Akira (1988 film)
Akira is a 1988 Japanese animated post-apocalyptic science fiction film directed by Katsuhiro Otomo, produced by Ryōhei Suzuki and Shunzō Katō, and written by Otomo and Izo Hashimoto, based on Otomo's manga of the same name.
Japanese theatrical poster
|Directed by||Katsuhiro Otomo|
by Katsuhiro Otomo
|Music by||Shōji Yamashiro|
|Edited by||Takeshi Seyama|
|Box office||$49 million (worldwide)
¥750 million (Japan)
Set in a dystopian, cyberpunk-themed 2019, Akira tells the story of Shōtarō Kaneda, a leader of a local biker gang whose childhood friend, Tetsuo Shima, acquires incredible telekinetic abilities after a motorcycle accident, eventually threatening an entire military complex amidst chaos and rebellion in the sprawling futuristic metropolis of Neo-Tokyo. While most of the character designs and settings were adapted from the manga, the plot differs considerably and removes much of the last half of the manga.
Akira was released on July 16, 1988 by Toho. It garnered a large cult following since its theatrical release and is widely considered to be a landmark in Japanese animation. It is considered by many critics to be one of the greatest animated and science fiction films of all time.
In July 1988, a massive explosion annihilates Tokyo, sparking World War III. By 2019, Japan suffers a crime wave and government corruption, especially in the rebuilt "Neo-Tokyo". One night, during massive protests, hot-headed Shōtarō Kaneda leads his bōsōzoku gang, the Capsules, against their rivals, the Clowns. During the brawl, Kaneda's best friend, the sullen Tetsuo Shima, is seriously injured when he crashes his motorcycle into Takashi, who is a psychic esper just recently escaped from a secret government laboratory with the aid of a resistance organization. Japan Self-Defense Forces (JSDF) Colonel Shikishima, assisted by esper Masaru, escorts Takashi home and hospitalizes Tetsuo. Later, as Kaneda and his gang are interrogated by the police, he spots Kei, an activist belonging to the resistance movement, and tricks the authorities into releasing her along with his gang, taking an interest in her.
Shikishima and Doctor Ōnishi discover that Tetsuo possesses powerful psychic abilities similar to Akira, the esper responsible for causing Tokyo's destruction. Meanwhile, Takashi's fellow esper, Kiyoko, reveals Neo-Tokyo's impending destruction to Shikishima, who proposes killing Tetsuo to prevent this, but Neo-Tokyo's parliament dismisses his concerns. Returning from the hospital, Tetsuo steals Kaneda's motorcycle accompanied by his girlfriend Kaori, but the Clowns attack them before the Capsules intervene. Tetsuo suffers headaches and hallucinations during the attack, and he is once again hospitalized. Seeking answers about what has happened to his friend, Kaneda rescues Kei and joins the rebels after overhearing their plan to capture Tetsuo. At the hospital, the espers unsuccessfully attempt to kill Tetsuo, and he fights back with his newfound psychokinetic powers to confront them. Kaneda, Kei, and Shikishima converge on the espers' quarters to stop Tetsuo, turning him egomaniacal and unstable. He overpowers them and escapes after learning from Kiyoko that he can gain help from Akira, located in cryonic storage beneath the Olympic Stadium's construction site.
Using Kei as a medium, Kiyoko helps her and Kaneda to escape to stop Tetsuo, while Shikishima stages a coup d'état against the corrupt parliament and orders the JSDF to kill Tetsuo. Returning to the local bar for some pills, Tetsuo ambushes his former friends, Yamagata and Kai, after they arrive, killing the former in the process; Kaneda vows to avenge Yamagata. Tetsuo travels through Neo-Tokyo, wiping out Shikishima's forces, and eventually arriving at Akira's cryogenic storage dewar in the stadium. Kiyoko has Kei fight Tetsuo, but he easily defeats her and exhumes Akira's remains: dissected, and preserved for future studies. Using a laser rifle, Kaneda fights Tetsuo in a duel; meanwhile, Shikishima fires an orbital weapon at him but is unsuccessful. After Tetsuo destroys the satellite, he psychically builds a prosthetic arm to replace the one he lost.
Shikishima and Kaori separately approach the stadium, where Tetsuo is in immense pain. Shikishima offers Tetsuo the espers' drugs to control his abilities, while Kaori attempts to calm Tetsuo down. However, Kaneda arrives and duels with Tetsuo yet again. Losing control of his powers, Tetsuo mutates into a gigantic mass consuming all matter, engulfing Kaneda and killing Kaori. The mass continues to grow, and the espers awaken Akira. After reuniting with his friends, Akira creates a singularity that draws Tetsuo and Kaneda into another dimension. The espers teleport Shikishima to a safe distance as the singularity destroys Neo-Tokyo in a mirror of Tokyo's destruction, and three agree to help rescue Kaneda, knowing they will not be able to return to this dimension.
In the singularity, Kaneda experiences Tetsuo's and the espers' childhood, including how much Tetsuo trusted Kaneda and how the children were trained and altered before Tokyo's destruction. The espers appear and return Kaneda to his world, informing him that Akira will take Tetsuo to safety and that Kei is developing psychic powers. The singularity suddenly disappears and water floods the city's remains. In the aftermath, Kaneda discovers that Kei and Kai have survived, and they drive off into the ruins, while Shikishima watches the sunrise. Finally in control of his powers, Tetsuo triggers a big bang in an alternate universe.
|Characters||Japanese voice actor||English voice actor
(Electric Media/Kodansha/Streamline, 1989)
|English voice actor
|Shōtarō Kaneda||Mitsuo Iwata||Cam Clarke (Jimmy Flinders)||Johnny Yong Bosch|
|Tetsuo Shima||Nozomu Sasaki||Jan Rabson (Stanley Gurd Jr.)||Joshua Seth|
|Kei||Mami Koyama||Lara Cody (Deanna Morris) as Kay||Wendee Lee|
|Colonel Shikishima||Tarō Ishida||Tony Pope (Anthony Mozdy)||Jamieson Price (James Lyon)|
|Doctor Ōnishi||Mizuho Suzuki||Lewis Arquette (Lewis Lemay)||Simon Prescott (Simon Isaacson)|
|Ryūsaku (Ryu)||Tesshō Genda (Tetsusho Genda)||Steve Kramer (Drew Thomas) as Roy||Bob Buchholz (Robert Wicks)|
|Kiyoko (No. 25)||Fukue Itō (Sachie Ito)||Melora Harte (Marilyn Lane)||Sandy Fox|
|Takashi (No. 26)||Tatsuhiko Nakamura||Barbara Goodson (Barbara Larsen)||Cody MacKenzie|
|Masaru (No. 27)||Kazuhiro Kamifuji (Kazuhiro Kando)||Bob Bergen||Cody MacKenzie|
|Kaori||Yuriko Fuchizaki||Barbara Goodson (Barbara Larsen)||Michelle Ruff (Georgette Rose)|
|Yamagata||Masaaki Ōkura||Tony Pope (Anthony Mozdy) as Yama||Michael Lindsay (Dylan Tully)|
|Kaisuke (Kai)||Takeshi Kusao||Bob Bergen||Anthony Pulcini (Tony Sarducci)|
|Nezu||Hiroshi Ōtake||Tony Pope (Anthony Mozdy) as Insider||Mike Reynolds (Ray Michaels)|
|Terrorist 1||Masato Hirano||Lewis Arquette (Lewis Lemay)||Steve Blum (David Lucas)|
|Terrorist 2||Yukimasa Kishino||Wally Burr (Burt Walters)||Michael McConnohie|
|Shimazaki||Yukimasa Kishino||Tony Pope (Anthony Mozdy)||Robert Axelrod|
|Colonel's Council Liaison||Kōichi Kitamura||Lewis Arquette (Lewis Lemay) as Senator||Michael Forest (Alfred Thor)|
|Eiichi Watanabe||Tarō Arakawa||Bob Bergen||Eddie Frierson (Christy Mathewson)|
|Mitsuru Kuwata||Yukimasa Kishino||Tony Pope (Anthony Mozdy)||Jonathan C. Osborne|
|Yūji Takeyama||Masato Hirano||Jan Rabson (Stanley Gurd Jr.)||Skip Stellrecht (Henry Douglas Grey)|
|Lara Cody (Deanna Morris)
Barbara Goodson (Barbara Larsen)
|Julie Ann Taylor (Jean Howard)
Patricia Ja Lee
Dyanne DiRosario (Bambi Darro)
|Lady Miyako||Kōichi Kitamura||Steve Kramer (Drew Thomas)||William Frederick Knight (William Frederick)|
|Inspector||Michihiro Ikemizu||Bob Bergen||Steve Staley (Steve Cannon)|
|Army||Kazumi Tanaka||Steve Kramer (Drew Thomas)||Tony Oliver (Rafael Antonio Oliver)|
|Harukiya Bartender||Yōsuke Akimoto||Tony Pope (Anthony Mozdy)||John Snyder (Ivan Buckley)|
While working on Akira, Katsuhiro Otomo did not intend to adapt the series outside of the manga; however, he became "very intrigued" when the offer to develop his work for the screen was put before him. He agreed to an anime film adaptation of the series on the grounds that he retained creative control of the project — this insistence was based on his experiences working on Harmagedon. The Akira Committee was the name given to a partnership of several major Japanese entertainment companies brought together to realize production of an Akira film. The group's assembly was necessitated by the unconventionally high budget of around ¥1,100,000,000, intended to achieve the desired epic standard equal to Otomo's over 2,000-page manga tale. The committee consisted of Kodansha, Mainichi Broadcasting System, Bandai, Hakuhodo, Toho, Laserdisc Corporation and Sumitomo Corporation who all forwarded money and promotion towards the film. The animation for the film was provided for by animation producers, Tokyo Movie Shinsha (now TMS Entertainment).
At the time, most anime was notorious for cutting production corners with limited animation, such as having only the characters' mouths move with basic lip sync while their faces remained static. Akira broke from this trend with detailed scenes, pre-scored dialogue (wherein the dialogue is recorded before the film starts production and the movements of the characters' lips are animated to match it; a first for an anime production, although the voice actors did perform with the aid of animatics), and super-fluid motion as realized in the film's more than 160,000 animation cels. Computer-generated imagery was also used in the film, primarily to animate the pattern indicator used by Doctor Ōnishi, but it was additionally used to plot the paths of falling objects, model parallax effects on backgrounds, and tweak lighting and lens flares. Unlike its live-action predecessors, Akira also had the budget to show a fully realized futuristic Tokyo.
The teaser trailer for Akira was released in 1987. The film's main production was completed in 1987, with sound recording and mixing performed in early 1988. It was released in 1988, two years before the manga officially ended in 1990. Otomo is claimed to have filled 2,000 pages of notebooks, containing various ideas and character designs for the film, but the final storyboard consisted of a trimmed-down 738 pages. He had great difficulty completing the manga; Otomo has stated that the inspiration for its conclusion arose from a conversation that he had with Alejandro Jodorowsky in 1990. He later recalled that the film project had to begin with the writing of an ending that would bring suitable closure to major characters, storylines, and themes without being extraordinarily lengthy, so that he could know in reverse order which manga elements would make the cut into the anime and thus suitably resolve the manga's various elements into a lean, two-hour story.
Otomo is a big fan of Tetsujin 28-go. As a result, his naming conventions match the characters featured in Tetsujin 28-go: Kaneda shares his name with the protagonist of Tetsujin 28-go; Colonel Shikishima shares his name with Professor Shikishima of Tetsujin 28-go, while Tetsuo is named after Shikishima's son Tetsuo Shikishima; Akira's Ryūsaku is named after Ryūsaku Murasame. In addition, Takashi has a "26" tattooed on his hand which closely resembles the font used in Tetsujin 28-go. The namesake of the series, Akira, is the 28th in a line of psychics that the government has developed, the same number as Tetsujin-28.
Akira was released by Toho on 16 July 1988. Fledgling North American distribution company Streamline Pictures soon acquired an existing English-language rendition created by Electric Media Inc. for Kodansha, which saw limited release in North American theaters on 25 December 1989. Streamline is reported to have become the film's distributor when both George Lucas and Steven Spielberg labelled it unmarketable in the U.S. In the UK, Akira was theatrically released by ICA Projects on 25 January 1991 and was re-released on 13 July 2013 celebrating the 25th anniversary of the film and again on 21 September 2016. In Australia, Akira was theatrically released by Island World Communications and distributed by Satellite Entertainment, later on by Manga Entertainment, then Madman Entertainment after Manga Entertainment's Australian branch merged with Madman. In Canada, the Streamline dub was released by Lionsgate (at the time known as C/FP Distribution), who would eventually become Manga Entertainment's owner through their media operating unit Starz Distribution, in 1990. In 2001, Pioneer released a new English dub which was produced by Animaze and ZRO Limit Productions and was presented in select theaters from March through December 2001. GKIDS later announced that it would distribute the film within North America, with a theatrical release scheduled for December 2018.
VHS releases included the initial Streamline Video offering (May 1991), later wider distribution by MGM/UA Home Video, and a subtitled edition from Orion Home Video (September 1993). In the UK, Akira was released on video by Island World Communications in 1991. The success of this release led to the creation of Manga Entertainment, who later took over the release. The original VHS release of Akira started up Manga Entertainment Australia and VHS distribution was handled by Ronin Films and PolyGram until 1994 when Siren Entertainment took over all of Manga Entertainment Australia's distribution including Akira under a special license from PolyGram, who handled Island's video distribution. Akira was re-released on video in 1994, and again on DVD in 2001 and distributed by Madman Entertainment and The AV Channel. Pioneer Entertainment issued a DVD and a VHS with a new English dub (the dub produced by Animaze) in 2001. This was one of the few releases from Geneon to feature THX-certified audio and video, making it the first anime certified with THX. In 2002, Manga released a two-disc DVD featuring the new Pioneer/Animaze English dub followed in 2004 by another two-disc set containing the original Japanese as well as both the Streamline and Pioneer/Animaze dubs. This version did not contain standard English subtitles, only closed captioning subtitles. In 2005, Manga Entertainment and Boulevard UMD released Akira on UMD for the Sony PSP in the United Kingdom using the original Streamline dub.
In 1992, video-distribution company the Criterion Collection, which specializes in licensing "important classic and contemporary films", released a LaserDisc edition of Akira. The release is notable in that Akira is the first animated film to be released by Criterion and for more than twenty years their sole animated film to be released until their 2014 Blu-ray/DVD release of Fantastic Mr. Fox (2009).
A Blu-ray disc edition of the film was released on 24 February 2009 in North America by Bandai Entertainment under the Honneamise label. A Blu-ray edition of Akira was subsequently released in Australia by Madman Entertainment under exclusive license from Manga Entertainment UK and Kodansha. Madman has recently released a DVD/Blu-ray combo which license is separate from the standalone Blu-ray release because instead of the DVD version being the Manga Video UK version, it uses Madman/Manga's 2001 Special Edition DVD release which is licensed from Manga UK. The Blu-ray release is the very first to use the highest sampling rate currently possible (Japanese Dolby TrueHD 192 kHz because of its analog roots) and is also the first to use the hypersonic effect (only available in this track and via a high-end audio system). As well as Japanese with English subtitles, the Blu-ray also features the 2001 Pioneer/Animaze English dub (Dolby TrueHD 48 kHz). The DVD version of Akira has been re-released in 2012 by Bandai Entertainment. The film was licensed again by Funimation following Bandai Entertainment's closure shortly after its DVD release. The Funimation release includes both the Streamline and Pioneer dubs. Funimation released the 25th anniversary Blu-ray/DVD combo and separate DVD release on 12 November 2013, which contain both English dubs.
The Pioneer dub of the film has aired twice on Adult Swim's Toonami block. Once on 7 December 2013, with a rating of TV-MA-V, and again on 20 December 2014, both times with explicit language and nudity censored. The Streamline dub version premiered on The Sci-Fi Channel in the mid-90s during their week-long anime events and Saturday Anime block. It has aired numerous times on Australian FTA station SBS.
Reception and legacyEdit
As of September 2014, the film has an 87% "fresh" rating on Rotten Tomatoes, based on 46 critics with an average score of 7.5/10, the general consensus states: "Akira is distractingly bloody and violent, but its phenomenal animation and sheer kinetic energy helped set the standard for modern anime." The title has been regarded as one of the greatest animated movies of all time and prompted an increase in popularity of anime movies in the US and, generally, outside Japan. It is still admired for its exceptional visuals. In Channel 4's 2005 poll of the 100 greatest animations of all time featuring both film and television, Akira came in at number 16. On Empire magazine's list of the 500 greatest movies of all time, Akira is number 440. It showed again on Empire's list of The 100 Best Films Of World Cinema, coming in at #51. IGN also named it 14th on its list of Top 25 Animated Movies of All-Time. The Akira anime also made TIME magazine's list of top 5 anime DVDs. The film also made number 16 on Time Out's top 50 animated movie list and number 5 on the Total Film Top 50 Animated Films list. The film was ranked #1 on Wizard's Anime Magazine on their "Top 50 Anime released in North America". Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times selected Akira as his "Video Pick of the Week" in 1989 on Siskel & Ebert and the Movies. For its wider 2001 release, he gave the film "Thumbs Up."
Akira is regarded by many critics as a landmark anime film, one that influenced much of the art in the anime world that followed its release with many illustrators in the manga industry citing the film as an important influence. Manga author Masashi Kishimoto, for example, recalls becoming fascinated with the way the poster was made and wished to imitate the series' creator Katsuhiro Otomo's style. The film led the way for the growth of popularity of anime outside Japan. Akira is considered a forerunner of the second wave of anime fandom that began in the early 1990s and has gained a massive cult following since then. It is credited with setting the scene for anime franchises such as Pokémon, Naruto and Dragon Ball to become global cultural phenomenons. Akira has also been cited as a major influence on live-action films such as The Matrix, Tetsuo: The Iron Man, Chronicle, Looper, Midnight Special, and Inception, as well as television shows such as Stranger Things. John Gaeta cited Akira as artistic inspiration for the bullet time effect in The Matrix films. Akira has also been credited for influencing the Star Wars franchise, including the prequel film trilogy and the Clone Wars film and television series. The film has also influenced the work of musicians such as Kanye West, who paid homage to Akira in the "Stronger" music video.
Anime News Network's Bamboo Dong commends the Limited Edition's DVD for its "superbly translated" English subtitles and the commendable English dubbing, which "sticks very close to the English translation, and the voice actors deliver their lines with emotion". THEM Anime's Raphael See applauds the film's "astounding special effects and clean, crisp animation". Chris Beveridge comments on the Japanese audio, which brings "the forward soundstage nicely into play when required. Dialogue is well placed, with several key moments of directionality used perfectly". Janet Maslin of The New York Times commends Otomo's artwork, stating "the drawings of Neo-Tokyo by night are so intricately detailed that all the individual windows of huge skyscrapers appear distinct. And these night scenes glow with subtle, vibrant color". Richard Harrison of The Washington Post comments on the pace of the film, stating that the author "has condensed the narrative sprawl of the comics to provide coherence, though there's a bit of "Back to the Future Part II" incompleteness to the story. That hardly matters, since the film moves with such kinetic energy that you'll be hanging on for dear life".
Variety commends the film's "imaginative and detailed design of tomorrow to the booming Dolby effects on the soundtrack" but criticizes the "slight stiffness in the drawing of human movement". Kim Newman of Empire commends the film's "scintillating animated visuals, with not one – not one – computer-assisted shot in sight". Phelim O'Neill of The Guardian draws a parallel on Akira's influence on the science-fiction genre to Blade Runner and Stanley Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey. Chicago Tribune's Dave Kehr commends Otomo's "excellent animation-specific ideas: Vehicles leave little color trails as they roar through the night, and there are a number of dream sequences that make nice use of the medium`s ability to confound scale and distort perspective". Helen McCarthy in 500 Essential Anime Movies claims that the anime "remains fresh and exciting, easily holding its own against the products of two decades of massive technical advancement". Meanwhile, on February 2004, Dan Persons of Cinefantastique listed the film as one of the "10 Essential Animations", simply referring to the film as "the film that changed everything."
Johnny Yong Bosch, Kaneda's voice actor in the Pioneer English dub, was nominated for Best Actor and Best Actor in a Comedy at American Anime Awards, but lost to fellow Naruto and Persona voice actors Vic Mignogna and Dave Wittenberg, respectively.
|AKIRA: Original Soundtrack (Symphonic Suite AKIRA)|
|Soundtrack album by Geinō Yamashirogumi (芸能山城組)|
|Genre||Anime, film, gamelan, noh|
|Label||Victor Music Industries, Demon Records/JVC Records|
|Geinō Yamashirogumi (芸能山城組) chronology|
AKIRA: Original Soundtrack (Symphonic Suite AKIRA) was recorded by Geinō Yamashirogumi (芸能山城組). The music was composed and conducted by musical director Shoji Yamashiro (pseudonym of Tsutomu Ōhashi). It features music which was additionally re-recorded for release. "Kaneda", "Battle Against Clown" and "Exodus From the Underground Fortress" are really part of the same song cycle — elements of "Battle Against Clown" can be heard during the opening bike sequence, for example. The score is generally sequenced in the same order that the music occurs in the film. The North American version featured extensive production notes by David Keith Riddick and Robert Napton.
AKIRA: The Original Japanese Soundtrack; an alternate soundtrack was also released. This version included music as it appeared in the film with dialogue and sound-effects albeit ordered out of sequence.
In 1988, Taito released an Akira adventure game for the Famicom exclusively in Japan. Another Akira game for the Atari Jaguar, Super NES, Genesis and Sega CD was being developed, but cancelled along with prospects of another Akira title for the Game Boy and Game Gear handheld consoles. International Computer Entertainment produced a video game based on Akira for the Amiga and Amiga CD32 in 1994. To coincide with the DVD release in 2002, Bandai released Akira Psycho Ball, a pinball simulator for the PlayStation 2.
In 2002, Warner Bros. acquired the rights to create a live-action remake of Akira as a seven-figure deal. However, the live-action remake has undergone several failed attempts to produce it, with at least five different directors and ten different writers known to have been attached to it. The directors have had some freedom with the project; according to writer Gary Whitta who had written one draft of a live-action screenplay, they have been told that Otomo had instructed those working on the film "basically to not be afraid to change things, that he wanted to see an original and different interpretation, not just a straight-up remake". Otomo himself said in a June 2017 interview that as he is "basically done with Akira" as a manga, that "if someone wants to do something new with Akira then I am mostly okay with that", with the only condition that he can review and approve of any scenario a writer might take it for a live-action film.
IGN concluded that long-term troubles with producing the live-action film come from two areas. First, there has been the fear of whitewashing or racebending, casting American or other Western actors in lieu of Japanese ones, which has come to light when various actors have been named for roles. Secondly, Akira itself is not a story that is easy to relocate outside of Japan, due to the influence on the original story of Japan's role in World War II, including the atomic bombings of Japan, and their own Unit 731.
Shortly after Warner Bros. acquired the rights, Stephen Norrington was slated to direct with James Robinson writing the screenplay and Dan Lin producing. Norrington had planned to make the remake more appealing to Western audiences, making Kaneda and Tetsuo brothers. Following the commercial failure of The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen in 2003, which both Norrington and Robinson were also on, the project was put on hold.
Director Ruairi Robinson announced in 2008 he was teaming with Whitta to adopt the manga for live-action, breaking the narrative out over two films with the first to have been completed and released by 2009. Producer Andrew Lazar said that the first film would cover volumes 1 through 3 of the manga, with the rest covered in the second film. Whitta, in a 2015 interview, said that the story would have taken place in a version of Manhattan that has become part of the sovereignty of Japan, renaming it as New Tokyo. This would allow them to have used a mix of Western and Asian actors as to avoid concerns that they would be whitewashing the project.
Ruairi Robinson left the project in 2009 and was replaced by directors Allen and Albert Hughes, though later Albert Hughes went solo with the project by 2011. They used Whitta's script with modifications by Mark Fergus and Hawk Ostby with an aim for a PG-13 rating. Around 2011, a version of the Akira script leaked online; though it was unclear if this was Whitta's or Fergus/Ostby's version, the scripts deviated significantly from the source material in what was considered a negative way according to IGN, such as making Akira a "psychotic murderous creepy child", inclusion of heavy-handed references to the September 11 attacks, and characters written in a misogynistic fashion. Around this same time, casting calls for the film led to accusations of whitewashing. Shortly after these events, Albert Hugest left the project citing "amicable creative differences".
Since the project began, several writers, directors (including George Miller and Christopher Nolan), producers, actors and actresses have been attached to the project.
George Takei spoke with The Advocate in April 2011 about the casting rumors at that time, stating that any decision to cast white actors in Akira would offend both Asians and the fans of the original manga or animated film.
On 8 March 2015, the planned director Jaume Collet-Serra told Collider.com in an interview that there was no progress on the film and planned to take a break from directing. However, the studio might get the film made eventually. On 8 June 2015, The Hollywood Reporter has reported that the studio has resumed work on the film and Marco Ramirez, known for his work as one of the showrunners for Marvel's Daredevil, will write the film. Warner Bros. offered George Miller the chance to direct the film at one point but he turned it down due to commitments to other projects. According to Jeff Snider at Meet the Movie Press, the studio is in talks with Justin Lin to direct the film. After the success of Get Out, Jordan Peele was offered the director's chair but passed on it.
In January 2016, Katsuhiro Otomo revealed in a French comic festival that an anime television series was being considered.
In September 2017, it was announced director Taika Waititi was in talks to possibly be the director for a live-action adaptation. Waititi later revealed his intent to keep the ethnicity of the characters intact.
- "Review: 'Akira'". Variety. 31 December 1987. Archived from the original on 18 October 2013. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- "How 'Akira' Has Influenced All Your Favourite TV, Film and Music". VICE.
- KINENOTE. Issue 1000–1003. Kinema Junpo, 1989, p. 171.
- "Akira as #1 anime movie". Movie Cricket. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
- "Ten best anime movies of all time". Screen Junkies. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
- O'Neill, Phelim (21 October 2010). "Akira: No 22 best sci-fi and fantasy film of all time". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
- "Akira". Top 50 Science Fiction Films. Film4. 2011. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
- Barone, Matt (8 June 2011). "27. Akira (1988)". The 50 Best Sci-Fi Movies. Complex. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
- Hughes, David (2003). Comic Book Movies. Virgin Books. p. 27. ISBN 0-7535-0767-6.
- "Akira (movie)". CrystalAcids.com. Retrieved 24 August 2014.
- "Akira (movie)". CrystalAcids.com. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
- Akira Production Report (DVD). Madman Entertainment. 13 November 2001.
- Production insights, Akira #3 (Epic Comics, 1988).
- Interview with Akira creator Katsuhiro Otomo (3/4)
- "Akira Program Notes". Austin Film Society. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
- Director Interview (DVD). FUNimation Entertainment. 12 November 2013.
- Interviews with Streamline Pictures' co-founders Carl Macek and Jerry Beck in Protoculture Addicts #9 (November 1990), and company spotlight in Protoculture Addicts #18 (July 1992).
- "Akira". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 24 August 2014.
- "Otomo Takes Manhattan", Marvel Age #100 (Marvel Comics, May 1991).
- @Criterion (25 October 2011). "In 1992 we released Katsuhiro Otomo's landmark AKIRA on laserdisc: ow.ly/i/jTnf" (Tweet). Retrieved 16 August 2015 – via Twitter.
- "About Criterion". The Criterion Collection. The Criterion Collection. Retrieved 16 August 2015.
- Amidi, Amid (27 December 2013). "Criterion's First Animated Feature Release in 20 Years: A Sign of Things to Come?". Cartoon Brew. Cartoon Brew, LLC. Retrieved 16 August 2015.
- Akira on Blu-ray."Bandai Announces Akira Blu-ray" .Retrieved on 14 October 2008. Archived 3 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Akira comes on Blu-ray this Summer – I4U News". I4u.com. 23 March 2007. Archived from the original on 7 April 2009. Retrieved 13 March 2009.
- Madman Entertainment release of Akira on Blu-Ray. Madman.com.au .Retrieved on 19 November 2009. Archived 3 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Funi Adds Seikishi, Yamato: R, One Piece: Strong World, Fairy Tail Film, Akira". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on 30 March 2014. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
- "Akira 25th Anniversary Edition Includes Streamline, Pioneer Dubs". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on 29 March 2014. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
- "Akira DVD/Blu-ray 25th Anniversary Edition (Hyb)". Anime News Network. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
- "Toonami to Show Akira, Summer Wars, 1st FMA Film, Trigun Film". Anime News Network. 16 November 2013. Archived from the original on 6 April 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
- Akira | Movie Trailer, News, Cast, Interviews | SBS Movies Archived 16 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Akira". Rotten Tomatoes.
- "Channel4 – 100 Greatest Cartoons". Channel4.com. Archived from the original on 20 May 2009. Retrieved 27 June 2009.
- "The 500 greatest Movies of All Time". Empireonline.com. Archived from the original on 14 December 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2009.
- "The 100 Best Films Of World Cinema". Archived from the original on 14 October 2013.
- "TOP 25 ANIMATED MOVIES OF ALL-TIME". IGN.
- "5 Top Anime Movies on DVD". TIME. 31 July 2005. Archived from the original on 25 August 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2011.(subscription required)
- "Time Out's 50 Greatest Animated Films – Part 4 – Time Out Film – Time Out London". Timeout.com. Archived from the original on 6 January 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
- 50 Greatest Animated Movies Archived 23 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Wizard lists Top 50 Anime". Anime News Network. 6 July 2001. Archived from the original on 2 April 2014. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- "Akira – Movie Reviews, Trailers, Pictures – Rotten Tomatoes". Uk.rottentomatoes.com. Archived from the original on 7 March 2009. Retrieved 13 March 2009.
- Kishimoto, Masashi (2006). Naruto, Volume 10. Viz Media. p. 157. ISBN 978-1-4215-0240-3.
- "200 Things That Rocked Our World: Bullet Time". Empire. EMAP (200): 136. February 2006.
- "Tetsuo: The Iron Man". Mandiapple.com.
- Woerner, Meredith (2 February 2012). "Chronicle captures every teen's fantasy of fighting back, say film's creators". io9. Archived from the original on 26 February 2014. Retrieved 25 May 2012.
- "Rian Johnson Talks Working with Joseph Gordon-Levitt on LOOPER, Hollywood's Lack of Originality, Future Projects and More". Collider.
- Inside ‘Stranger Things’: The Duffer Bros. on How They Made the TV Hit of the Summer, The Daily Beast
- "THE CINEMA BEHIND STAR WARS: AKIRA". StarWars.com.
- Dong, Bamboo. "Akira Limited Edition Metal DVD Case". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on 4 April 2014. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- See, Raphael. "Akira". THEM Anime. Archived from the original on 3 April 2014. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- Beveridge, Chris (17 April 2002). "Akira: Special Edition (& Limited Edition)". Mania.com. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- Maslin, Janet (19 October 1990). "Akira (1988) Review/Film; A Tokyo of the Future In Vibrant Animation". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 19 December 2013. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- Harrison, Richard (25 December 1989). "'Akira' (NR)". The Washington Post. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- Newman, Kim (18 March 2002). "Akira". Empire. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- O'Neill, Phelim (24 June 2011). "Akira – review". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- Kehr, Dave (30 March 1990). "Japanese Cartoon Akira Isn`t One For The Kids". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- McCarthy, Helen. 500 Essential Anime Movies: The Ultimate Guide. — Harper Design, 2009. — P. 12. — 528 p. — ISBN 978-0061474507
- Persons, Dan (February–March 2004). "The Americanization of Anime: 10 Essential Animations". Cinefantastique. 36 (1): 48. Retrieved April 28, 2017.
- "American Anime Awards Finalists Announced". Anime News Network. 7 February 2007. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
- Lillard, Kevin. "American Anime Awards". Newtype USA. 6 (5) p. 20. May 2007. ISSN 1541-4817.
- McFarland, Kevin (9 September 2013). "Akira predicted that the 2020 Olympics would be held in Tokyo". Retrieved 27 July 2016.
- Ashcraft, Brian (27 September 2013). "The 2020 Tokyo Olympics Were Predicted 30 Years Ago by Akira". Retrieved 27 July 2016.
- Review of the NES/Famicom game by Mobygames.com Archived 12 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Europa!". GameFan. No. Volume 2, Issue 5. Shinno Media. April 1994. pp. 136–137.
- Szczepaniak, John (22 December 2012). "Jim Gregory interview – AKIRA – SNES". Hardcore Gaming 101. Archived from the original on 2 January 2014. Retrieved 27 August 2013.
- Review of the AmigaCD game by Mobygames.com Archived 20 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
- Review of the Akira pinball simulator by Tothegame.com Archived 11 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
- Linder, Brian et al. (12 April 2002). "Akira Hollywood Remake!?" IGN.com. Retrieved 24 October 2006. Archived 13 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
- Busch, Anita; Flemming, Mike (September 19, 2017). "'Akira' Back? 'Thor: Ragnarok' Helmer Taika Waititi In Talks". Deadline. Retrieved September 25, 2017.
- Marc, Christopher (April 6, 2017). "Akira: The Tortured History of he Unmade Live-Action Adaptation". IGN. Retrieved August 31, 2017.
- Kit, Borys (5 January 2012). "'Akira' Production Offices Shut Down As Warner Bros. Scrutinizes Budget (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 16 March 2014.
- Anderson, Kyle (June 1, 2017). "AKIRA CREATOR SAYS HE MUST APPROVE ANY LIVE-ACTION FILM". The Nerdist. Retrieved January 30, 2018.
- Steve 'Frosty' Weintraub. "Exclusive: Producer Andrew Lazar Video Interview JONAH HEX; Plus Updates on AKIRA, ONE FINGER SALUTE, GET SMART 2, More". Collider.com.
- "Screenwriter Gary Whitta Says His AKIRA Script Took Place in a Japanese-owned Manhattan". Collider.com.
- "Warner, Leonardo DiCaprio to Produce Live-Action Akira". Archived from the original on 31 March 2014.
- Steve 'Frosty' Weintraub. "Exclusive AKIRA Movie Update". Collider.com.
- "Gary Whitta Provides Akira Update". Archived from the original on 12 November 2013.
- Slashfilm.com "Rumor: Zac Efron in Albert Hughes' Akira?" by Peter Sciretta, Retrieved 5 March 2011 Akira at the Wayback Machine (archived 2 February 2014)
- "Another Akira Casting Rumor Emerges From the Frozen Locker". Archived from the original on 1 February 2014.
- Slashfilm.com Archived 2 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Is James Franco Going to Play Kaneda in ‘Akira’? Rereport from Spanish site Ecartelera.com Retrieved 5 March 2011
- Mike Fleming. "'Akira' Focuses On Short List Of Actors After Getting Steve Kloves Rewrite". Deadline. Archived from the original on 29 April 2014.
- Todd Brown. "Garrett Hedlund Formally Offered Lead In AKIRA". Twitchfilm. Archived from the original on 9 September 2012.
- Mike Fleming. "Gary Oldman Coveted By Warner Bros For 'Akira' And 'Arthur & Lancelot'". Deadline. Archived from the original on 4 March 2014.
- Borys Kit (3 November 2011). "Garrett Hedlund in Negotiations to Star in Akira for Warner Bros". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 16 March 2014.
- Borys Kit. "BREAKING: No Oldman For AKIRA, WB Offering The Colonel To Ken Watanabe". The Hollywood Reporter.
- Ross von Metzke. "Takei to WB: Do the Right Thing". The Advocate. Archived from the original on 23 April 2011.
- Fleming, Jr, Mike. "Dante Harper Boards Fox 2000s 'The Secret Of The Temple'". Deadline. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
- Memiroff, Perrt (8 March 2015). "Jaume Collet-Serra Says No Progress Has Been Made On Live Action AKIRA Movie". Collider.com.
- Kit, Borys (8 June 2015). "'Daredevil' Showrunner to Write 'Akira' Adaptation for Warner Bros (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter.
- Bulter, Tom (6 October 2015). "George Miller Turned Down The Live Action Akira Remake (Exclusive)". Yahoo UK. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
- Akira with Justin Lin?, Sister Act 3, The Rock as the Wolfman & More | Meet The Movie Press
- Chitwood, Adam (May 16, 2017). "Jordan Peele Explains Why He Won't Be Directing 'Akira'". Collider. Retrieved January 30, 2018.
- "Akira TV series in development, hints creator". FACT Magazine.
- Sharf, Zack (October 11, 2017). "Taika Waititi Teases 'Akira' Film Adaptation, Says No One Has to Worry About Whitewashing". Indiewire. Retrieved January 30, 2018.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Akira|
- Official website (in Japanese)
- Official website (US)
- Akira on IMDb
- Akira at Rotten Tomatoes
- "Akira" (in Japanese). Japanese Movie Database. Archived from the original on 21 August 2007. Retrieved 19 July 2007.
- Akira (film) at Anime News Network's encyclopedia
- BlueBlade Akira (English-based fansite)
- Akira 2019 (English-based fansite)
- Official Cast and Crew credits for 1989 Streamline dub
- Official Cast and Crew credits for 2001 Pioneer dub
- TIME review (subscription required)