion. The Musée de la Castre has objects from the Pacific Atolls, Peruvian relics, and Mayan pottery. Other venues include the Musée de la Marine, Musée de la Mer, Musée de la Photographie and Musée International de la Parfumerie.

Theatre and music edit

Small venues stage productions and host short sketches during the annual International Actors' Performance Festival (Festival Performance d'Acteur). [21] Local theaters include the Espace Miramar[22] and the Alexandre III.[23][24]

Festivals and show events edit

 
Festival d'art pyrotechnique de Cannes 2021
  • The Cannes Film Festival founded in 1946 is held annually, usually in May, at the Palais des Festivals et des Congrès.
  • The Cannes Lions International Festival of Creativity is a global event and awards show for those working in advertising and related fields, held annually in June.
  • The Festival d'art pyrotechnique de Cannes is an annual fireworks competition held in the summer at the Bay of Cannes.
  • Midem, the foremost trade show for the music industry.
  • MIPIM, the world's largest property-related trade show.
  • Carnival on the Riviera is an annual parade through the streets to mark the 21 days before Shrove Tuesday.
  • The International Festival of Games is a festival of bridge, belote, backgammon, chess, draughts, tarot, and more (February).
  • Cannes Yachting Festival is an event for boating enthusiasts in the Vieux Port (September).
  • The International Actors' Performance Festival: comedy sketches and performances by fringe artists
  • The International Luxury Travel Market brings together under one roof the top international luxury travel providers and suppliers from all around the world.[25]
  • The Global Champions Tour showjumping league has an annual event in the ports of Cannes.
  • MIPCOM and MIPTV, held in October and April respectively, are the world's most important trade markets for the television industry.
  • The Pan-African Film Festival, held in early April and featuring films from the African diaspora.

Economy edit

 
The Cannes Mandelieu aero centre

The area around Cannes has developed into a high-tech cluster. The technopolis of Sophia Antipolis lies in the hills beyond Cannes. The Film Festival is a major event for the industry which takes place every year in May. In addition, Cannes hosts other major annual events such as the MIPIM, MIPTV, MIDEM, Cannes Lions, and the NRJ Music Awards.[26] There is an annual television festival in the last week in September.

The economic environment is based on tourism, business fairs, trade, and aviation. Cannes has 6,500 companies, of which 3,000 are traders, artisans, and service providers. In 2006, 421 new companies were registered.

Cannes hosts the Cannes Mandelieu Space Center, headquarters of Thales Alenia Space, the first European satellite manufacturer.

Sport edit

Cannes is home to the football side AS Cannes, which currently plays in the French third division. The club is notable for having launched the professional career of Zinedine Zidane.[27]

The city hosts the Jumping International de Cannes international horse jumping event every June.[28]

Cannes women's volleyball team RC Cannes has been very successful (won twenty French Championships and two CEV Champions League).[29]

Transport edit

Nice Côte d'Azur Airport edit

Located 24 km (15 mi) from Cannes, Nice Côte d'Azur Airport. The smaller Cannes – Mandelieu Airport is nearby.

Rail edit

Cannes station is the main railway station for the city of Cannes. It is situated on the Marseille–Ventimiglia railway.

There are several rail services including: TGVs from Paris Gare de Lyon to Nice, a TER from Marseille St Charles to Nice, a TER service from Cannes to Les Arcs,and a TER service from Grasse/Cannes to Ventimiglia (Italy). The formers occasional Thello (Italian train) from Marseille St Charles to Milan no longer operates since December 2021. [30]

Cannes-la-Bocca station is both a passenger station and a goods/maintenance depot. It is situated alongside the beach and has a connection to local ferries. There are three more stations on the line to Grasse: Le Bosquet, La Frayère, and Ranguin.

Bus edit

Coach services arrive at the Gare Routière de Cannes, in the centre of the city, near the Town Hall. Companies from abroad include Eurolines and Agence Phocéens. Regional services are by Rapides Côte d'Azur and CTM, with services from Nice and Grasse/Mandelieu respectively. Local bus services are provided by Bus Azur.

Ferry edit

Ferries are available in the Nice harbour from Bastia and Calvi in Corsica, with services provided by SNCM Ferryterranée and Corsica Ferries. From Bastia, the journey is 4 hours, and 45 minutes on conventional ferries, and 3 hours, and 40 minutes on express ferries, while from Calvi, conventional vessels take 3 hours, and 45 minutes, and express vessels take 2 hours and 45 minutes. An average of four ferries a day sail on these routes, with more during summer.

Port edit

Cannes has 2 marinas – Vieux Port de Cannes (with 800 berths up to 145 m in length)[31] beside the Palais des Festivals and Port Pierre Canto at the far end of the Croisette. Vieux Port is the main port and is used for cruise stopovers and yacht charters.

Panorama of Cannes waterfront, from which many ferries can be caught

International relations edit

Cannes is twinned with:

Cannes has friendship pacts with:

Notable people edit

 
Catherine Guillouard, 2017
 
Gérard Philipe, 1955
 
Sarah Bouhaddi, 2014
 
Jean-Baptiste Dumas
 
Alexis de Tocqueville, 1850

Public service edit

The Arts edit

Sport edit

Died in Cannes edit

Gallery edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "Répertoire national des élus: les maires" (in French). data.gouv.fr, Plateforme ouverte des données publiques françaises. 6 June 2023.
  2. ^ "Populations légales 2021". The National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies. 28 December 2023.
  3. ^ "Major Events in Cannes". Ville de Cannes. Retrieved 11 April 2024.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  4. ^ "Aegitna". Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft (in German). Vol. I. 1893. p. 477.
  5. ^ William Smith: Dictionary 1of Greek and Roman Geography, illustrated by numerous engravings on wood. Walton and Maberly, London 1854, s. v.Aegitium.
  6. ^ Reported in Polybius, Histories, 33.10.
  7. ^ Meeks, Edward; Monsigny, Jacqueline (2007). Le roman du festival de Cannes (in French). Monaco: Rocher. p. 19. ISBN 978-2268061931.
  8. ^ "Historian hails Edinburgh-born slavery abolitionist who 'invented' Cannes". edinburghnews.scotsman.com. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
  9. ^ "Cadillac Terms and Definitions A-C". Cadillacdatabase.net. 1996. Archived from the original on 11 January 2012. Retrieved 1 May 2012.
  10. ^ Miles, Jonathan (2023). "Chapter 4". Once Upon a Time World: The Dark and Sparkling Story of the French Riviera. Atlantic Books. ISBN 978-1-83895-342-3.
  11. ^ "Karan Singh recalls his French Connection". NetIndian. 20 March 2010. Retrieved 22 May 2021.
  12. ^ "1st Cannes Film Festival". Archived from the original on October 20, 2013. Retrieved 20 October 2013.
  13. ^ "Previous Summits". G20. Retrieved 11 April 2024.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  14. ^ "Cannes". Creative Cities Network. UNESCO. Archived from the original on 27 October 2023.
  15. ^ a b "1991–2020 Normals and Records – Station: Cannes (06)". Meteociel.fr. Retrieved 23 July 2023.
  16. ^ "Normes et records 1961-1990: Cannes – Mandelieu (06) – altitude 2m" (in French). Infoclimat. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
  17. ^ "World Daily High and Low 24 Hour Temperatures with Maximum World Rainfall in Fahrenheit and Inches".
  18. ^ Des villages de Cassini aux communes d'aujourd'hui: Commune data sheet Cannes, EHESS (in French).
  19. ^ Population en historique depuis 1968
  20. ^ [1], INSEE
  21. ^ "A Propos" (in French). Cannes Big Perf. Retrieved 11 April 2024.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  22. ^ "Espace Miramar" (in French). Site Officiel de la Ville de Cannes. Retrieved 11 April 2024.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  23. ^ "Théâtre Alexandre III" (in French). Site Officiel de la Ville de Cannes. Retrieved 11 April 2024.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  24. ^ "Théâtre de la Licorne" (in French). Site Officiel de la Ville de Cannes. Retrieved 11 April 2024.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  25. ^ "ILTM Portfolio - Creating Moments that Matter". ILTM. Reed Exhibitions Limited. Retrieved 7 April 2023.
  26. ^ "Major events in Cannes (French Riviera) – Program & Information". cannes-destination.com. Archived from the original on 26 August 2018. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
  27. ^ "Le Club" (in French). AS Cannes. Retrieved 11 April 2024.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  28. ^ "Longines Global Champions Tour of Cannes" (in French). Jumping Cannes. Retrieved 11 April 2024.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  29. ^ "Histoire & Palmarès" (in French). Racing Club de Cannes. Retrieved 11 April 2024.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  30. ^ "Thello | Buy Trenitalia Thello train tickets".
  31. ^ "Vieux Port de Cannes – Book a berth now | MarinaReservation.com". marinareservation.com. Retrieved 10 February 2021.
  32. ^ "British towns twinned with French towns [via WaybackMachine.com]". Archant Community Media Ltd. Archived from the original on 5 July 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
  33. ^ "International Exchange". List of Affiliation Partners within Prefectures. Council of Local Authorities for International Relations (CLAIR). Archived from the original on 13 January 2016. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
  34. ^ Pessotto, Lorenzo. "International Affairs – Twinnings and Agreements". International Affairs Service in cooperation with Servizio Telematico Pubblico. City of Torino. Archived from the original on 18 June 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
  35. ^ "Brougham and Vaux, Henry Peter Brougham, 1st Baron" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 4 (11th ed.). 1911. pp. 652–655.
  36. ^ "Glenelg, Charles Grant" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 12 (11th ed.). 1911. p. 121.
  37. ^ Veitch, John (1911). "Cousin, Victor" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 7 (11th ed.). pp. 330–335.
  38. ^ "Dumas, Jean Baptiste André" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 8 (11th ed.). 1911. pp. 657–658.
  39. ^ Saintsbury, George (1911). "Mérimée, Prosper" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 18 (11th ed.). pp. 166–167.
  40. ^ "Tocqueville, Alexis Henri Charles Maurice Clerel, Comte de" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 26 (11th ed.). 1911. p. 1043.
  41. ^ "Blanc, Louis" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 4 (11th ed.). 1911. p. 39.
  42. ^ "Monier-Williams, Sir Monier" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 18 (11th ed.). 1911. p. 722.
  43. ^ "Campbell, John Francis" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 5 (11th ed.). 1911. p. 130.
  44. ^ Pollock, Frederick (1911). "Maine, Sir Henry James Sumner" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 17 (11th ed.). pp. 432–433.
  45. ^ Fyfe, Henry Hamilton (1911). "Tricoupis, Charilaos" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 27 (11th ed.). p. 267.
  46. ^ Chisholm, Hugh (1911). "Devonshire, Earls and Dukes of" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 8 (11th ed.). pp. 130–132, see page 131. Spencer Compton Cavendish, 8th duke (1833–1908)...
  47. ^ "Godard, Benjamin Louis Paul" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 12 (11th ed.). 1911. p. 170.

Further reading edit

Published in the 19th century
Published in the 20th century

External links edit