Miraculous: Tales of Ladybug & Cat Noir
Miraculous: Tales of Ladybug & Cat Noir (French: Miraculous, les aventures de Ladybug et Chat Noir; also known as Miraculous Ladybug or Miraculous) is a CGI action/adventure animated series produced by French studios Zagtoon and Method Animation in collaboration with De Agostini Editore in Italy, Toei Animation in Japan, and SAMG Animation in South Korea. The series features two Parisian teenagers, Marinette Dupain-Cheng and Adrien Agreste, who transform into the superheroes Ladybug and Cat Noir, respectively, to protect the city from supervillains.
|Miraculous: Tales of Ladybug & Cat Noir|
|Also known as||
|Created by||Thomas Astruc|
|Developed by||Jeremy Zag|
|Written by||Thomas Astruc
|Theme music composer||Jeremy Zag and Noam Kaniel; Lyrics by Alain Garcia|
|Opening theme||English: "It's Ladybug!" performed by Wendy Child and Cash Callaway; French:"Miraculous", Marily and Noam|
|Ending theme||"It's Ladybug!" (instrumental)|
|Country of origin||France|
|No. of seasons||2|
|No. of episodes||42 + special (list of episodes)|
|Running time||22 minutes|
|First shown in||South Korea|
|Original release||1 September 2015– present|
Prior to its debut in France on 19 October 2015 on TF1, the series was first shown in South Korea on 1 September 2015 on EBS1. In the United States, the series debuted on Nickelodeon on 6 December. In the United Kingdom and Ireland, the show premiered on 30 January 2016 on Disney Channel. A Christmas special was released in 2016, and the second season premiered in French on TF1 and in English on Disney Channel UK in 2017. Netflix acquired the U.S. video-on-demand streaming rights, and further seasons are in production.
Set in modern-day Paris, the series focuses on teenagers[a] Marinette Dupain-Cheng and Adrien Agreste. When evil arises, Marinette transforms into her secret superhero persona Ladybug, while Adrien transforms into his superhero persona Cat Noir, using magical jewels known as the Miraculous. Oblivious to each other's true identities, the two work together to protect Paris from the mysterious villain Hawk Moth, who covets and attempts to steal their powers by using his akuma, butterflies infused with negative energy, to transform everyday citizens into supervillains.
Conception and creationEdit
The series is based on an original concept created by French animator Thomas Astruc, who was inspired by a meeting with a certain lady, Japanese anime, and "decades of comics binge reading". In an interview with Nolife, Astruc said he was working as an animator on the show W.I.T.C.H. when he met a woman who had a T-shirt with a ladybug on it. They began to share drawings, some of which were ladybug-themed. Astruc also noted that Marinette's hair was styled after the woman. They also worked on the cartoon A.T.O.M. around 2004–05. Astruc first drew Ladybug on sticky notes and remarked how strong the Ladybug character was, but despite this, he had no memory of seeing any ladybug-themed superheroes in comics.
Astruc had intended to make Ladybug a comic book series until he met Jeremy Zag, who loved the project and wanted to produce it as a cartoon; Zag was 25 at the time and not originally from the cartoon industry. In developing Cat Noir, Astruc said that ladybugs represented good luck, so it was natural to partner her with a black cat character with bad luck powers. Cat Noir was a tribute to comics characters like Catwoman, so it was like having Catwoman and Spider-Man in the same show but reversed genders. In 2010, the show was announced at Cannes' MIPCOM with French production groups Univergroup Pictures and Onyx Films heading the project and working with Method Animation and Zagtoon. Aton Soumache of Onyx and Method said that they want "to create a glamourous superhero character with a real European flair with Paris as [the] backdrop." The producers had also planned to animate it in stereoscopic 3D. (which they did in CGI animation now.)
A character named Félix was originally going to have the role of Cat Noir, but he was later scrapped in favor of Adrien because the creative team felt that Félix was a cliché of a male anime protagonist, and that Adrien would allow them to tell more interesting stories. In September 2015, Astruc indicated that he was open to revisiting the character of Félix, but he abandoned it by February 2016, writing that the character was a poor idea.
In June 2012, Toei Animation, the animation studio of Toei Company in Japan, was announced as a co-producer. Two years before 2012, Toei Animation had released a Pretty Cure film that was set in Paris, France and was very interested in expanding their international audience. Even after the production was moved to CGI animation, Toei is still remained as co-producer, with the executive producers from the company being credited.
On 21 November 2012, a memorandum of understanding between Zagtoon, Method Animation, SAMG Animation and SK Broadband was announced: together, the companies would invest $50 million USD through 2017 into five projects. The first of these projects developed into Miraculous, which received an investment of $10 million. As a part of the deal, SK Broadband would have exclusive rights in South Korea for video on demand release, available to the subscribers of the company's IPTV platform B TV.
When Toei Animation joined as a co-producer in June 2012, it was also announced that the show would be drawn in a colourful manga-like style. Later in September, Zagtoon, Method, & Toei released a traditionally-animated promotional video for Ladybug. The video featured Marinette as Ladybug, a (now-scrapped) different character named Félix as Cat Noir, Marinette & Félix's Kwamis, Tikki and Plagg, Hawk Moth (without the mask and a different outfit and look, also his lair looks different than in the current series), The Mime, and Mr. Pigeon. And also, their transformation sequences into Ladybug & Cat Noir (their transformation sequences are different than the one in the current TV series). Also, their Miraculouses had a different look in the promotional video than the Miraculous in the current series. The song from the promotional video was performed by Noam.
The anime concept was a complete success; but however, there were concerns about the marketability of traditional 2D animation, and the difficulty in animating Ladybug's costume of red with black spots, as it caused some strobing effects. Executive producer Jared Wolfson said that Zag wanted the animation to be cinematic and epic, unique and different, and said that they are continuing to partner with Toei as it brings in the Asian inspiration and that a 2D version might be a potential product.
The aforementioned problem with 2D animation was resolved by moving to CGI animation; the switch also allowed for easier implementation of mobile camera angles. SAMG Animation, a CGI animation studio located in South Korea which officially joined in the production in November 2012, produced modeling and animation. Astruc and assistant director Wilfried Pain instructed the animators not to improvise scenes so that they could keep things consistent and understandable. Pain estimated about 350–400 shots are used in a typical 20-minute episode; with 10 panels per shot, that makes up to 4000 panels an episode. Wolfson said that the show's animation brings dynamic camera angles and texturing. A trailer with the new CGI-animated style was released in October 2013.
Themes, writing and processEdit
The concept for the show originally dealt with political themes, geared towards teens and young adults. However, after failing to gain traction with networks, it was retooled for a younger target audience.:40 Astruc said that he is delighted that the show is able to reach younger and older people.
Each episode takes around 3 months to write, from scratch to final validation of broadcasters. Assistant director Wilfried Pain said that each episode is composed of two parts: a sitcom aspect where the characters have to speak for themselves, and an action element where the camera is always moving.
The music was done by Noam Kaniel, who had also worked on shows such as X-Men, W.I.T.C.H., Fantastic Four: World's Greatest Heroes, Monster Buster Club, Power Rangers, Digimon Fusion, and Glitter Force. The theme song was written by Kaniel and Zag. The English lyrics were done by Alain Garcia and performed by Wendy Child and Cash Callaway.
- Marinette Dupain-Cheng a.k.a. Ladybug (voiced by Cristina Vee in English version, Anouck Hautbois in French version) is a budding fashion designer at Collège Françoise-Dupont and her family operates a renowned bakery. Marinette is sweet, joyful, and a bit awkward, but respected by her peers. She has a huge crush on Adrien, whom she can barely speak to out of nervousness; her friend Alya is often seen trying to help Marinette declare her love to him, although it ends in failure. As the secretly chosen keeper of the Ladybug Miraculous, she can transform into the superheroine "Ladybug" with the help of her kwami Tikki, to defend Paris with her crime-fighting partner Cat Noir. As Ladybug, she's more serious, and brushes off Cat Noir's advances, unaware that Cat Noir's alter-ego is the object of her own affections. Her special superpower, Lucky Charm, creates an object and allows her to identify other key objects that she can use with the created object to defeat the villains. Among the superheroes that use Miraculous, she is responsible for capturing and purifying the akuma butterflies with her yo-yo. Astruc describes Ladybug as a positive character who brings happiness, like a candy, and like Amélie Poulain crossed with Spider-Man. Her transformation call is "Tikki, Spots On!" (French: Tikki, transforme-moi !, "Tikki, transform me!").
- Adrien Agreste a.k.a. Cat Noir (voiced by Bryce Papenbrook in English version, Benjamin Bollen in French version) is Marinette's classmate and a popular fashion model for his father's clothing company. As the secretly chosen keeper of the Black Cat Miraculous, he transforms into the superhero "Cat Noir" (French: Chat Noir, "black cat") with the help of his kwami Plagg, to assist Ladybug in saving Paris. Adrien is charismatic, kind and well-liked, and hangs out often with his friend Nino. Though his family is wealthy, he laments his poor relationship with his stern father, Gabriel; his mother, meanwhile, has disappeared.[b] He is in love with Ladybug, despite not knowing her true identity, and tries to impress her, although he's flirtatious and makes bad cat-themed puns, which frequently annoys her. Cat Noir's loyalty with Ladybug improved in the latest episodes. Adrien was originally named after Felix the cartoon cat crossed with Catwoman, but changed to a newer reliable source. His special ability, Cataclysm, allows him to destroy an object that he touches with a swipe of his paw.[c][d] His transformation call is "Plagg, Claws Out!" (French: Plagg, transforme-moi !, "Plagg, transform me!") When he and Ladybug defeat a villain, they yell "Pound it!" (French: Bien Joué !, "Good Game!")
- Hawk Moth (French: le Papillon, lit. "the butterfly"; voiced by Keith Silverstein in English version, Antoine Tomé in French version) is a mysterious villain who uses the Butterfly Miraculous to create new supervillains with his akuma, which are butterflies that he corrupts with his dark power. He preys on people who are at a point of weakness and appeals to their negative emotions, such as fear, sadness, anger or jealousy. In exchange for granting them powers to exact revenge on those who have wronged them, he asks his villains to steal Ladybug and Cat Noir's Miraculouses for him, so that he may use both to gain immense power. The season 2 premiere episode "The Collector" reveals Hawk Moth's identity to be Gabriel Agreste, Adrien's father. The Butterfly Miraculous, with its kwami Nooroo, was originally purposed to create superheroes.
- Tikki (voiced by Mela Lee in English version, Marie Nonnenmacher in French version) is Marinette's Kwami who allows her to transform into Ladybug. Tikki is a small floating magical humanoid with a large head, big eyes, and a red body with large black spots on her head, resembling a ladybug. She believes strongly in Marinette and gives her advice to be the best she can be, regardless of transformation. When asked by Marinette whether she is over 5000 years old, Tikki replies that she is older than that, and had watched over every Ladybug since the beginning.[e] During her charge's transformation as Ladybug, she inhabits the Ladybug Miraculous, a pair of shiny black earrings that Marinette wears. One of the two strongest of the Miraculouses, it has the power of creation. She symbolizes the Yang. Astruc has written on Twitter that Tikki means "happiness".
- Plagg (voiced by Max Mittelman in English version, Thierry Kazazian in French version) is Adrien's Kwami who enables him to transform into Cat Noir. Plagg looks much like Tikki, but with a black body, green eyes and pointed ears, resembling a black cat. Unlike Tikki, however, Plagg is sarcastic and lazy. His favorite food is camembert, a stinky cheese. During his charge's transformation as Cat Noir, he inhabits the Black Cat Miraculous, a large silver ring that Adrien wears on his right hand. One of the two strongest of the Miraculouses, it has the power of destruction. He symbolizes the Yin. Astruc has written on Twitter that Plagg means "plague".
- Alya Césaire (voiced by Carrie Keranen in English version, Fanny Bloc in French version) is Marinette's best friend who typically wears a plaid shirt and black glasses. She constantly helps Marinette with her problems, most of which pertain to Marinette attempting, and failing, to speak to Adrien; she is often seen encouraging and helping her to talk to him. She aspires to be a journalist and is in charge of the school blog. She is a big fan of superheroes and like her peers, is a massive fan of Ladybug; she even operates a fansite known as the Ladyblog, but like everyone else, is unaware of Marinette's superhero identity. In the episode "Lady Wifi", she is influenced by Hawk Moth and becomes the supervillain Lady Wifi. In the episode "Sapotis", Alya temporarily receives the Fox Miraculous from Ladybug and meets its kwami Trixx, and transforms into a fox-themed superhero "Rena Rouge" and returns to help in the latest episode "Syren". Alya's family is originally from Martinique, a French overseas territory in the Caribbean.
- Chloé Bourgeois (voiced by Selah Victor in English version, Marie Chevalot in French version) is the mayor's daughter. Chloé is extremely spoiled, snobby, and thinks the world revolves around her. She often bullies her classmates, primarily resulting in the latter's sadness and despair becoming a target for Hawk Moth's transforming them into akumatized villains. She has an unrequited crush on Adrien since childhood, and often tries to charm him, much to his discomfort, and resulting in a constant rivalry with Marinette for his affections. Like the other students, she has no knowledge of Ladybug's identity, and is a big fan of Ladybug, often trying to take pictures with her; she even has a Ladybug costume. In the episode "Antibug", she herself is influenced by Hawk Moth and becomes the supervillain Antibug, who wants revenge on Ladybug for pushing her aside. In the episode "Ladybug & Cat Noir – Origins, Part 1", it is revealed that she has been classmates with Marinette for 4 consecutive years.[f] Chloé has been revealed to become a superhero in Season 2: the bee-themed heroine "Queen Bee" inhabited by the kwami Pollen. As her personality seems to be improving in the latest episodes.
- Nino Lahiffe (voiced by Benjamin Diskin in English version, Alexandre Nguyen in French version) is Adrien's best friend who dresses in skate punk fashion, typically seen with headphones around his neck and a cap on his head. He DJs at the school's radio station. Nino is fond of Marinette, but ultimately discovers that he has more in common with Alya.[g] In the episode "The Bubbler", he is influenced by Hawk Moth and becomes the supervillain called the Bubbler. Nino is confirmed to become an upcoming superhero in Season 2: the turtle-themed heroine "Carapace". When asked about Alya and Nino's ethnicity, Astruc wrote on Twitter that one of them was from Réunion, and later wrote that Alya was from Martinique.
- Sabrina Raincomprix is Chloé's only friend and her assistant. Chloé often treats Sabrina as her lackey: Sabrina does Chloé's homework for her and runs her errands, and in return, Chloé charms her with expensive, fashionable clothing. She has orange hair and wears glasses. In the episode "Antibug", Sabrina was angry at Chloé for ignoring her, and becomes influenced by Hawk Moth, turning into the supervillain Vanisher who is invisible to the human eye. Astruc wrote on Twitter that Chloé, Sabrina and another classmate named Alix were originally intended to become a trio as a reference to the title characters in another French animated series, Totally Spies!.
- Master Fu (voiced by Paul St. Peter in English version, Gilbert Lévy in French version) is a 186-year-old healer and the last Great Guardian of the Miraculouses. Fu is wise, gentleman who wears a red Hawaiian shirt with a white hibiscus flower pattern. Long ago, Fu was among many monks specifically trained to safe keep the Miraculouses at the Chinese Guradian's temple, however Fu made a mistake that resulted in the temple being destroyed and losing the Butterfly and Peacock Miraculouses, including the Miraculous spellbook which are now in Hawk Moth's possession. In the episode "Ladybug & Cat Noir – Origins, Part 1", the Turtle kwami Wayzz alerts Fu of Nooroo's presence, too old for the task, Fu searches for hosts reliable enough to entrust the Ladybug and Black Cat Miraculouses, and chooses Marinette and Adrien, therefore beginning the story.
Astruc has said that the show has reached over 120 countries. Disney Channel has had broadcasting rights in Europe, the Middle East and Africa, having to do with participation from The Walt Disney Company France: specifically, it acquired cable and satellite television rights in Europe, Eastern Europe and Scandinavia, and free-to-air rights in Spain, Germany, Russia and Turkey.
South Korea was the first country to premiere Ladybug, with girl group Fiestar to sing its translated theme song. It aired on 1 September 2015 on EBS1, and ran for 13 episodes until November 2015, with repeats through February 2016, and its second half of the season airing from 1 March 2016. SK Broadband, having participated in the production, provided the episodes on video on demand exclusively to subscribers of their IPTV platform B TV, about a half-hour following the South Korean broadcast of each one on EBS1. Disney Channel in South Korea has also aired the series as of 7 December 2015.
In Canada, the French version of the series was premiered on 9 January 2016 on Télé-Québec, a provincial public service television network in Quebec. In English Canada, the series premiered on Family Channel on 1 November 2016.
The series debuted on Nickelodeon in the United States on 6 December 2015. Other English-language premieres are as follows: In the United Kingdom and Ireland, the show premiered on 30 January 2016 on Disney Channel The first series also was made available on Netflix UK. In Australia, the Australian Broadcasting Corporation released the show on its ABC iview streaming service on 1 January 2016, and premiered the show on its linear channel ABC3 on 22 March 2016. In New Zealand, the show premiered on 27 April 2016 on TVNZ's TV2. In Ireland, the show premiered on 2018 on RTÉ2's teenage programming block, TRTÉ.
The second season premiere is scheduled for a global launch around September–November 2017 in Europe, At a panel at San Diego Comic-Con 2017, it was announced that the second season would have its North American release on Netflix in December 2017, with 13 episodes to be released. A third season is also in development. On 22 January 2018, Zag posted on Instagram that the crew was working on a fourth and fifth season.
The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (May 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Kimberly Cooper, a blog writer who has contributed to news media such as The Huffington Post, wrote that the show has inspired teens and adults to create and propagate Miraculous remixes, and liked that the show featured multiracial characters as with the film Big Hero 6 which had won an Oscar. She "quickly realized there was a far cooler and broader Miraculous movement underway". Caitlin Donovan of entertainment website Epicstream listed it as one of her top 10 animated series of 2015. She wrote that "The characters are so charming that the tropey aspects of the show are merely a lot of fun, rather than irritating." with creative fights and good CGI animation. She wrote that "Marinette is an adorable lead who is genuinely awkward as a civilian, but confident as a superhero, which makes for an interesting contrast." Ella Anders of BSCKids wrote that the show stands out because of "how it meshes both the magical girl and superhero genera together". Robert Lloyd of the Los Angeles Times described the show as "clever, romantic, fun, the way some of us prefer our superhero stories". He found the characters to "have the look of extruded plastic common to CGI cartoons", but "within these limits the design is lovely and the animation elegant, and a lot of work has gone into the staging and execution of the action scenes".
The North American Precis Syndicate called the show "authentic and aspirational – a story of today's modern everygirl superhero who comes to life. The series, about a young girl who taps into her superhero powers and innocent optimism to save Paris from the evil Hawk Moth, will no doubt inspire today's youth to try to save the day, each and every day in their own way". Andrea Reiher of Zap2It wrote that the "storylines are rich with family, friends, adventure, intrigue, villains, creativity and more, delivering themes that are relatable and relevant to kids and preteens" and anticipated it would be a huge hit on Nickelodeon.
Several media reviewers have anticipated Miraculous-brand toys to be among the hot superheroine properties for 2016. Zag has partnered with Bandai to release Miraculous-based toys, as well as deals to make Miraculous-brand clothing and other merchandise.
- "Le Pharaon". Miraculous: Les Aventures de Ladybug et Chat Noir. Season 1. Episode 3 (in French). 8 March 2016. Event occurs at 00:48. TF1.
(Alya, after picking up Ladybug's history book) Ladybug dropped a book! It's a (French: classe de troisième, equivalent of ninth grade) history book; I'm in a good position to know! I have the exact same one at home! Could our favorite masked vigilante be a (French: collégienne, equivalent of middle school) in real life?In the English version "The Pharaoh", Alya says that it's a tenth-grade history book, and suspects that Ladybug could be a high schooler, conflicting with the French version. As Astruc has stated that the show's canon language is French, the article will use ninth grade.
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[Adrien] Actually, I mostly do it [modeling] to make my father happy. Ever since Mom disappeared, he hasn't been the same.
- "Stormy Weather". Miraculous: Tales of Ladybug and Cat Noir.
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I'm older than [5,000 years old]. I'm the Kwami that's watched over every Ladybug since the very beginning!
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- "Animan". Miraculous: Les Aventures de Ladybug et Chat Noir. Season 1. Episode 16 (in French). 24 January 2016. Event occurs at 20:15. TF1.
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The influence of the Magical Girl genre is inescapable; when Marinette's mother is captured in a bubble and carried off into the sky, apparently along with every adult in Paris, Marinette transforms into Ladybug in a series of twirls and poses. She even has the guidance of some kind of talking ladybug creature, fulfilling another Magical Girl trope.
- Astruc, Thomas [@Thomas_Astruc] (3 May 2016). "Delighted to announce: @WinnyGZ @happyhappykuri & Jun Violet will now direct the show with me. Plz greet'em warmly!" (Tweet). Retrieved 26 June 2016 – via Twitter.
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ZAG Animation's long-in-the-works superhero animated series Miraculous: Tales of Ladybug & Cat Noir, debuts in the United States at noon ET/PT Dec. 6 on Nickelodeon.
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a new TV anime series called Lady Bug or Miraculous Ladybug
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Zagtoon has enrolled Japan's Toei Animation to co-produce "Miraculous" (working title), a Paris-set comedy-action series
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Univergroup Pictures and Onyx Films are joining forces to produce 'Miraculous Lady Bug'
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- @Thomas_Astruc (23 September 2015). "@WatermelonSoup in the trailer, the male character you're talking is called Félix" (Tweet). Retrieved 5 March 2016 – via Twitter.
- @Thomas_Astruc (27 October 2015). "@raff_rafflesia Me too. Adrien is more interesting storywise, while Félix was more an anime cliché. That's why we discarded him" (Tweet). Retrieved 5 March 2016 – via Twitter.
- "Countdown to Miraculous Tales of Ladybug & Cat Noir Is On". bsckids.com. 5 December 2015. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
- @Thomas_Astruc (25 September 2015). "@OrangeRux Even though he wasn't fit to be our hero, Félix's still an interesting character. Given the opportunity, I'll make him come back" (Tweet). Retrieved 5 March 2016 – via Twitter.
- Thomas Astruc [@Thomas_Astruc] (14 February 2016). "@AbbysMaxine No matter what Félix's lovers think, this character was a poor idea. He's yours to fanfic with. I won't waste my time on him" (Tweet). Retrieved 5 March 2016 – via Twitter.
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- Silverstein's tweets regarding Miraculous: Tales of Ladybug and Cat Noir:
- @Ladybug_cartoon (30 May 2015). "Hawk Moth is a villain who wants Ladybug & Chat Noir's powers for himself. He is voiced by @SilverTalkie in the Eng ver.! #Miraculousladbug" (Tweet). Retweeted by Keith Silverstein (SilverTalkie) – via Twitter.
- @cambrasine (20 October 2015). "I was Ladybug + ended up meeting @SilverTalkie, the voice actor for Hawkmoth(US)!! @Thomas_Astruc #miraculousladybug" (Tweet). Retweeted by Keith Silverstein (SilverTalkie) – via Twitter.
- @AshlyTWhite (6 November 2015). "@SilverTalkie I can't wait to hear you as Hawk Moth in #MiraculousLadybug @NickelodeonTV 😄❤️" (Tweet). Retweeted by Keith Silverstein (SilverTalkie) – via Twitter.
- Keith Silverstein [@SilverTalkie] (7 November 2015). "@AshlyTWhite me too!" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Thomas Astruc [@thomas_astruc] (14 October 2015). "My fellow french #miraculers, meet the terrific Antoine Tome, aka #MiraculousLadybug 's Hawk Moth/le Papillon" (Tweet). Retrieved 31 March 2016 – via Twitter.
- "Marie Nonnenmacher". RS Doublage.com (in French).
- Tweets concerning the Kwami names:
- @trashUlater (27 September 2015). "@Thomas_Astruc How were Tikki's and Plagg's name decided?" (Tweet). Retrieved 7 March 2016 – via Twitter.
- Thomas Astruc [@thomas_astruc] (27 September 2015). "@trashUlater The rule : every kwami must have a short name and a double letter in it" (Tweet). Retrieved 7 March 2016 – via Twitter.
- Thomas Astruc [@thomas_astruc] (27 September 2015). "@trashUlater Tikki means happiness in language I can't remember. Plagg, obviously, is based on plague in english" (Tweet). Retrieved 7 March 2016 – via Twitter.
- Alya tweets:
- @MircaculousLadybug (30 May 2015). "Alya is Marinette Cheng's best friend and will be voiced by @CarrieKeranen in the English version!" (Tweet). Retrieved 30 November 2015 – via Twitter.
- Erin Fitzgerald [@ErinFitzgerald] (7 December 2015). "Bumped into @CarrieKeranen Alya in @Ladybug_Cartoon whoop! I play #Rose #Juleka" (Tweet). Retrieved 7 March 2016 – via Twitter.
- Carrie Keranen [@CarrieKeranen] (7 December 2015). ""@ErinFitzgerald: Bumped into @CarrieKeranen Alya in @Ladybug_Cartoon whoop! I play #Rose #Juleka " love you, girl!!" (Tweet). Retrieved 7 March 2016 – via Twitter.
- References regarding Alya's family name and ethnicities of Alya and Nino:
- "official-ladyblog: oakydokey: what are Alya and Nino's ethnic origins?". Tumblr. 12 January 2016. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 7 March 2016.
- @Serya_chan (10 January 2016). "@Thomas_Astruc Le nouvel épisode était super !! >w< Sinon j'ai bien entendu ou le nom de famille de l'une des chefs était Césaire ?" [The new episode was super!! >w< Did I mishear or was the last name of one of the chefs "Césaire"?] (Tweet) (in French). Archived from the original on 2 March 2016 – via Twitter.
- @Serya_chan (10 January 2016). "@Thomas_Astruc Si j'ai bien entendu, ça me fait très plaisir, en tant que Martiniquaise et lectrice d'Aimé Césaire haha ;u;" [If I heard right, that makes me happy, as a resident of Martinique and reader of Aimé Césaire haha ;u;] (Tweet) (in French). Archived from the original on 2 March 2016 – via Twitter.
- Thomas Astruc [@Thomas_Astruc] (10 January 2016). "@Serya_chan C'est bien le cas. Pour une fois qu'une série se passe en France, on n'allait pas oublier les dom-tom, non?" [That's the case. A series takes place in France for once, we can't forget the overseas departments and territories, can we?] (Tweet) (in French). Archived from the original on 2 March 2016 – via Twitter.
- Thomas Astruc [@Thomas_Astruc] (10 January 2016). "@Serya_chan et donc oui, la famille d'Alya est originaire de Martinique" [and yes, Alya's family is originally from Martinique.] (Tweet) (in French). Archived from the original on 2 March 2016 – via Twitter.
- Thomas Astruc [@Thomas_Astruc] (18 July 2016). "My flight for LA has been delayed. So I had a few time to write this... See you in SDCC!" (Tweet). Retrieved 3 January 2017 – via Twitter.
- Victor, Selah (17 September 2015). "Apparently my character Chloe likes to take selfies too ;)". Instagram. Archived from the original on 5 November 2015. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
- Thomas Astruc [@Thomas_Astruc] (14 October 2015). "And here's your favorite brat: Marie Chevalot, aka Chloé Bourgeois, #MiraculousLadybug 's nemesis" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Astruc's tweet in response to Nino's last name
- Thomas Astruc [@Thomas_Astruc] (14 October 2015). "And your best bud forever, @Lexovy aka Alexandre N'guyen aka Nino" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Astruc's tweets about a trio:
- Thomas Astruc [@Thomas_Astruc] (8 December 2015). "#MiraculousLadybug trivia: originally, Chloé, Sabrina and Alix were supposed to be a trio. Can you guess why?" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Thomas Astruc [@Thomas_Astruc] (8 December 2015). "It was indeed a reference to TTS. Bravo 👏" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Thomas Astruc [@Thomas_Astruc] (8 December 2015). "@Mo3RoseWhite It was the production code for Totally Spies" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Thomas J. McLean (20 May 2014). "PGS Secures Deals For 'LadyBug'". Retrieved 20 June 2014.
- SK브로드밴드, B TV 미라큘러스 레이디버그 국내 최초 VOD 독점 방영 [SK Broadband to be the First in the Country to Release Miraculous Ladybug on VOD, Exclusively on B TV] (Press release) (in Korean). SK Broadband. 31 August 2015. Retrieved 12 March 2016.
- 12/7일 첫방영! 디즈니채널/ 미라큘러스 방영안내 [Miraculous on Disney Channel: a Network Premiere, from 7 December] (in Korean). SAMG Animation. 7 December 2015. Retrieved 12 March 2016.
- "Miraculous : Les Aventures de Ladybug et Chat Noir". Télé-Québec (in French). Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 5 March 2016.
- "Superstars and superheroes land on Family Channel beginning today". DHX Media. 1 November 2016. Retrieved 19 June 2016.
- Liu, Ed (10 September 2015). "Nickelodeon Debuts "Miraculous Tales of Ladybug & Cat Noir" on December 6, 2015". Toon Zone News. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015.
- Dickson, Jeremy (10 September 2015). "Nick US to debut Miraculous Tales of Ladybug & Cat Noir". Kidscreen. Toronto: Brunico Communications. Retrieved 12 March 2016.
- Zag, Jeremy (24 June 2015). "Ladybug will finally air on Nickelodeon this Fall!". Instagram. Archived from the original on 27 June 2015. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
- "Miraculous Gets Green Light for Two More Seasons – TVKIDS". worldscreen.com. 20 June 2016. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
- "Miraculous Tales of Ladybug And Cat Noir". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 5 February 2016.
- "Miraculous: Tales of Ladybug and Cat Noir". TVNZ. Retrieved 24 April 2016.
- "Instagram post by Jeremy Zag • Jun 4, 2017 at 8:41 am UTC". Instagram. Retrieved 19 June 2017.
- Kelley, Shamus (20 October 2017). "Miraculous: Tales of Ladybug & Cat Noir Season 2: Return Date, Trailer, and More". Den of Geek. Retrieved 21 October 2017.
- "Miraculous: Tales of Ladybug & Cat Noir Season 2 Slated for May 2017". Anime News Network. 2 September 2016. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
- "Jeremy Zag on Instagram: "Just arrived in Paris. Working with the team, on season 4 and 5 of Miraculous Ladybug. New powers, new outfits, new kwamis, new heroez!…"". Instagram. Retrieved 2018-03-30.
- "Kimberly Cooper". HuffPost. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
- Cooper, Kimberly (27 February 2016). "Biracial Diversity in Animation: Thomas Astruc Scores Big with Miraculous Ladybug". Literatigurl. Retrieved 5 March 2016.
- Donovan, Caitlin (30 December 2015). "Top 10 Animated Series of 2015". epicstream.com. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
- Anders, Ella (2 July 2015). "Part Magical Girl, Part Superhero; Ladybug Arrives State-Side in Fall". BSCkids. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
- North American Precis Syndicate (10 February 2016). "SuperHERoes To Rule The Playroom And Beyond". The Star-Ledger. NAPSI. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
- Reiher, Amanda (4 December 2015). "Ladybug and Cat Noir will be kids' favorite new superheroes". Zap2It. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
- Kidscreen articles:
- Callan, Patrick (16 February 2016). "On a roll: What's driving a global toy industry boom?". kidscreen.com. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
- Callan, Patrick (13 October 2015). "Leading Ladies, Kicking Ass". kidscreen.com. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
- Brott, Armin; Feuss, Samantha (18 February 2016). "Toy trends for 2016". Waterloo Region Record. Retrieved 6 March 2016.