Mad Max

Mad Max is a 1979 Australian dystopian action thriller film directed by George Miller, produced by Byron Kennedy, and starring Mel Gibson as "Mad" Max Rockatansky, Joanne Samuel, Hugh Keays-Byrne, Steve Bisley, Tim Burns, and Roger Ward. James McCausland and Miller wrote the screenplay from a story by Miller and Kennedy. Set in a future Australia, the film presents a saga of societal collapse, murder, and revenge in which an unhinged policeman becomes embroiled in a violent feud with a savage motorcycle gang. Principal photography for Mad Max took place in and around Melbourne, and lasted six weeks.

Mad Max
Australian theatrical release poster
Directed byGeorge Miller
Produced byByron Kennedy
Screenplay by
  • James McCausland
  • George Miller
Story by
  • George Miller
  • Byron Kennedy
Music byBrian May
CinematographyDavid Eggby
Edited by
Distributed by
Release date
  • 12 April 1979 (1979-04-12)
Running time
93 minutes[1]
Box officeUS$100 million[3]

The film initially received a polarized reception upon its release in April 1979, although it won four AACTA Awards and attracted a cult following, while its critical reputation has grown since. Filmed on a budget of A$400,000, it earned more than US$100 million worldwide in gross revenue and held the Guinness record for most profitable film. The success of Mad Max has been credited for further opening up the global market to Australian New Wave films. The film became the first in the Mad Max series, giving rise to three sequels, Mad Max 2 (1981), Beyond Thunderdome (1985), and Fury Road (2015). In 2020, a fourth sequel, to be titled Furiosa, starring Anya Taylor-Joy and Chris Hemsworth, was announced.


In a dystopian Australia "a few years from now", berserk motorbike gang member Crawford "Nightrider" Montazano kills a rookie officer of the Main Force Patrol (MFP) – Australia's highway patrol unit – and escapes in a Pursuit Special. Nightrider manages to elude other MFP officers before the organization's top pursuit man, Max Rockatansky, disrupts his concentration during a high-speed chase, resulting in his death in a fiery crash.

At the MFP garage, Max is shown a supercharged V8-powered black Pursuit Special. A conversation between Max's superior Fifi Macaffee and Police Commissioner Labatouche reveals that the Pursuit Special was authorised as a bribe to keep Max on the force.

Meanwhile, Nightrider's motorbike gang, led by Toecutter and Bubba Zanetti, run roughshod over a town, vandalising property, stealing fuel, and terrorising the population. They trap a young couple in a car before destroying it and raping the couple. Max and fellow officer Jim Goose arrest Toecutter's young protégé Johnny the Boy at the scene. When neither the rape victims nor any of the townspeople show for Johnny's trial, the federal courts close the case, with Johnny's attorneys releasing him into Bubba's custody over Goose's furious objections.

While Goose visits a nightclub in the city that night, Johnny sabotages his police motorbike. The next day, after the motorbike then locks up at high speed and highsides, a dazed but surprisingly-uninjured Goose borrows a ute to haul his bike back to the MFP. However, Johnny ambushes Goose by throwing a brake drum through his windshield, causing him to crash. At Toecutter's insistence, Johnny throws a match into the wreck of the ute, igniting the petrol and burning Goose alive. After seeing Goose's charred body in a hospital intensive-care unit, Max becomes disillusioned with the MFP, and informs Fifi that he will resign to maintain what sanity he has left. Fifi convinces Max to take a vacation first before he submits his final letter of resignation.

Max takes his wife Jessie and their infant son - referred to only as "Sprog", Australian slang for a child - on vacation in a panel van. When they stop to fix the spare tyre, Jessie takes Sprog to buy ice cream. They encounter Toecutter and his gang, who attempt to molest Jessie, but Jessie kicks Toecutter in the crotch and escapes in the van. They flee to a remote farm owned by an elderly friend named May Swaisey. Toecutter's gang follows them there and ambushes Jessie in the woods. With May's help, Jessie and Sprog escape, but when they try to drive away, they inadvertently damage the van, which overheats. Jessie and Sprog attempt to escape on foot, but are run over by the gang. Max arrives to a horrifying sight: Sprog is instantly killed, while a badly-injured Jessie lies comatose in a hospital ICU, eventually succumbing to her injuries.

Ultimately driven into a rage by the loss of his family, Max dons his police uniform and takes the black Pursuit Special from the MFP garage to pursue and eliminate the gang. He kills several gang members by ramming them off a bridge at high speed, kills Bubba during an ambush and forces Toecutter into the path of a speeding semi-trailer truck. Finally, Max locates Johnny at a car wreck stealing the boots of its dead driver. Ignoring Johnny's pleas, Max handcuffs Johnny's ankle to the wrecked vehicle and then sets a crude time-delay fuse utilising a slow petrol leak and Johnny's lighter before throwing him a hacksaw, offering him the choice of sawing through either the handcuffs or his ankle in order to escape. The vehicle explodes as Max drives away.




George Miller was a medical doctor in Sydney, working in a hospital emergency room where he saw many injuries and deaths of the types depicted in the film. He also witnessed many car accidents growing up in rural Queensland and lost at least three friends to accidents as a teenager.[4]

While in residency at a Sydney hospital, Miller met amateur filmmaker Byron Kennedy at a summer film school in 1971. The duo produced a short film, Violence in the Cinema, Part 1, which was screened at a number of film festivals and won several awards. Eight years later, the duo produced Mad Max, working with first-time screenwriter James McCausland (who appears in the film as the bearded man in an apron in front of the diner).

According to Miller, his interest while writing Mad Max was "a silent movie with sound", employing highly kinetic images reminiscent of Buster Keaton and Harold Lloyd while the narrative itself was basic and simple. Miller believed that audiences would find his violent story more believable if set in a bleak dystopian future.[5] Miller knew little about writing a script, but he had read Pauline Kael’s essay ‘Raising Kane’, and concluded that most major American scriptwriters, like Herman Mankiewicz and Ben Hecht, were former journalists. So he hired one: James McCausland, the Melbourne finance editor of The Australian, with whom Miller had previously bonded at a party as a fellow film buff. McCausland was paid roughly $3500 for about a year’s worth of writing. The basic concept for the film was already established when McCausland was brought on to the project. He worked from a one-page outline prepared by Miller, writing each evening from about 7pm to midnight. Miller would then arrive at 6am the next day to confer on the pages. McCausland had never written a script before, and did no formal or informal study in preparation, other than going repeatedly to the cinema with Miller, and discussing the dramatic structure of westerns, road movies, and action films. McCausland described taking the lead in writing the dialogue; while Miller was concerned with giving his thoughts on the narrative context of each part, and with thinking through the visual beats of how things would unfold on screen. The ornate and hyper-verbal speech of Mad Max’s villains, like the manic Nightrider in the opening sequence, which would recur through the subsequent films in the franchise, in this sense stems from McCausland’s work, albeit under Miller’s instruction.[6]. McCausland drew heavily from his observations of the 1973 oil crisis' effects on Australian motorists:

Yet there were further signs of the desperate measures individuals would take to ensure mobility. A couple of oil strikes that hit many pumps revealed the ferocity with which Australians would defend their right to fill a tank. Long queues formed at the stations with petrol—and anyone who tried to sneak ahead in the queue met raw violence. ... George and I wrote the [Mad Max] script based on the thesis that people would do almost anything to keep vehicles moving and the assumption that nations would not consider the huge costs of providing infrastructure for alternative energy until it was too late.

— James McCausland, writing on peak oil in The Courier-Mail, 2006[7]

Kennedy and Miller first took the film to Graham Burke of Roadshow, who was enthusiastic. The producers felt they would be unable to raise money from the government bodies "because Australian producers were making art films, and the corporations and commissions seemed to endorse them whole-heartedly", according to Kennedy.[8]

They designed a 40-page presentation, circulated it widely, and eventually raised the money. Kennedy and Miller also contributed funds themselves by doing three months of emergency medical calls, with Kennedy driving the car while Miller did the doctoring.[8] Miller claimed the final budget was between $350,000 and $400,000.[9] His brother Bill Miller was an associate producer on the film.[10]


George Miller had considered an American actor to "get the film seen as widely as possible" and even travelled to Los Angeles, but eventually opted to not do so as "the whole budget would be taken up by a so-called American name."[5] So instead the cast would deliberately feature lesser known actors so they did not carry past associations with them.[4] Miller's first choice for the role of Max was the Irish-born James Healey, who at the time worked at a Melbourne abattoir and was seeking a new acting job. Upon reading the script Healey declined, finding the meager, terse dialogue too unappealing.[11]

Casting director Mitch Mathews invited for Mad Max a class of recent National Institute of Dramatic Art graduates, specifically asking a NIDA teacher for "spunky young guys". Among these actors was Mel Gibson, whose audition impressed Miller and Matthews and earned him the role of Max. An apocryphal tale stated that Gibson went to auditions with a beat-up face following a fight, but this has been denied by both Matthews and Miller. Gibson's friend and classmate Steve Bisley, who worked with him in his only screen role, 1976's Summer City, became Max's partner Jim Goose. A classmate of both, Judy Davis, was said to have auditioned and to have been passed over,[11] but Miller has declared she was only in Matthews' studio to accompany Gibson and Bisley.[5]

Most of the biker gang extras were members of actual Australian outlaw motorcycle clubs[citation needed] and rode their own motorcycles in the film. They were even forced to ride the motorcycles from their residence in Sydney to the shooting locations in Melbourne because the budget did not allow for aerial transport.[5] Three of the main cast members (Hugh Keays-Byrne, Roger Ward and Vincent Gil) had previously appeared in Stone, a 1974 film about biker gangs that is said to have inspired Miller.[12]


Max's yellow Interceptor was a 1974 Ford Falcon XB sedan (previously a Victoria police car) with a 351 c.i.d. Cleveland V8 engine.[13]

Mad Max Interceptor replica outside the Boston, Massachusetts area

The Big Bopper, driven by Roop and Charlie, was also a 1974 Ford Falcon XB sedan and a former Victoria police car, but was powered by a 302 c.i.d. V8.[14] The March Hare, driven by Sarse and Scuttle, was an in-line-six-powered 1972 Ford Falcon XA sedan (this car was formerly a Melbourne taxi cab).[15]

The most memorable car, Max's black Pursuit Special was a 1973 Ford XB Falcon GT351, a limited edition hardtop (sold in Australia from December 1973 to August 1976), which was primarily modified by Murray Smith, Peter Arcadipane, and Ray Beckerley. The main modifications are the Concorde front end and the supercharger protruding through the bonnet (for looks only; it was not functional). The Concorde front was a fairly new accessory at the time, designed by Peter Arcadipane at Ford Australia as a showpiece, and later became available to the general public because of its popularity.[16] After filming of the first movie was completed, the car went up for sale, but no buyers were found; eventually it was given to Smith.

When production of Mad Max 2 began, Miller brought the car back for use in the sequel. Once filming was over the car was left at a wrecking yard in Adelaide since it again found no buyers, and was bought and restored by Bob Forsenko. Eventually it was sold again and was put on display in the Cars of the Stars Motor Museum in Cumbria, England. When the museum closed, the car went to a collection in the Dezer Museum in Miami, Florida.[17]

Replica Mad Max Pursuit Special vehicle outside the Silverton Hotel

The Nightrider's vehicle, another Pursuit Special, was a 1972 Holden HQ Monaro coupe, also tuned but deliberately damaged to look like it had been involved in crashes.[18]

The car driven by the young couple that is vandalised and then finally destroyed by the bikers is a 1959 Chevrolet Bel Air Sedan, also modified to look like a hot-rod car with fake fuel injection stacks, fat tires, and a flame red paint job.

Of the motorcycles that appear in the film, 14 were Kawasaki Kz1000 donated by a local Kawasaki dealer. All were modified in appearance by Melbourne business La Parisienne — one as the MFP bike ridden by 'The Goose' and the balance for members of the Toecutter's gang, played in the film by members of a local Victorian motorcycle club, the Vigilantes.[19]

By the end of filming, fourteen vehicles had been destroyed in the chase and crash scenes, including the director's personal Mazda Bongo (the small, blue van that spins uncontrollably after being struck by the Big Bopper in the film's opening chase).[20]


Spotswood Pumping Station in Melbourne served as the headquarters of the Main Force Patrol.

Originally, filming was scheduled to take ten weeks—six weeks of first unit, and four weeks on stunt and chase sequences. However, four days into shooting, Rosie Bailey, who was originally cast as Max's wife, was injured in a bike accident. Production was halted, and Bailey was replaced by Joanne Samuel, causing a two-week delay.

In the end, the shoot took six weeks over November and December 1977, with a further six-week second unit. The unit reconvened two months later, in May 1978, and spent another two weeks doing second unit shots and re-staging some stunts.[8] Miller described the whole experience as "guerrilla filmmaking", where the crew would close roads without filming permits, not use walkie-talkies because their frequency coincided with the police radio, and after filming was done Miller and Kennedy would even sweep down the roads. Still, as filming progressed the Victoria Police became interested in the production, helping the crew by closing down roads and escorting the vehicles.[5] Because of the film's low budget, all but one of the police uniforms in the film were made of vinyl leather, with only one genuine leather uniform made for stunt sequences involving Bisley and Gibson.

Shooting took place in and around Melbourne. Many of the car chase scenes for Mad Max were filmed near the town of Little River, northeast of Geelong. The early town scenes with the Toe Cutter Gang were filmed in the main street of Clunes, north of Ballarat. Much of the streetscape remains unchanged. The bunker on which Roop was sitting, the site where Goose takes his ride, and the gate Big Bopper slides through are in Point Wilson.[21] Some scenes were filmed at Tin City at Stockton Beach.[22][23] The "execution of the mannequin" scene was filmed at Seaford Beach in Seaford, Victoria.

Mad Max was one of the first Australian films to be shot with a widescreen anamorphic lens,[9] although Peter Weir's The Cars That Ate Paris (1974) was shot in anamorphic four years earlier.[24] Miller's desire to shoot in anamorphic made him seek a set of Todd-AO wide angle lenses used by Sam Peckinpah to film The Getaway (1972), which were damaged enough in that shoot to get discarded in Australia. The only one which worked properly was a 35mm lens which was employed in the whole of Mad Max.[5]


The film's post-production was done at a friend's apartment in North Melbourne, with Wilson and Kennedy editing the film in the small lounge room on a home-built editing machine that Kennedy's father, an engineer, had designed for them. Wilson and Kennedy also performed sound editing there.

Tony Patterson edited the film for four months, then had to leave because he was contracted to make Dimboola (1979). George Miller took over editing with Cliff Hayes, and they worked on it for three months. Kennedy and Miller did the final cut,[8] in a process Miller described as "he would cut sound in the lounge room and I’d cut picture in the kitchen." Professional sound engineer Roger Savage would perform the sound mixing in the studio he worked after finishing his work with Little River Band, and employed timecoding techniques that were unseen in Australian cinema.[5]


The musical score for Mad Max was composed and conducted by Australian composer Brian May (not to be confused with the guitarist of the English rock band Queen). Miller wanted a Gothic, Bernard Herrmann–type score and hired May after hearing his work for Patrick (1978).[4] "With the little budget that we had we went ahead and did it, and spent a lot of time on it," said May. "George was marvelous to work with; he had a lot of ideas about what he wanted although he wasn’t a musician."[25] A soundtrack album was released in 1980 by Varèse Sarabande.[26]


Mad Max was first released in Australia through Roadshow Film Distributors (now Village Roadshow Pictures) in 1979.[27] The movie was sold overseas for $1.8 million; American International Pictures (AIP) acquired the distribution rights for the United States, while Warner Bros. handling the rest of the world.[9] The film was banned in New Zealand and Sweden, in the former because of the scene where Goose is burned alive inside his vehicle: it unintentionally mirrored an incident with a real gang shortly before the film's release. It was later shown in New Zealand in 1983 after the success of the sequel, with an R18 certificate.[28] The ban in Sweden was removed in 2005, and it has since been shown on television and sold on home media there.[29]

When Mad Max was released in the United States in 1980, the original Australian dialogue was redubbed by American voice actors.[30] It was one of the last films released by AIP before folding into Filmways, which had acquired the company the year prior.[31] Much of the Australian slang and terminology was also replaced with American usages due to concerns of possible misunderstanding by American audiences (examples: "Oi!" became "Hey!", "See looks!" became "See what I see?", "windscreen" became "windshield", "very toey" became "super hot", and "proby"—probationary officer—became "rookie"). AIP also altered the operator's duty call on Jim Goose's bike in the beginning of the film (it ended with "Come on, Goose, where are you?"). The only dubbing exceptions were the voice of the singer in the Sugartown Cabaret (played by Robina Chaffey), the voice of Charlie (played by John Ley) through the mechanical voice box, and Officer Jim Goose (Steve Bisley), singing as he drives a truck before being ambushed. Since Mel Gibson was not well known to American audiences at the time, trailers and television spots in the United States emphasised the film's action content. The original Australian dialogue track was finally released in North America in 2000 in a limited theatrical reissue by MGM, the film's current rights holders. It has since been released in the US on DVD with the US and Australian soundtracks on separate tracks.[32][33]

Home mediaEdit

Mad Max was released on DVD on 1 January 2002 and re released on DVD on 15 September 2015.[34] Mad Max was released on Blu-ray Disc on 5 October 2010 and re-released on Blu-ray Disc on 15 September 2015.[34] Mad Max is scheduled to be released on 4K Blu-ray Disc on 24 November 2020.[35]


Box officeEdit

Mad Max grossed A$5,355,490 at the box office in Australia and over US$100 million worldwide.[36][3] It was the most profitable film ever made at the time, holding the Guinness World Record for the highest box office to budget ratio of any motion picture.[37]

Critical responseEdit

Upon its release, the film polarized critics. In a 1979 review, the Australian social commentator and film producer Phillip Adams condemned Mad Max, saying that it had "all the emotional uplift of Mein Kampf" and would be "a special favourite of rapists, sadists, child murderers and incipient [Charles] Mansons".[38] After its United States release, Tom Buckley of The New York Times called the film "ugly and incoherent".[39] Stephen King, writing in Danse Macabre, called the film a "turkey." However, Variety magazine praised the directorial debut by Miller.[40]

The film was awarded three Australian Film Institute Awards in 1979 (for editing, sound, and musical score). It was also nominated for Best Film, Best Director, Best Original Screenplay, and Best Supporting Actor (Hugh Keays-Byrne) by the Australian Film Institute. The film also won the Special Jury Award at the Avoriaz Fantastic Film Festival.[41]

Mad Max holds a 90% approval rating on review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, based on 61 reviews, with site's consensus being an average rating of 7.74/10 "Staging the improbable car stunts and crashes to perfection, director George Miller succeeds completely in bringing the violent, post-apocalyptic world of Mad Max to visceral life."[42] The film has been included in "best films of all time" lists by The New York Times[43] and The Guardian.[44]


List of awards and nominations
Award Category Recipients Result
(1979 AFI Awards)
Best Film Byron Kennedy Nominated
Best Direction George Miller Nominated
Best Original Screenplay James McCausland and George Miller Nominated
Best Supporting Actor Hugh Keays-Byrne Nominated
Best Editing Cliff Hayes and Tony Paterson Won
Best Original Music Score Brian May Won
Best Sound Ned Dawson, Byron Kennedy, Roger Savage and Gary Wilkins Won
Special Award for Stunt Work Grant Page Won
Avoriaz Fantastic Film Festival Special Jury Award George Miller Won



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  2. ^ Robinson, Joanna (15 May 2015). "8 Reasons Why Mad Max Is the Most Improbable Franchise of All Time". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  3. ^ a b Haenni, Sabine; Barrow, Sarah; White, John, eds. (2014). "Mad Max (1979)". The Routledge Encyclopedia of Films. Routledge. pp. 323–326. ISBN 9781317682615.
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  5. ^ a b c d e f g "Filmmaker interviews - George Miller on ASO - Australia's audio and visual heritage online".
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  7. ^ James McCausland (4 December 2006). "Scientists' warnings unheeded". The Courier-Mail. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
  8. ^ a b c d Peter Beilby & Scott Murray, "Byron Kennedy", Cinema Papers, May–June 1979 p366
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  12. ^ Buckmaster, Luke (11 July 2015). "Stone rewatched: the Australian bikie movie that inspired Mad Max". The Guardian.
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  14. ^ "Mad Max Cars – Big Boppa/Big Bopper". Retrieved 14 July 2010.
  15. ^ "Mad Max Cars – March Hare". Retrieved 14 July 2010.
  16. ^ "Mad Max Movies – The History of the Interceptor, Part 1". Retrieved 14 July 2010.
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  18. ^ "Mad Max Cars – The Nightrider's Monaro". Retrieved 14 July 2010.
  19. ^ "Mad Max Cars – Toecutter's Gang (Bikers)". Retrieved 14 July 2010.
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  21. ^ Chris (29 January 2020). "Oh what a day…what a lovely day! (Mad Max Shooting Locations)". Via Corsa. Archived from the original on 10 June 2020. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
  22. ^ Elliot, Tim (9 January 2014). "Welcome to Tin City, Stockton". The Newcastle Herald. Fairfax Media. Archived from the original on 10 November 2014. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
  23. ^ "Tin City, Stockton Beach". Parliament of New South Wales. 27 August 2013. Archived from the original on 30 June 2015.
  24. ^ Harland Smith, Richard. "The Cars That Ate Paris". Turner Classic Movies. Turner Broadcasting System. Archived from the original on 14 May 2015. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
  25. ^ Flanagan, Graeme (14 May 2015). "A Conversation with Brian May". CinemaScore (published 1983) (11/12). Archived from the original on 23 October 2013. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
  26. ^ Osborne, Jerry (2010). Movie/TV Soundtracks and Original Cast Recordings Price and Reference Guide. Port Townsend, Washington: Osborne Enterprises Publishing. p. 353. ISBN 978-0932117373.
  27. ^ Moran, Albert; Vieth, Errol (2005). "Kennedy Miller Productions". Historical Dictionary of Australian and New Zealand Cinema. Scarecrow Press (Rowman & Littlefield). p. 174. ISBN 0-8108-5459-7. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
  28. ^ Carroll, Larry (3 February 2009). "Greatest Movie Badasses Of All Time: Mad Max – Movie News Story | MTV Movie News". Retrieved 4 July 2010.
  29. ^ Lyttelton, Oliver (12 April 2012). "5 Things You Might Not Know About 'Mad Max'".
  30. ^ Herx, Henry (1988). "Mad Max". The Family Guide to Movies on Video. The Crossroad Publishing Company. p. 163 (pre-release version). ISBN 0-8245-0816-5.
  31. ^ McFarlane, Brian (1988). Australian Cinema. Columbia University Press. p. 30. ISBN 0-231-06728-3. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
  32. ^ Zad, Martie (29 December 2001). "Gibson's Voice Returns on New 'Mad Max' DVD". Los Angeles Times. Tribune Publishing. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
  33. ^ "Mad Max (1979)". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
  34. ^ a b "Mad Max DVD Release Date". DVDs Release Dates. Retrieved 27 October 2020.
  35. ^ Mad Max 4K Blu-ray Release Date November 24, 2020, retrieved 27 October 2020
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  37. ^ Robertson, Patrick (1991). Guinness Book of Movie Facts and Feats. Abbeville Press. p. 34. ISBN 9781558592360.
  38. ^ Phillip Adams, The Bulletin, 1 May 1979; cited by urban cinefile, 2010, "Mad Max". Adams has since remained a prominent opponent of screen violence. He has also been consistent in his criticism of Mel Gibson's political and social opinions.
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  40. ^ "Mad Max Review – Read Variety's Analysis Of The Movie Mad Max". 1 January 1979. Retrieved 7 March 2009.
  41. ^ Awards for Mad Max on IMDb
  42. ^ "Mad Max (1979)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
  43. ^ "The Best 1,000 Movies Ever Made". The New York Times. 29 April 2003. Retrieved 21 May 2010.
  44. ^ "1000 films to see before you die". The Guardian. 4 July 2007.

External linksEdit