Jammu and Kashmir, officially known as the Princely State of Kashmir and Jammu, was a princely state during the Company rule from 1846 to 1858 as well as the British Raj in India from 1858 to 1952. The princely state was created after the First Anglo-Sikh War, from the territories that had earlier been in the Sikh Empire. After the Partition of India in 1947, roughly a third of the state came under Pakistani control, and the rest remains disputed under Indian control. The India–Pakistan dispute regarding the accession remains unresolved.
Princely State of Kashmir and Jammu
|Common languages||Kashmiri (Koshur), Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu), Dogri, Ladakhi, Balti, Shina, and others|
|Religion||Hinduism (state religion), Islam (majority), Sikhism, Buddhism, Jainism|
• 16 March 1846 – 30 June 1857
|Gulab Singh (first)|
• 23 September 1925 – 17 November 1952
|Hari Singh (last)|
• Princely state established
|22 October 1947|
• Accession to the Indian Union
|26–27 October 1947|
• Ceasefire (cession of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan)
|1 January 1949|
• Constitutional state of India
|17 November 1952|
|85,885 sq mi (222,440 km2)|
|Today part of||India (Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh) |
Pakistan (Azad Kashmir, Gilgit-Baltistan)
China (Aksai Chin, Trans-Karakoram Tract)
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2018)
According to the census reports of 1911, 1921 and 1931, the administration was organised as follows:
- Jammu province: Districts of Jammu, Jasrota (Kathua), Udhampur, Reasi and Mirpur.
- Kashmir province: Districts of Kashmir South (Anantnag), Kashmir North (Baramulla) and Muzaffarabad.
- Frontier districts: Wazarats of Ladakh and Gilgit.
- Internal jagirs: Poonch, Bhaderwah and Chenani.
In the 1941 census, further details of the frontier districts were given:
- Ladakh wazarat: Tehsils of Leh, Skardu and Kargil.
- Gilgit wazarat: Tehsils of Gilgit and Astore
- Frontier illaqas: (under the Gilgit Agency) Punial, Ishkoman, Yasin, Kuh-Ghizer, Hunza, Nagar, Chilas.
Prime Ministers (Jammu & Kashmir)Edit
|#||Name||Took Office||Left Office|
|1||Raja Sir Daljit Singh||1917||1921|
|2||Raja Hari Singh||1925||1927|
|3||Sir Albion Banerjee||January 1927||March 1929|
|4||G. E. C. Wakefield||1929||1931|
|5||Hari Krishan Kaul||1931||1932|
|6||Elliot James Dowell Colvin||1932||1936|
|7||Sir Barjor J. Dalal||1936||1936|
|8||Sir N. Gopalaswami Ayyangar||1937||July 1943|
|9||Kailash Narain Haksar||July 1943||February 1944|
|10||Sir B. N. Rau||February 1944||28 June 1945|
|11||Ram Chandra Kak||28 June 1945||11 August 1947|
|12||Janak Singh||11 August 1947||15 October 1947|
|13||Mehr Chand Mahajan||15 October 1947||5 March 1948|
|14||Sheikh Abdullah||5 March 1948||8 August 1953|
- ^ David P. Henige (2004). Princely States of India: A Guide to Chronology and Rulers. Orchid Press. p. 99. ISBN 978-974-524-049-0.
- ^ Rahman, Tariq (2011). From Hindi to Urdu : a social and political history. Orient Blackswan Private Ltd. p. 201. ISBN 978-81-250-4248-8. OCLC 757810159.
- ^ "Kashmir and Jammu", Imperial Gazetteer of India, Secretary of State for India in Council: Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 15: 71–, 1908
- ^ a b Karim, Maj Gen Afsir (2013), Kashmir The Troubled Frontiers, Lancer Publishers LLC, pp. 29–32, ISBN 978-1-935501-76-3
- ^ Behera, Demystifying Kashmir 2007, p. 15.
- ^ a b Copland, Ian (1981), "Islam and Political Mobilization in Kashmir, 1931–34", Pacific Affairs, 54 (2): 228–259, doi:10.2307/2757363, JSTOR 2757363
- Behera, Navnita Chadha (2007), Demystifying Kashmir, Pearson Education India, ISBN 978-8131708460
- Das Gupta, Jyoti Bhusan (2012), Jammu and Kashmir, Springer, ISBN 978-94-011-9231-6
- Birdwood, Lord (1956), Two Nations and Kashmir, R. Hale
- Huttenback, Robert A. (1961), "Gulab Singh and the Creation of the Dogra State of Jammu, Kashmir, and Ladakh" (PDF), The Journal of Asian Studies, 20 (4): 477–488, doi:10.2307/2049956, JSTOR 2049956, archived from the original (PDF) on 15 August 2016
- Mahajan, Mehr Chand (1963), Looking Back: The Autobiography of Mehr Chand Mahajan, Former Chief Justice of India, Asia Publishing House
- Major, Andrew J. (1996), Return to Empire: Punjab under the Sikhs and British in the Mid-nineteenth Century Limited, New Delhi: Sterling Publishers, ISBN 81-207-1806-2
- Major, Andrew J. (1981), Return to Empire: Punjab under the Sikhs and British in the Mid-nineteenth Century, Australian National University, doi:10.25911/5d74e5bedfa9d
- Noorani, A. G. (2011), Article 370: A Constitutional History of Jammu and Kashmir, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-807408-3
- Panikkar, K. M. (1930). Gulab Singh. London: Martin Hopkinson Ltd.
- Raghavan, Srinath (2010), War and Peace in Modern India, Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 101–, ISBN 978-1-137-00737-7[permanent dead link]
- Rai, Mridu (2004), Hindu Rulers, Muslim Subjects: Islam, Rights, and the History of Kashmir, C. Hurst & Co, ISBN 1850656614
- Schofield, Victoria (2003) [First published in 2000], Kashmir in Conflict, London and New York: I. B. Taurus & Co, ISBN 1860648983
- Singh, Bawa Satinder (1971), "Raja Gulab Singh's Role in the First Anglo-Sikh War", Modern Asian Studies, 5 (1): 35–59, doi:10.1017/s0026749x00002845, JSTOR 311654, S2CID 145500298
This article incorporates text from the Imperial Gazetteer of India, a publication now in the public domain.