Studio Ghibli

Studio Ghibli Inc. (Japanese: 株式会社スタジオジブリ, Hepburn: Kabushiki-gaisha Sutajio Jiburi) is a Japanese animation film studio headquartered in Koganei, Tokyo.[1] The studio is best known for its animated feature films, and has also produced several short subjects, television commercials, and one television film. The studio's mascot and most recognizable symbol is a character named Totoro, who is a giant cat-like spirit from the 1988 anime film My Neighbor Totoro. Among Studio Ghibli's highest-grossing films are Spirited Away (2001), Howl's Moving Castle (2004) and Ponyo (2008).[2] The studio was founded on June 15, 1985 by directors Hayao Miyazaki and Isao Takahata and producer Toshio Suzuki, after the successful performance of Topcraft's Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind (1984). It has also collaborated with video game studios on the visual development of several video games.[3]

Studio Ghibli Inc.
Native name
Kabushiki gaisha Sutajio Jiburi
TypeKabushiki gaisha
IndustryMotion pictures
Video games
TV commercials
FoundedJune 15, 1985; 36 years ago (1985-06-15)
in Tokyo, Japan
Area served
Key people
Koji Hoshino
Kiyofumi Nakajima
Hayao Miyazaki
Toshio Suzuki
(Executive director)
ProductsAnimated feature films, television films, commercials, live-action films
¥1.426 billion (2011)
Total assets¥15.77 billion (2011)
Number of employees
150 (2016)
ParentTokuma Shoten (1985–2005)
Independent (2005–present)

Five of the studio's films are among the ten highest-grossing anime feature films made in Japan. Spirited Away is second, grossing 31.68 billion yen in Japan and over US$380 million worldwide, and Princess Mononoke is fourth, grossing 20.18 billion yen. Many of their works have won the Animage Grand Prix award. Four have won the Japan Academy Prize for Animation of the Year. Five of the studio's films have received Academy Award nominations. Spirited Away won the 2002 Golden Bear and the 2003 Academy Award for Best Animated Feature.[4]

On August 3, 2014, Studio Ghibli temporarily suspended production, following the retirement of Miyazaki. In February 2017, Suzuki announced that Miyazaki had come out of retirement again to direct a new feature film titled How Do You Live?, which he intended to be his last film.[5][6]


The name "Ghibli" was chosen by Miyazaki from the Italian noun ghibli (also used in English), based on the Libyan Arabic name for hot desert wind (قبلي, 'ghiblī'), the idea being the studio would "blow a new wind through the anime industry".[7][8] It also refers to an Italian aircraft, the Caproni Ca.309. Although the Italian word would be more accurately transliterated as 'Giburi' (ギブリ), with a hard g sound, the studio is romanised in Japanese as Jiburi (ジブリ, [dʑiꜜbɯɾi] ( listen)).[7]


Tokuma Shoten eraEdit

Three of the four founders of Studio Ghibli. From top to bottom:
Hayao Miyazaki,
Isao Takahata,
Toshio Suzuki

Founded on June 15, 1985, the studio was headed by directors Hayao Miyazaki and Isao Takahata and producer Toshio Suzuki. Prior to the formation of the studio, Miyazaki and Takahata had already had long careers in Japanese film and television animation and had worked together on The Great Adventure of Horus, Prince of the Sun in 1968 and the Panda! Go, Panda! films in 1972 and 1973, and in 1978, Suzuki became an editor at Tokuma Shoten's Animage manga magazine, where the first film he chose was Horus. A year after his phone call with Takahata and his first encounter with Miyazaki, both about Horus, he made a phone call about the first film Miyazaki ever directed: The Castle of Cagliostro.

The studio was founded after the success of the 1984 film Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind, written and directed by Miyazaki for Topcraft and distributed by Toei Company. The origins of the film lie in the first two volumes of a serialized manga written by Miyazaki for publication in Animage as a way of generating interest in an anime version.[8][9] Suzuki was part of the production team on the film and founded Studio Ghibli with Miyazaki, who also invited Takahata to join the new studio.

The studio has mainly produced films by Miyazaki, with the second most prolific director being Takahata (most notably with Grave of the Fireflies). Other directors who have worked with Studio Ghibli include Yoshifumi Kondō, Hiroyuki Morita, Gorō Miyazaki, and Hiromasa Yonebayashi. Composer Joe Hisaishi has provided the soundtracks for most of Miyazaki's Studio Ghibli films. In their book Anime Classics Zettai!, Brian Camp and Julie Davis made note of Michiyo Yasuda as "a mainstay of Studio Ghibli’s extraordinary design and production team".[10] At one time the studio was based in Kichijōji, Musashino, Tokyo.[11]

In August 1996, The Walt Disney Company and Tokuma Shoten formed a partnership wherein Walt Disney Studios would be the sole international distributor for Tokuma Shoten's Studio Ghibli animated films.[12] Under this agreement, Disney also agreed to finance 10% of the studio's production costs.[13] Since then, all three aforementioned films by Miyazaki at Studio Ghibli that were previously dubbed by Streamline Pictures have been re-dubbed by Disney.[14] On June 1, 1997, Tokuma Shoten Publishing consolidated its media operations by merging Studio Ghibli, Tokuma Shoten Intermedia software and Tokuma International under one location.[15]

Over the years, there has been a close relationship between Studio Ghibli and the magazine Animage, which regularly runs exclusive articles on the studio and its members in a section titled "Ghibli Notes." Artwork from Ghibli's films and other works are frequently featured on the cover of the magazine. Saeko Himuro's novel Umi ga Kikoeru was serialised in the magazine and subsequently adapted into Ocean Waves, Studio Ghibli's first animated feature-length film created for television. It was directed by Tomomi Mochizuki.[16]

In October 2001, the Ghibli Museum opened in Mitaka, Tokyo.[17] It contains exhibits based on Studio Ghibli films and shows animations, including a number of short Studio Ghibli films not available elsewhere.

The studio is also known for its strict "no-edits" policy in licensing their films abroad due to Nausicaä of the Valley of Wind being heavily edited for the film's release in the United States as Warriors of the Wind. The "no cuts" policy was highlighted when Miramax co-chairman Harvey Weinstein suggested editing Princess Mononoke to make it more marketable. A Studio Ghibli producer is rumoured to have sent an authentic Japanese sword with a simple message: "No cuts".[18]

Independent eraEdit

Between 1999 and 2005, Studio Ghibli was a subsidiary brand of Tokuma Shoten; however, that partnership ended in April 2005, when Studio Ghibli was spun off from Tokuma Shoten and was re-established as an independent company with relocated headquarters.

On February 1, 2008, Toshio Suzuki stepped down from the position of Studio Ghibli president, which he had held since 2005, and Koji Hoshino (former president of Walt Disney Japan) took over. Suzuki said he wanted to improve films with his own hands as a producer, rather than demanding this from his employees. Suzuki decided to hand over the presidency to Hoshino because Hoshino has helped Studio Ghibli to sell its videos since 1996 and has also aided the release of the Princess Mononoke film in the United States.[19] Suzuki still serves on the company's board of directors.

Two Studio Ghibli short films created for the Ghibli Museum were shown at the Carnegie Hall Citywise Japan NYC Festival: "House Hunting" and "Mon Mon the Water Spider" were screened on March 26, 2011.[20]

Takahata developed a project for release after Gorō Miyazaki's (director of Tales from Earthsea and Hayao's son) The Tale of the Princess Kaguya – an adaptation of The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter. The last film Hayao Miyazaki directed before retiring from feature films was The Wind Rises which is about the Mitsubishi A6M Zero and its founder.[21]

On Sunday, September 1, 2013, Hayao Miyazaki held a press conference in Venice to confirm his retirement, saying: "I know I've said I would retire many times in the past. Many of you must think, 'Once again.' But this time I am quite serious."[22]

In 2013, a documentary directed by Mami Sunada called The Kingdom of Dreams and Madness (Japanese: 夢と狂気の王国, Hepburn: Yume to kyōki no ōkoku) was created delving into the lives of those working at Studio Ghibli and the productions of the animated films The Wind Rises and The Tale of the Princess Kaguya, including storyboard sketching, inking, painting, and voice actor selection for the films.[23]

On January 31, 2014, it was announced that Gorō Miyazaki will direct his first anime television series, Sanzoku no Musume Rōnya, an adaptation of Astrid Lindgren's Ronia the Robber's Daughter for NHK. The series is computer-animated, produced by Polygon Pictures, and co-produced by Studio Ghibli.[24][25]

In March 2014, Toshio Suzuki retired as producer and assumed the new position of general manager. Yoshiaki Nishimura replaced Suzuki in the producer role.[26]

On August 3, 2014, Toshio Suzuki announced that Studio Ghibli would take a "brief pause" to re-evaluate and restructure in the wake of Miyazaki's retirement. He stated some concerns about where the company would go in the future.[27][28][29][30] This led to speculation that Studio Ghibli will never produce another feature film again. On November 7, 2014, Miyazaki stated, "That was not my intention, though. All I did was announce that I would be retiring and not making any more features."[31] Lead producer Yoshiaki Nishimura among several other staffers from Ghibli, such as director Hiromasa Yonebayashi, left to found Studio Ponoc in April 2015, working on the film Mary and the Witch's Flower.

The 2016 animated fantasy film The Red Turtle, directed and co-written by Dutch-British animator Michaël Dudok de Wit in his feature film debut, was a co-production between Studio Ghibli and Wild Bunch.[32]

In February 2017, Toshio Suzuki announced that Hayao Miyazaki had come out of retirement to direct a new feature film with Studio Ghibli.[33]

On November 28, 2017, Koji Hoshino stepped down as president; he was replaced by Kiyofumi Nakajima (former Ghibli Museum director). Hoshino was then appointed as Chairman of Studio Ghibli.[34][35]

In May 2020, Toshio Suzuki confirmed that a new film from Gorō Miyazaki is in development at Studio Ghibli. On June 3, 2020, Studio Ghibli announced that the film would be an adaptation of the novel Earwig and the Witch by Diana Wynne Jones. The film was announced as the first full 3D CG animated Ghibli film and slated for a television premiere on NHK in late 2020.[36]

Distribution rightsEdit

Theatrical and home media rightsEdit


In Japan, the company's films (along with The Castle of Cagliostro and all other Lupin the Third titles for movie theaters as well as Mary and the Witch's Flower) are distributed by Toho theatrically, except for Castle in the Sky, Kiki's Delivery Service (which were distributed by Toei Company along with Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind, with Toei producing The Great Adventure of Horus, Prince of the Sun), and My Neighbors the Yamadas, which was distributed by Shochiku. For home media, Walt Disney Studios Japan released Ghibli's films along with Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind, The Castle of Cagliostro and Mary and the Witch's Flower.[37] Before the Disney deal, Tokuma Shoten released Ghibli movies themselves through their "Animage Video" imprint, as well as all Laserdisc releases of the movies, as the Disney deal did not include that format.

North AmericaEdit

Manson International and Showmen, Inc. produced a 95-minute English dub of Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind, titled Warriors of the Wind, which was released theatrically in the United States by New World Pictures on June 13, 1985, followed by a VHS release in December 1985.[38] In the late 1980s, Vestron Video would re-release the film and First Independent Video would re-release it again in 1993, with another minute cut from the film. The voice actors and actresses were not credited and were not even informed of the film's plot line, and the film was heavily edited to market it as a children's action-adventure film, although the film received a PG rating just like Disney's later English dub.[39] Due to the heavy editing of the film in an attempt to appeal to American audiences, much of Nausicaä was cut out, including much of the environmentalist themes, which were diluted. The main subplot of the Ohmu was similarly altered to arguably portray them as aggressive. Most of the characters' names were changed, including the titular character who became Princess Zandra. The United States poster and VHS cover featured a cadre of male characters who are not in the film, riding the resurrected God Warrior—including a still-living Warrior shown briefly in a flashback. Overall, approximately 22 minutes was cut for North American release.[39] Warriors of the Wind also prompted Miyazaki to allow translator Toren Smith of Studio Proteus to create an official, faithful translation of the Nausicaä manga for Viz Media.[40]

In the late 1980s, an English dub of Castle in the Sky was produced by Magnum Video Tape and Dubbing[41] for international Japan Airlines flights at the request of Tokuma Shoten. The Castle dub was briefly screened in the United States by Streamline Pictures. Carl Macek, the head of Streamline, was disappointed with this dub, deeming it "adequate, but clumsy".[42] Following this, Tokuma allowed Streamline to dub their future acquisitions My Neighbor Totoro and Kiki's Delivery Service. In April 1993, Troma Films, under their 50th St. Films banner, distributed the Totoro dub as a theatrical release, and the dub was later released onto VHS and eventually onto DVD by 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment. In the early 1990s, an English dub of Porco Rosso was produced by an unknown company, again for international Japan Airlines flights. The original dubs can be seen on the 1996 Ghibli ga Ippai Laserdisc set, and on the initial copies for the Japanese DVD releases of Totoro, Laputa and Porco.

In 1996, Ghibli joined teams with Buena Vista International, an entertainment distribution company that is a part of The Walt Disney Company, allowing the studio greater access to international audiences and promotions, including Disney-sponsored English-dubbed versions of original films. Ghibli's partnership with Buena Vista provided the opportunity to expand its fanbase and bring full marketing efforts and promotional efforts to the US and Europe, with English dubs. Disney was able to pick the English dub voice actors, sometimes picking their own budding stars, while other times, picking relatively unknown actors, so the main draw of the movies would be the Studio and the directors. This way, international fans in the US and Europe gained recognition of the studio name and many fans became more invested by picking their favorite of the Ghibli recurring directors, particularly Hayao Miyazaki or Isao Takahata.[43]

Both Miyazaki and Takahata maintain specific personal animation styles, and can be recognized for their art throughout their careers. The consistency of their respective animation styles has also helped push Studio Ghibli movies into the mainstream overseas, since fans tend to become loyal to their favorite style of animation. Another factor that helped Studio Ghibli gain international popularity is the nostalgia that fans often speak of in reference to their favorite films, especially those by Miyazaki, the most prolific director under the Studio. Miyazaki has maintained a very similar animation style throughout his career, which can even be seen in his first film, Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind (1984). Since, Miyazaki has directed many of the most popular and famous Ghibli films, including My Neighbor Totoro (1988) and Spirited Away (2001), he has effectively become the face of the studio, especially with foreign audiences (besides the official mascot, Totoro).[43]

In 1996, Walt Disney Studios acquired worldwide distribution rights to the Studio Ghibli library, with Disney redubbing all previously dubbed films.[12][44] In addition, Walt Disney Studios Japan agreed to contribute 10% of the funding for all future releases, starting with My Neighbors the Yamadas, in exchange for right of first refusal regarding international distribution.[13] Disney continues with this practice to this day, even extending it to the works of Studio Ponoc and to co-productions like The Red Turtle in Japan. It was said to have taken four years for Disney and Studio Ghibli to reach a distribution deal. Originally, the Ghibli films were meant to headline a line of videos called Animation Celebration, highlighting critically acclaimed animated films from around the world. These plans never materialized in full, but the Animation Celebration logo can be seen on Disney's original VHS release of Kiki's Delivery Service. During Disney's tenure, the studio produced the English dubs and released 15 of Ghibli's films, plus Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind through the Walt Disney Pictures, Buena Vista Home Video, Miramax and Touchstone Pictures banners.[45]

Disney and Ghibli have also selectively chosen not to promote and record an English-dubbed version for films and works deemed less internationally marketable, including some of Takahata's more developmental and obscure pieces.[43] Although the Studio has a "No cuts" policy in terms of international versions and dubs, this does not apply to promotional posters, etc., for which the film makers collaborate with Disney to produce cultural appropriate international versions. The Studio has not shied away from slight rebranding on the international stage in order to convey slightly tweaked promotional imagery for different cultural norms. One example of these slight tweaks to international promotional materials can be seen between the Japanese and English versions of the movie poster for Spirited Away (2001). For American and other English-speaking audiences, the name of the film was changed from the Japanese version, which directly translates roughly to, "The Disappearance of Chihiro and Sen", to Spirited Away to suggest more mystical, otherworldly themes, since the direct Japanese translation could be taken to mean that Chihiro/Sen disappeared due to some more dangerous reason. On the American movie poster, more pictures of spirits from the film were added to the background to further pique the viewer's interest with more supernatural themes, creating an association between the pictures spirits and what most American people would think of as "ghosts". For the Japanese poster, there are fewer spirits as the Japanese Shinto religion normalizes the existence of spirits, so less emphasis is needed to convey the importance of non-human spirits. Also, Disney enlarged the "Studio Ghibli" and "Hayao Miyazaki" labels on the poster, helping to bring greater awareness to the studio through the success of Spirited Away.[46]

In 2011, GKIDS acquired the North American theatrical distribution rights of the aforementioned Ghibli films, with Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment retaining the home video rights.[47] Afterwards, in 2013, GKIDS acquired the US and Canadian distribution rights to From Up on Poppy Hill. The film, which Disney passed on to GKIDS due to dealing with potential incest, marked the first time since 1996 that Disney handed a Studio Ghibli film off to another distributor. Afterwards, GKIDS would go on to distribute the films Disney found to be too mature or unmarketable for American audiences: Only Yesterday, Ocean Waves, The Tale of the Princess Kaguya and When Marnie Was There. Finally, in July 2017, Disney relinquished its home video rights (with the exception of The Wind Rises, which remained with Disney until 2020 due to a distribution clause) to GKIDS, which currently handles all theatrical and home media distribution of Ghibli films in North America along with Mary and the Witch's Flower.[44] Nevertheless, Disney still continues to handle select distribution in Japan (home media) and Taiwan.

GKIDS' home media releases have been handled by multiple distributors. Cinedigm distributed the home media release of Poppy Hill, Universal Pictures Home Entertainment distributed the home media releases of Kaguya, Marnie, Mary, Yesterday and Waves, and Shout! Factory all subsequent releases thus far. The Ghibli films owned by GKIDS were made available for digital purchases on most major services in the United States and Canada on December 17, 2019 through Shout! Factory.[48]

Beginning in May 2020, Studio Ghibli's catalogue is available for streaming on HBO Max.[49]

Ghibli also partnered with the Walt Disney Company in 2010 to help produce The Secret World of Arrietty, a feature-length film inspired by the British novel, The Borrowers, written by Mary Norton in 1952.[50] To help introduce Ghibli to a new generation of American children, the film was promoted to American children on the popular TV channel, Disney Channel. The (American) English dubbed version also included the voices of well-known Disney Channel original TV-show stars from that time, including Bridgit Mendler, from Good Luck Charlie and David Henrie from Wizards of Waverly Place.[51]

Ghibli has also capitalized on its success by offering film and character-inspired merchandise for purchase in several countries, including the US. They have now partnered with Amazon to create an official merchandise line available for fans around the globe. This merchandise is distributed from Japan. This includes stickers, stuffed animals, figurines, posters and more.

In terms of international awards, Ghibli has also performed well, receiving an Oscar for Spirited Away (2001) at the 75th Academy Awards for Best Animated Feature. At the time, in 2003, it was the first film to win this award which was originally produced in a language other than English.[52]


Outside Asia (including Japan) and North America since 2003, Wild Bunch has held international sales rights to Ghibli's film library and serves as a distributor itself in France and Belgium.[53] The company also sells distribution rights to separate distributors across the world, including StudioCanal UK (United Kingdom and Ireland) [a], Universum Film (Germany), Lucky Red (Italy), Vértigo Films (Spain) [b] and Madman Entertainment (Australia and New Zealand). In Asia, films are distributed by local companies, like Deltamac (subsidiary of Disney Taiwan) in Taiwan.

Notably, The Secret World of Arrietty received a second dub exclusive to the United Kingdom, produced by StudioCanal, likely due to the film's origins being from Mary Norton's British novel The Borrowers.

Disney formerly held the international sales rights as well until Wild Bunch's purchase in 2003. Disney kept the French distribution rights to Ghibli's library until September 2020, when it had expired and transitioned off to Wild Bunch.[54]

Currently, several films are also available for streaming on Netflix in all countries except for the US, Canada, Japan, and China.[55]

Streaming rightsEdit

Prior to 2019, Studio Ghibli opted not to make its films available digitally, feeling that physical media and theatrical events like GKIDS' Studio Ghibli Fest would work more towards their goal of mindful care and curation for their films. Disney had previously lobbied for a streaming deal with Ghibli during their distribution tenure, but such attempts were never materialized.[45] The studio heads changed their minds after hearing a quote from American actor and director Woody Allen about how there should be multiple outlets for feature films.[56]

On October 17, 2019, WarnerMedia's HBO Max announced it had acquired exclusive streaming rights to Studio Ghibli's catalogue in the United States as part of a deal with GKIDS; these films were available when the service launched in May 2020.[57] On January 20, 2020, it was announced that Netflix acquired the exclusive streaming rights to this catalogue in all regions where it operates except for the United States (in which Netflix does have streaming rights to The Castle of Cagliostro and Mary and the Witch's Flower), as part of a deal with Ghibli's international sales rights partner Wild Bunch. Seven of twenty-one films in the studio's catalogue were released on February 1, 2020, with the others following on March 1 and April 1.[58] Netflix then struck a separate deal with GKIDS for streaming rights in Canada which was announced on June 22, and came into effect on June 25 for most films.[59] Currently, no streaming rights deals have been announced for Studio Ghibli's home country of Japan, nor for markets such as China where neither Netflix nor HBO Max is available.

Grave of the FirefliesEdit

Most of the above deals exclude Grave of the Fireflies; unlike most of the other films, which were published by Tokuma Shoten, Grave of the Fireflies was produced and is owned by Shinchosha, which also had published the short story it was based on, and as such, fell into different rights holdings.[48]

Grave of the Fireflies was released in Japan on VHS by Buena Vista Home Entertainment under the Ghibli ga Ippai Collection on August 7, 1998. On July 29, 2005, a DVD release was distributed through Warner Home Video. Walt Disney Studios Japan released the complete collector's edition DVD on August 6, 2008. WDSJ released the film on Blu-ray twice on July 18, 2012: one as a single release, and one in a two-film set with My Neighbor Totoro.

It was released on VHS in North America by Central Park Media in a subtitled form on June 2, 1993.[60] They later released the film with an English dub on VHS on September 1, 1998 (the same day Disney released Kiki's Delivery Service in North America) and an all-Regions DVD (which also included the original Japanese with English subtitles) on October 7 the same year. It was later released on a two-disc DVD set (which once again included both the English dub and the original Japanese with English subtitles as well as the film's storyboards with the second disc containing more extensive Bonus Features) on October 8, 2002. It was released by Central Park Media one last time on December 7, 2004. Following the May 2009 bankruptcy and liquidation of Central Park Media,[61] ADV Films acquired the rights and re-released it on DVD on July 7, 2009.[62] Following the September 1, 2009 shutdown and re-branding of ADV,[63] their successor, Sentai Filmworks, rescued the film and released a remastered DVD on March 6, 2012.[64][65] A Blu-ray edition was released on November 20, 2012, featuring an all-new English dub produced by Seraphim Digital, along with a digital release that same year.[66]

StudioCanal released a Blu-ray in the United Kingdom on July 1, 2013.[67] Madman Entertainment released the film in Australia and New Zealand.


While not technically Studio Ghibli films, The Great Adventure of Horus, Prince of the Sun (1968), Panda! Go Panda! (1972), The Castle of Cagliostro (1979), Jarinko Chie (1981), Gauche the Cellist (1982), Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind (1984), The Red Turtle (2016), Mary and the Witch's Flower (2017) and Modest Heroes (2018) are sometimes grouped together with the Studio Ghibli library (particularly with the Ghibli ga Ippai home video collection released by Walt Disney Studios Japan) due to their ties to the studio.

Horus and Cagliostro were the feature-length directorial debuts of Isao Takahata and Hayao Miyazaki respectively, and were produced by Toei Animation and TMS Entertainment years before the founding of Studio Ghibli.

Nausicaä was directed by Miyazaki at Topcraft, a studio which Miyazaki, Takahata and Toshio Suzuki later purchased and renamed Studio Ghibli. As a result, the film has often been rereleased and marketed as a Studio Ghibli movie.

The Red Turtle was a collaborative effort by Studio Ghibli with Dutch animator Michaël Dudok de Wit and was branded as a Studio Ghibli release internationally. It was distributed by Sony Pictures Classics in North and Latin America.

Mary and the Witch's Flower and Modest Heroes were produced by Studio Ponoc, a company founded by Studio Ghibli veterans Yoshiaki Nishimura and Hiromasa Yonebayashi following the 2014 restructuring of Ghibli.

For the purposes of the list below, only films fully produced and released by Studio Ghibli are listed. Other Studio Ghibli productions are listed here.

Feature filmsEdit

Year Title Director Screenwriter(s) Producer(s) Music Original release RT Metacritic
1986 Castle in the Sky Hayao Miyazaki Isao Takahata Joe Hisaishi August 2, 1986 96%[68] 78
1988 Grave of the Fireflies Isao Takahata Tōru Hara Michio Mamiya April 16, 1988 100%[69] 94
My Neighbor Totoro Hayao Miyazaki Joe Hisaishi 94%[70] 86
1989 Kiki's Delivery Service Hayao Miyazaki July 29, 1989 98%[71] 83
1991 Only Yesterday Isao Takahata Toshio Suzuki Katz Hoshi July 20, 1991 100%[72] 90
1992 Porco Rosso Hayao Miyazaki Joe Hisaishi July 18, 1992 95%[73] 83
1993 Ocean Waves Tomomi Mochizuki Seiji Okuda & Nozomu Takahashi Shigeru Nagata May 5, 1993 88%[74] 73
1994 Pom Poko Isao Takahata Shang Shang Typhoon July 16, 1994 85%[75] 77
1995 Whisper of the Heart Yoshifumi Kondō Hayao Miyazaki Yuji Nomi July 15, 1995 94%[76] 75
1997 Princess Mononoke Hayao Miyazaki Joe Hisaishi July 12, 1997 93%[77] 76
1999 My Neighbors the Yamadas Isao Takahata Akiko Yano July 17, 1999 78%[78] 75
2001 Spirited Away Hayao Miyazaki Joe Hisaishi July 20, 2001 97%[79] 96
2002 The Cat Returns Hiroyuki Morita Reiko Yoshida Toshio Suzuki & Nozomu Takahashi Yuji Nomi July 19, 2002 91%[80] 70
2004 Howl's Moving Castle Hayao Miyazaki Toshio Suzuki Joe Hisaishi November 20, 2004 87%[81] 80
2006 Tales from Earthsea Gorō Miyazaki Gorō Miyazaki & Keiko Niwa Tomohiko Ishii & Toshio Suzuki Tamiya Terashima July 29, 2006 43%[82] 47
2008 Ponyo Hayao Miyazaki Toshio Suzuki Joe Hisaishi July 19, 2008 91%[83] 86
2010 Arrietty Hiromasa Yonebayashi Hayao Miyazaki & Keiko Niwa Cécile Corbel July 17, 2010 95%[84] 80
2011 From Up on Poppy Hill Gorō Miyazaki Satoshi Takebe July 16, 2011 86%[85] 71
2013 The Wind Rises Hayao Miyazaki Joe Hisaishi July 20, 2013 88%[86] 83
The Tale of the Princess Kaguya Isao Takahata Isao Takahata & Riko Sakaguchi Yoshiaki Nishimura November 23, 2013 100%[87] 89
2014 When Marnie Was There Hiromasa Yonebayashi Hiromasa Yonebayashi, Keiko Niwa & Masashi Ando Takatsugu Muramatsu July 19, 2014 91%[88] 72
2020 Earwig and the Witch[36] Gorō Miyazaki Keiko Niwa & Emi Gunji Toshio Suzuki Satoshi Takebe December 30, 2020 30%[89] 45
2023 How Do You Live?[90][91][92] Hayao Miyazaki Joe Hisaishi TBA TBA TBA


Year Title Creator Director Writer(s) Producer(s) Music
2014 Ronja, the Robber's Daughter Gorō Miyazaki Hiroyuki Kawasaki Nobuo Kawakami Satoshi Takebe
2021 Sgt. Chameleon Mine Yoshizaki Yusuke Yamamoto Mamiko Ikeda Yoshikazu Beniya Saeko Suzuki

Style and themesEdit

The signature style and recurrent themes of the studio reflect those of Miyazaki and the other directors and creatives. Common themes include the risks posed by progress to tradition,[93] environmentalism and the natural world,[93][94] independent female protagonists,[95] the cost of war, and youth.[96] They tend to use intricate watercolor and acrylic 2D animation with vivid colors (particularly greens),[95][96] and have a "whimsical and joyful aesthetic".[94]

Notable animators and character designersEdit

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "Studio Ghibli Collection - Madman Entertainment". Studio Ghibli Collection - Madman Entertainment. Retrieved 2020-12-14.
  2. ^ "Studio Ghibli Collection - Madman Entertainment". Studio Ghibli Collection - Madman Entertainment. Retrieved December 14, 2020.
  3. ^ Ni no Kuni: Wrath of the White Witch, retrieved January 22, 2019
  4. ^ John (November 22, 2011). "Everything You Need to Know About Studio Ghibli". Tofugu. Archived from the original on May 8, 2018. Retrieved May 3, 2018.
  5. ^
  6. ^
  7. ^ a b ジブリという名前の由来は? (in Japanese). Archived from the original on July 30, 2013. Retrieved September 3, 2013.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  8. ^ a b The Birth of Studio Ghibli, Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind DVD, Walt Disney Home Entertainment, 2005.
  9. ^ "First of Two-part Miyazaki Feature". Animerica. 1 (5): 4. July 1993.
  10. ^ Camp, Brian; Davis, Julie (September 15, 2007). Anime Classics Zettai. Berkeley California: Stone Bridge Press. p. 292. ISBN 978-1-933330-22-8. Retrieved February 14, 2014.
  11. ^ "The Animerica Interview: Takahata and Nosaka: Two Grave Voices in Animation." Animerica. Volume 2, No. 11. Page 11. Translated by Animerica from: Takahata, Isao. Eiga o Tsukurinagara, Kangaeta Koto ("Things I Thought While Making Movies") Tokuma Shoten, 1991. Originally published in Animage, June 1987. This is a translation of a 1987 conversation between Takahata and Akiyuki Nosaka. "Kichijoji is the Tokyo area where "Studio Ghibli," frequent Takahata collaborator Hayao Miyazaki's studio, is located.
  12. ^ a b Pollack, Andrew (July 24, 1996). "Disney in Pact for Films of the Top Animator in Japan". The New York Times. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
  13. ^ a b Hill, Jim (April 14, 2020). "The Making of Hayao Miyazaki's "Spirited Away" -- Part 1". Retrieved October 11, 2020.
  14. ^ "August Issue News Section:Disney Will Distribute Japanese Animation". Animation World Magazine. August 1996. Archived from the original on September 29, 2013. Retrieved July 19, 2011.
  15. ^ Karrfalt, Wayne (May 27, 1997). "Tokuma looks to merge film, media distribution". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved May 21, 2015.
  16. ^ Toyama, Ryoko. "Umi ga Kikoeru: Frequently Asked Questions". Archived from the original on August 20, 2017. Retrieved August 12, 2017.
  17. ^ "Japan, 18–28 April 2003". Archived from the original on December 1, 2014. Retrieved April 17, 2015.
  18. ^ Brooks, Xan (September 14, 2005). "A god among animators". The Guardian. UK. Archived from the original on June 25, 2008. Retrieved May 23, 2007. There is a rumour that when Harvey Weinstein was charged with handling the US release of Princess Mononoke, Miyazaki sent him a samurai sword in the post. Attached to the blade was a stark message: 'No cuts.' / The director chortles. 'Actually, my producer did that.'
  19. ^ スタジオジブリ社長に星野康二氏 (in Japanese). Archived from the original on February 2, 2008. Retrieved February 1, 2008.
  20. ^ "Miyazaki shorts come to Carnegie Hall for one day only". Asia Pacific Arts. March 4, 2011. Archived from the original on August 8, 2014. Retrieved March 9, 2011.
  21. ^ Ashcraft, Brian (July 23, 2012). "Studio Ghibli's Next Film is about Japan's Most Famous Fighter Plane (and the Guy who Designed It)". Kotaku. Archived from the original on October 2, 2012. Retrieved September 30, 2012.
  22. ^ Highfill, Samantha (September 6, 2013). "Hayao Miyazaki on his retirement: 'This time I am quite serious'". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on October 21, 2013. Retrieved October 27, 2019.
  23. ^ Debruge, Peter (September 4, 2014). "Toronto Film Review: 'The Kingdom of Dreams and Madness'". Variety. Retrieved September 19, 2015.
  24. ^ "Goro Miyazaki to Direct Ronia the Robber's Daughter TV Anime". Anime News Network. January 30, 2014. Archived from the original on February 9, 2014. Retrieved February 14, 2014.
  25. ^ "Polygon Pictures to Create Animation Under Goro Miyazaki's Direction, The Animated TV Series Ronia, the Robber's Daughter, Premiering on NHK BS in Autumn 2014". Polygon Pictures. January 31, 2014. Archived from the original on February 23, 2014. Retrieved February 14, 2014.
  26. ^ "Ghibli Co-Founder Toshio Suzuki Retires as Producer". Anime News Network. March 9, 2014. Archived from the original on March 9, 2014. Retrieved March 9, 2014.
  27. ^ "Toshio Suzuki スタジオジブリを背負った男。ヒットメーカー・鈴木敏夫のプロデューサー哲学に迫る". MBS. August 3, 2014. Archived from the original on August 6, 2014. Retrieved August 3, 2014.
  28. ^ Schilling, Mark (August 3, 2014). "Japan's Studio Ghibli Envisages Short Break, not Imminent Closure". Variety. Penske Business Media, LLC. Archived from the original on August 18, 2017. Retrieved August 4, 2014.
  29. ^ "Spirited Away maker Studio Ghibli halts production". BBC News. August 4, 2014. Archived from the original on April 17, 2015. Retrieved February 8, 2015.
  30. ^ Vincent, Alice (August 4, 2014). "Studio Ghibli may stop making films". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on August 3, 2014. Retrieved February 8, 2014.
  31. ^ "Hayao Miyazaki isn't making features but is at work on a manga". LA Times. November 7, 2014. Archived from the original on November 13, 2014. Retrieved November 7, 2014.
  32. ^ "The Red Turtle: A film by Michael Dudok De Wit" (PDF). Sony Pictures Classics. p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 16, 2017. Retrieved August 18, 2017. a Why Not Productions – Wild Bunch – Studio Ghibli – CN4 Productions – Arte France Cinema – Belvision Coproduction – with the support of Eurimages – with the participation of Canal+ – Ciné+ – Arte France – Region Poitou-Charentes – Departement de la Charente – Region Wallonne – Fondation Gan pour le cinema – in association with Cinemage 9 – Palatine Etoile 11 – Palatine Etoile 12 – BNP Paribas Fortis Film Finance
  33. ^ "Ghibli Producer Suzuki: Hayao Miyazaki is Preparing to Work on New Feature Film". Anime News Network. February 24, 2017. Archived from the original on March 1, 2017. Retrieved March 1, 2017.
  34. ^ Schilling, Mark (November 30, 2017). "Kiyofumi Nakajima Appointed as Studio Ghilbi President". Variety. Retrieved June 24, 2019.
  35. ^ "Studio Ghibli Appoints Kiyofumi Nakajima as New President". Anime News Network. November 28, 2017. Archived from the original on December 1, 2017. Retrieved December 1, 2017.
  36. ^ a b "Ghibli, Goro Miyazaki Make CG Anime of Earwig and the Witch Novel by Howl's Moving Castle's Diana Wynne Jones". Anime News Network. June 3, 2020. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
  37. ^ "The Disney-Tokuma Deal". September 10, 2003. Archived from the original on December 29, 2010. Retrieved August 8, 2014.
  38. ^ "Warriors of the Wind (movie)". CrystalAcids. Retrieved December 19, 2018.
  39. ^ a b "FAQ". Archived from the original on May 9, 2008. Retrieved June 30, 2008.
  40. ^ Smith, Toren (January 1, 1995). "Site COMIC BOX" 英語圏にも広がる新しい宮崎世代 [The New Miyazaki Generation Spreading Even into English Speaking Countries.]. Comic Box (in Japanese). Fusion Products (98): 44–47. Archived from the original on September 23, 2015. Retrieved November 19, 2013.
  41. ^ "Laputa: Castle in the Sky (movie)". Archived from the original on November 29, 2014. Retrieved November 17, 2014.
  42. ^ Macek, Carl. "ANN Cast Episode 23". Anime News Network. Event occurs at 48:49. Archived from the original on January 10, 2014. Retrieved January 11, 2014. We didn't dub it. Streamline didn't dub it. And I told the people at Tokuma Shoten that I thought the dubbing was marginal on Laputa and I thought that it could be a better product if they had a better dubbing... To me, there's a certain element of class that you can bring to a project. Laputa is a very classy film, so it required a classy dub and the dub given to that particular film was adequate but clumsy. I didn't like it all... It's not something that I appreciated intellectually as well as aesthetically.
  43. ^ a b c Rendell, James; Denisen, Rayna (December 14, 2020). "Introducing Studio Ghibli". East Asian Journal of Popular Culture. 4 (1).
  44. ^ a b D'Anastasio, Cecilia (August 10, 2017). "GKIDS Takes Over U.S. Studio Ghibli Distribution From Disney". Retrieved May 28, 2020.
  45. ^ a b Spiegel, Josh (May 27, 2020). "The long, ugly history between Disney and Studio Ghibli". Retrieved May 28, 2020.
  46. ^ Carter, Laz (December 13, 2020). "Marketing anime to a global audience: A paratextual analysis of promotional materials from Spirited Away". East Asian Journal of Popular Culture. 4 (1). Retrieved December 13, 2020 – via Gale Academic Onefile.
  47. ^ Marechal, AJ (September 7, 2011). "GKids to release Miyazaki toons in U.S." Variety. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
  48. ^ a b Alexander, Julia (December 17, 2019). "Studio Ghibli movies are finally available to purchase digitally — but missing a major title". The Verge. Retrieved December 17, 2019.
  49. ^ "Howl is hot, Totoro is cute, and other reasons you should finally watch these nine Ghibli films". May 26, 2020.
  50. ^ Noble, Barnes &. "The Borrowers|Paperback". Barnes & Noble. Retrieved December 14, 2020.
  51. ^ Yonebayashi, Hiromasa (July 17, 2010), Kari-gurashi no Arietti (Animation, Adventure, Family, Fantasy), Mirai Shida, Ryûnosuke Kamiki, Tatsuya Fujiwara, Tomokazu Miura, Studio Ghibli, Dentsu, Hakuhodo DY Media Partners, retrieved December 14, 2020
  52. ^ Shatzman, Celia (December 4, 2020). "Get Spirited Away With the Best Studio Ghibli Merchandise". Variety. Retrieved December 14, 2020.
  53. ^ Hopewell, John; Keslassy, Elsa (August 19, 2013). "Wild Bunch, Miyazaki Re-Team on The Wind Rises". Variety. Archived from the original on February 8, 2018. Retrieved August 8, 2014.
  54. ^ @WildBunch (September 11, 2020). "Wild Bunch est fier de retrouver son..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  55. ^ Croquet, Pauline (January 20, 2020). "Les chefs-d'œuvre du studio Ghibli bientôt disponibles sur Netflix en Europe". Le Monde Diplomatique Online. 1950–6260 – via Global Newsstream.
  56. ^ Sperling, Nicole (May 27, 2020). "How Studio Ghibli Went From Streaming Holdout to HBO Max Star". The New York Times. Retrieved July 3, 2020.
  57. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (October 17, 2019). "HBO Max Acquires U.S. Streaming Rights To Studio Ghibli Library". Deadline. Retrieved January 7, 2020.
  58. ^ Tartaglione, Nancy (February 1, 2020). "Netflix To Add 21 Animated Films From Japan's Legendary Studio Ghibli". Chaospin. Retrieved June 15, 2020.
  59. ^ Shankar, Bradly (June 22, 2020). "Netflix Canada to stream 21 Studio Ghibli movies starting on June 25". MobileSyrup. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
  60. ^ "Animerica". Animerica : Anime & Manga Monthly. Viz Media. 1 (4): 18. June 1993. ISSN 1067-0831.
  61. ^ Loo, Egan (April 28, 2009). "Central Park Media Files for Chapter 7 Bankruptcy". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on July 4, 2018. Retrieved July 3, 2018.
  62. ^ Loo, Egan (May 5, 2009). "ADV Adds Grave of the Fireflies, Now and Then, Here and There". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on November 29, 2012. Retrieved November 24, 2012.
  63. ^ Loo, Egan (September 1, 2009). "ADV Films Shuts Down, Transfers Assets to Other Companies". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on October 3, 2009. Retrieved January 25, 2010.
  64. ^ Martin, Theron (March 5, 2012). "Review: Grave of the Fireflies: DVD – Remastered Edition". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on November 7, 2012. Retrieved November 22, 2012.
  65. ^ "Sentai Filmworks Adds Grave of the Fireflies". Anime News Network. December 1, 2011. Archived from the original on December 2, 2011. Retrieved December 1, 2011.
  66. ^ "Grave of the Fireflies [Blu-ray] (2012)". Retrieved November 22, 2012.
  67. ^ Osmond, Andrew (June 29, 2013). "Kiki's Delivery Service and Grave of the Fireflies Double Play Released Monday (Updated)". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on February 4, 2015. Retrieved December 27, 2014.
  68. ^ "Castle in the Sky (1989)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Archived from the original on August 23, 2015. Retrieved July 5, 2016. [1989 was the year of the film's U.S. release.]
  69. ^ "Grave of the Fireflies (Hotaru no haka) (1988)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Archived from the original on May 25, 2016. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
  70. ^ "My Neighbor Totoro (1988)". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Archived from the original on August 17, 2015. Retrieved December 27, 2015.
  71. ^ "Kiki's Delivery Service (1989)". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Archived from the original on August 20, 2015. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
  72. ^ "Only Yesterday (1991)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Archived from the original on March 31, 2016. Retrieved July 5, 2016.
  73. ^ "Porco Rosso (Kurenai no buta) (1992)". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Archived from the original on August 17, 2015. Retrieved December 27, 2015.
  74. ^ "Ocean Waves (Umi ga kikoeru) (2016)". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Retrieved December 26, 2019.[2016 was the year of the film's U.S. release.]
  75. ^ "Pom Poko (Heisei tanuki gassen pompoko) (The Raccoon War) (1994)". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Archived from the original on August 20, 2015. Retrieved December 27, 2015.
  76. ^ "Whisper of the Heart (Mimi wo sumaseba) (If You Listen Closely) (2006)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Archived from the original on July 29, 2015. Retrieved July 5, 2016. [2006 was the year of the film's U.S. TV & DVD release.]
  77. ^ "Princess Mononoke (Mononoke-hime) (1999)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Archived from the original on June 25, 2015. Retrieved July 5, 2016. [1999 was the year of the film's U.S. release.]
  78. ^ "My Neighbors the Yamadas (1999)". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Archived from the original on August 20, 2015. Retrieved December 27, 2015.
  79. ^ "Spirited Away (2002)". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Archived from the original on June 19, 2015. Retrieved December 27, 2015.[2002 was the year of the film's U.S. release.]
  80. ^ "The Cat Returns (2002)". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Archived from the original on July 20, 2021. Retrieved July 20, 2021.
  81. ^ "Howl's Moving Castle (2005)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Archived from the original on June 25, 2015. Retrieved July 5, 2016. [2005 was the year of the film's U.S. release.]
  82. ^ "Gedo senki (Tales from Earthsea) (2010)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Archived from the original on August 13, 2015. Retrieved July 5, 2016. [2010 was the year of the film's U.S. release.]
  83. ^ "Ponyo (2009)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Archived from the original on May 5, 2021. Retrieved July 20, 2021. [2009 was the year of the film's U.S. release.]
  84. ^ "The Secret World of Arrietty (2012)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Archived from the original on July 8, 2015. Retrieved July 5, 2016. [The film was released in the U.S. under this title in 2012.]
  85. ^ "From Up On Poppy Hill (2013)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Archived from the original on June 22, 2015. Retrieved July 5, 2016. [2013 was the year of the film's U.S. release.]
  86. ^ "The Wind Rises (2014)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Archived from the original on August 17, 2015. Retrieved July 5, 2016. [2014 was the year of the film's U.S. release.]
  87. ^ "The Tale of the Princess Kaguya (2014)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Archived from the original on July 8, 2015. Retrieved July 5, 2016. [2014 was the year of the film's U.S. release.]
  88. ^ "When Marnie Was There (2015)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Archived from the original on July 11, 2015. Retrieved July 5, 2016. [2015 was the year of the film's U.S. release.]
  89. ^ "Earwig and the Witch". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango. Archived from the original on July 20, 2021. Retrieved July 20, 2021.
  90. ^ "Studio Ghibli is getting ready for Hayao Miyazaki's next (and probably last) film". The A.V. Club. Archived from the original on February 13, 2018. Retrieved February 13, 2018.
  91. ^ "Details Revealed on Hayao Miyazaki's New Anime Film How Do You Live?". Archived from the original on February 27, 2019. Retrieved February 13, 2018.
  92. ^ "Ghibli's Hayao Miyazaki Reveals His 'Final' Film's Title, Release Window". Anime News Network. October 28, 2017. Archived from the original on February 24, 2018. Retrieved June 10, 2018.
  93. ^ a b Barnett, David. "Studio Ghibli films: An indispensable guide". BBC. Retrieved November 12, 2021.
  94. ^ a b Thomson, Jonny (October 18, 2021). "The philosophy and magic of Hayao Miyazaki's Studio Ghibli". BigThink.
  95. ^ a b Alexander, Julia; Frank, Allegra (January 9, 2017). "Studio Ghibli's best movies transcend simple cinema". Polygon. Retrieved November 12, 2021.
  96. ^ a b "Studio Ghibli Movies – A Deep Analysis of the Themes". Pop Up Tee. Retrieved November 12, 2021.
  1. ^ Also includes DVD and Blu-ray distribution of The Great Adventure of Horus, Prince of the Sun and The Castle of Cagliostro, the first full-length feature films directed by Isao Takahata and Hayao Miyazaki, respectively.
  2. ^ Co-distributed by Sony Pictures Home Entertainment as of 2018.

Further readingEdit

  • Cavallaro, Dani. The Animé Art of Hayao Miyazaki. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, 2006. ISBN 978-0-7864-2369-9. OCLC 62430842.
  • McCarthy, Helen. Hayao Miyazaki: Master of Japanese Animation: Films, Themes, Artistry. Berkeley, Calif.: Stone Bridge Press, 1999. ISBN 978-1-880656-41-9. OCLC 42296779. 2001 reprint of the 1999 text, with revisions: OCLC 51198297.
  • Miyazaki, Hayao. Starting Point: 1979–1996. Beth Cary and Frederik L. Schodt, trans. San Francisco: VIZ Media, 2009. ISBN 978-1-4215-0594-7. OCLC 290477195.
    • Miyazaki, Hayao. Shuppatsuten, 1979–1996 (出発点—1979~1996). Tokyo: Studio Ghibli, Inc./Hatsubai Tokuma Shoten, 1996. ISBN 978-4-19-860541-4. OCLC 37636025. Original Japanese edition.
  • Miyazaki, Hayao. Turning Point: 1997–2008. Beth Cary and Frederik L. Schodt, trans. San Francisco: VIZ Media, 2014. ISBN 9781421560908. OCLC 854945352.
    • Miyazaki, Hayao. Orikaeshiten: 1997–2008 (折り返し点—1997~2008). Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 2008. ISBN 9784000223942. OCLC 237177737. Original Japanese edition.
  • Odell, Colin, and Michelle Le Blanc. Studio Ghibli: The Films of Hayao Miyazaki and Isao Takahata. Harpenden, Hertfordshire, England: Kamera, 2009. ISBN 978-1-84243-279-2. OCLC 299246656.


  • This Is How Ghibli Was Born (ジブリはこうして生まれた, Jiburi wa kōshite umareta). 1998 documentary, Nippon TV, 28 min.
  • The Kingdom of Dreams and Madness (夢と狂気の王国, Yume to Kyoki no Okoku). 2013 documentary by Mami Sunada, 118 min.

External linksEdit